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Waste Site Cleanup & Reuse in New England
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Site Type: Short Term/Removal (SHORT) Click to see more about Site Type and how it is used?


BALDWINVILLE,  Massachusetts
Worcester County
Street Address: 4 Holman Street
Zip Code: 01436

EPA ID #: MAD985297969
Site ID #: 0102513
Site Alias:

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The Temple-Stuart site is a 23-acre property with five adjoining buildings and a garage located in a largely residential area at 4 Holman Street, Baldwinville, Massachusetts. Baldwinville is one of four villages which comprise the Town of Templeton, whose population is 7000. The Temple-Stuart facility is approximately three eighths of a mile from the center of Baldwinville. Several hundred residents live within a quarter mile. Located within a mile of the site are an elementary school, a reform school, a nursing home, and two units of housing for the elderly. The public has access through the site between Route 202 and local residential areas. An unnamed subsurface stream flows along the southwest site boundary, parallel to the railroad tracks and beneath Route 202, and an unnamed surface stream flows southwest along the northern site boundary. The site is bounded:

• northeast by woods, wetlands, and a landfill area;
• northwest by Route 202;
• southeast by Holman Street and residences; and
• southwest by active railroad lines and residences.

Building A (the “Mill/Assembly Building”) is a two-story, 12,500 square foot (ft2), concrete brick building located on the southeastern portion of the property, which reportedly contained a tool shop, dryer rooms, and a boiler room. Transformers were formerly located on the lower floor of the southwestern portion of the building.

Building B (“the Frame Stain Shop”) is a 7,500 ft2 two-story concrete brick and wood building adjoining the western side of Building A. Most of its windows are broken, and much of the roof and roof vents have begun to collapse. Building B reportedly also contained a storage room and boiler room.

The warehouse is a 9,400 ft2 one-story wood and brick building adjoining the northern side of Building B. At this time, the central portion of the warehouse roof has collapsed. Building C (the former Butler Building) is a 6,000 ft2 two-story concrete building on the northern side of the warehouse, with two loading docks on the southeast side. The warehouse and Building C were formerly used to store finished furniture. Building C is currently being used to store rolls of paper products.

Building F (the Office Building) is a narrow 4,000 ft2 two-story concrete brick building adjoining the southeast side of Building A. The southern portion of Building F reportedly contained a compressor and several kilns. Building E (a garage) is a 930 ft2 one-story concrete brick building located east of Building A. The west side of Building E has five garage doors. Buildings A, B, E, F, and the warehouse are in an advanced state of disrepair. The buildings are surrounded by areas of deteriorating pavement, gravel, scrap piles, and grassy areas. A water tower and two sawdust silos are located southwest of Building A.

The site was first occupied in 1884 by Holman and Harris (H&H), a manufacturer of wooden containers, including pails, tubs, and buckets. In 1909, H&H ceased operations and vacated the site. In 1910, the Temple-Stuart Company began manufacturing wooden furniture at the site. Temple-Stuart constructed various buildings and additions to existing structures. Waste products from the facility’s operation included crankcase oil, paint thinner, lacquer, and glue. The property was purchased by the current owner prior to January 1993.

In September 1990, the site owner’s consultant, Tighe and Bond (“T&B”), completed a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (Phase I). Subsurface investigation identified two underground storage tanks (USTs). One 10,000 gallon fuel oil UST and one 500 gallon benzene UST were located near the southeast corner of Building C. A second 500 gallon UST may have existed in the same location. The contents of the benzene UST(s) were reportedly removed, and the tanks were filled with water prior to being abandoned. Additional fuel oil was reportedly stored in a rectangular 10,000 gallon aboveground storage tank (AST) located in the boiler room near the south end of Building A, and in a 275 gallon AST located northwest of the warehouse. A solid waste disposal area was identified on the north side of the site. During November and December 1991, T&B performed an environmental audit of the site, and observed drums containing glue resins, petroleum products including waste oil and tar, boiler additives, and wood finishing products in the factory. Several drums and containers, including a steel drum of boiler additive, were observed to have previously leaked or to be leaking. Several areas of surface contamination were also identified in buildings, including spray booths, ventilation fans and ducts, floors, glueing and lacquer storage area, the lacquer distribution system, and vats and booths in the garage and loading dock areas. Within the garage, spilled tar and paints were observed on the floor. According to the environmental audit, the solid waste disposal area was divided into the southern landfill, the central landfill, and the northern landfill areas. During this audit, asbestos was detected in samples collected from pipe insulation in the old boiler room, the paint spray area, the new boiler room and the warehouse, and from other locations throughout the remainder of the facility, including block insulation in carts and debris on the floors of the warehouse.

