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Waste Site Cleanup & Reuse in New England
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 Site Type: Long Term/National Priorities List (NPL) Click to see more about Site Type and how it is used?


Map this site in Cleanups in My Community
 Bennington,  Vermont
 Bennington County
 Street Address: OFF HOUGHTON LANE
 Zip Code: 05201

 EPA ID #: VTD981064223
 Site ID #: 0101493
 Site Aliases:

 Site Responsibility: Federal, Potentially Responsible Parties

 Proposed Date 06/24/1988
 Final Date 03/31/1989

Site Description
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The Bennington Landfill Superfund Site (Site), located off Houghton Lane in Bennington, is a 15-acre municipal sanitary landfill. The Site was placed on EPA's National Priority List (NPL) on March 31,1989. The areas to the north and east of the Site are former borrow pits. The area directly east of the Site is wetland/woodland. The other areas surrounding the Site are residential. The Site is bordered by wetlands serving as headwaters for Hewitt Brook to the east, a residential area to the south, and U.S. Route 7 to the west. The Town of Bennington (Town) purchased the Site in 1985. Several Bennington industries dumped liquid wastes into an unlined lagoon on the Site from 1969 to 1975. Town records indicate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (i.e. solvents), and lead were disposed of at the Site. The lagoon was closed in 1975 after attempts by workers failed to dry it up by landfilling it. An underground drainage system built in 1976 was designed to lower the groundwater level below the landfill waste. The system discharged through a culvert into an unlined, ponded area. In 1986, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VT DEC) detected contaminants in the groundwater discharging from the culvert into the ponded area. Approximately 2,200 residents located within 3 miles of the Site use private wells. The area surrounding the Site is mainly rural residential. Morgan Spring, a bedrock water source located 3 miles south of the landfill, is used regularly to supplement the Bennington water system.

Threats and Contaminants
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Since the remedy was completed in 1999, the Site no longer poses a threat to human health or to the environment. Contact with contaminated groundwater or soils is prevented by the landfill cap and institutional controls (ICs) have been placed to prevent installation of drinking water wells and digging up soils on Site. The boundary of the contaminated groundwater plume is contained within the Site boundary and IC area. Groundwater, surface water, and sediment continues to be monitored through the long-term monitoring program and the Five Year Reviews.

Cleanup Approach
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The Site was addressed in a two phase approach. The first phase consisted of a Non-Time-Critical Removal Action (NTCRA) which involved the placement of a cap on the landfill, diversion of surface and groundwater, and collection and treatment of the discharge from the underdrain. The second phase consisted of a comprehensive remedial investigation (RI), that confirmed that no further action beyond the NTCRA was necessary.

Response Action Status
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Initial Action In 1994, the EPA and the potentially responsible parties began a short-term action to minimize the migration of contaminants from the landfill into the groundwater. An agreement between the EPA, State, and potentially responsible parties, to conduct work was finalized in 1997. These actions consisted of installing a composite, low permeability cap with drainage controls over the Site, excavating contaminated soils and sediments and consolidating them within the existing landfill, collecting the site leachate, managing the landfill gases, and providing site management and institutional controls. Design work for the landfill cap began in December 1996, construction began in September 1997, and the landfill cap was completed in 1999.

Entire Site A potentially responsible party began the RI to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the Site in mid-1991. The study also assessed the risks to human health and the environment. The investigation was completed in 1997. A No Further Action Record of Decision (ROD) was signed by EPA in September 1998. The ROD is the final action at the site. All cleanup activities are in the long- term operation and maintenance phase.

Monitoring & Inspections Regular monitoring and inspections occur at the Site.

Five-Year Reviews Three Five-Year Reviews (FYRs) have been performed. The first was conducted in 2004, the second in 2009, and the third in 2014. To date, the FYRs have concluded that the response actions are protective of human health and the environment.

Environmental Progress
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The response actions performed at the Bennington Landfill Site have reduced threats to public health and the environment. A multibarrier landfill cap was constructed over the entire landfill with a collection system to address landfill gases. Contamination has been covered by the cap. A leachate collection system was installed in 1997 and was later decommissioned in 2008 by the Town of Bennington because the system was generating little to no leachate. Maintenance and monitoring of the remedy continues to be performed by the Town with oversight by VT DEC and EPA to protect the public and the environment.

Current Site Status
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In 1999 the remedy for this Site was completed and has shown to be effective and protective of human health and the environment through EPA's and VT DEC's long-term monitoring program and FYR process. EPA, in consultation with VT DEC, will continue to perform its FYRs to assure that the remedy remains effective and protective. The next FYR is scheduled to occur in 2019.

Site Photos
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Links to Other Site Information
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Disclaimer Instructions about PDF

Newsletters & Press Releases:
Press Releases about this project  

Federal Register Notices:
Final NPL Listing  

Administrative Records:
De Minimis Administrative Record Index, August 1, 1998 (414 KB)  

Reports and Studies:
Five Year Review Report, September 21, 2004 (246KB)  
Second Five Year Review Report, September 11, 2009 (3.89 MB)  
Third Five Year Review Report, September 16, 2014 (6.41 MB)  

Decision Documents:
View Records of Decision (RODS) on-line (EPA HQ)  
Institutional Controls for this Site  

Other Links:
NPL Site Narrative at Listing:  
Site Progress Profile  

Site Repositories
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Bennington Public Library, 101 Silver Street, Bennington, VT 05201

OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440

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EPA Remedial Project Manager: Almerinda Silva
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code: OSRR07-4
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1246
E-Mail Address: silva.almerinda@epa.gov

EPA Community Involvement Coordinator: Emily Bender
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code: ORA01-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1037
E-Mail Address: bender.emily@epa.gov

State Agency Contact: John Schmeltzer
Address: VT Dept. Environmental Conservation
One National Life Drive
Davis One
Montpelier, VT 05602-3704
Phone #: 802-249-5620
E-Mail Address:


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Last updated on Tuesday, November 3rd, 2015
URL: http://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/bennington