U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EPA Science Advisory Board
Background Information

Document NameNitrogen use in the United States from 1961-200 and potential future trends.
Document AuthorHowarth, R.W.
Boyer, E.W.
Pabich, W.J.
Galloway, J.N.
Short DescriptionAmbio 31: 88-96.
CategorySubgroup 3: Scientific Basis for Goals and Management Options
Publication Year2002

Abstract: Nitrogen inputs to the US from human activity doubled between 1961 and 1997, with most of the increase in the 1960s and 1970s. The largest increase was in use of inorganic N fertilizer, but emissions of NO,, from fossil-fuel combustion also increased substantially. In 1961, N fixation in agricultural systems was the largest single source of reactive N in the US. By 1997, even though N fixation had increased, fertilizer use and NOx emissions had increased more rapidly and were both larger inputs. In both 1961 and 1997, two thirds of reactive N inputs were denitrified or stored in soils and biota, while one third was exported. The largest export was in riverine flux to coastal oceans, followed by export in food and feeds, and atmospheric advection to the oceans. The consumption of meat protein is a major driver behind N use in agriculture in the US Without change in diet or agricultural practices, fertilizer use will increase over next 30 years, and fluxes to coastal oceans may increase by another 30%. However, substantial reductions are possible.