In February 1994, T&B submitted a Short Term Measures (STMs) Report describing assessment and remediation activities to the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP). The STMs focused on characterization and removal of containerized waste materials; excavation and removal of contaminated surficial soils; further characterization of the solid waste disposal area; and evaluation of the source of elevated petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Soils in the vicinity of the garage and the solid waste disposal area, with elevated levels of petroleum hydrocarbons, were excavated and remediated.

On September 18, 1995, MA DEP approved a Response Action Measures (“RAM”) Plan. The property owner’s consultants installed a recovery well in the center of a petroleum plume, and activated a product recovery and groundwater treatment system in June 1997. T&B submitted semiannual RAM status reports, including monitoring data and system performance reports, to MA DEP. By August 2000, 38 gallons of oil had been recovered. A Phase II Comprehensive Site Assessment (Phase II) began in July 1996. The Phase II included the advancement of soil borings and installation of groundwater monitoring wells. In September1996, groundwater samples from monitoring wells indicated the presence of cadmium in a monitoring well, and of TPH in a recovery well. In November 1996, T&B conducted excavation and sampling of eight test pits in the solid waste disposal area. Analytical results indicated the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs. Collection and analysis of two sediment and surface water samples indicated the presence of VOCs, SVOCs, PCBs, metals, and petroleum hydrocarbons in one sediment sample; and metals in the second sample.

In October 2000, T&B submitted a RAM Plan Addendum to MA DEP, which recommended excavation and removal of petroleum-contaminated soil. MA DEP approved the RAM Plan Addendum, and excavation of soil began in November 2000. In December 2000, excavation of a concrete slab located south of the warehouse exposed a 1,000 gallon benzene UST, which was removed, along with associated contaminated soil.

In December 2000, T&B advanced eight soil borings near the solid waste disposal area. Five were completed as groundwater monitoring wells. Soil samples were collected at five foot intervals and were submitted for volatile petroleum hydrocarbon (VPH)/extractable petroleum hydrocarbon (EPH) analyses. In addition, surface water and sediment samples were collected from four locations; along Surface Stream 1, in the wetlands area adjacent to the northern landfill, and near the junction of the wetlands area and Surface Stream 2. PCBs and dioxins were identified in a surface water sample, and lead was identified in a second surface water sample. Petroleum hydrocarbons and PCBs were detected in three sediment samples, while petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, and dioxins were detected in the fourth sediment sample. Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells, with results indicating the presence of PCBs in one well.

In February 2001, T&B conducted a Phase II Comprehensive Site Assessment to further assess the extent of releases at the Site and to evaluate the potential environmental impacts.

The site owner did not meet all state regulatory obligations in completing environmental assessments and submitting them to MA DEP, as required by the Massachusetts hazardous waste remediation (“21E”) program. In October 2001, MA DEP and the site owner signed a Consent Order because of the owner’s failure to comply with Tier 1 permit conditions, including submission of a Phase IV Remedy Implementation Plan (RIP). In addition, the site owner’s plans to address the asbestos contamination inside and outside the building appeared to MA DEP to have been dropped. MA DEP subsequently referred the site to EPA’s Superfund removal program for assessment and cleanup.

On November 9, 2001, EPA conducted a Removal Site Evaluation, meeting with contractor personnel from the Superfund Technical Assessment and Response Team (START), MA DEP representatives, representatives of the Site owner, the town of Templeton Board of Health Representative, and the town's Building Commissioner. We conducted exterior site reconnaissance, followed by reconnaissance of accessible interior portions of Buildings A and F. Inside the buildings, EPA took six asbestos-containing material (ACM). Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of friable asbestos in all six samples at concentrations of up to 55 percent. We observed a rectangular tank with an approximately 10,000 gallon capacity in the boiler room. Tank sampling was not possible during the site visit, and the tank’s contents are unknown.

Deteriorated and collapsing floors caused many building areas to be unsafe and inaccessible. In addition, windows originally boarded up had been uncovered, and there was evidence of vandalism and deliberate entry of unauthorized personnel into site buildings. A makeshift set of skateboard ramps, extensive graffiti, and burned areas inside the buildings indicated that they had been entered repeatedly for considerable lengths of time. After exterior reconnaissance of the site, seven ACM samples were collected. One sample, taken from the surface of a debris pile between Building A and the line of sheds, indicated that friable asbestos had been disposed of outdoors. The asbestos concentration in this sample was 17 percent. Information available in the MA DEP files, and observation of the “landfill” area, indicates that further sampling of surface soils may be necessary, in order to determine whether levels of contaminants present in this unrestricted area pose a direct contact threat.

Four air monitoring devices were placed at on site locations upwind and downwind of site buildings, to collect samples for asbestos analysis. Air monitoring samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM). The samples were held by the laboratory for possible transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, pending PCM results. Upon review of the PLM analytical results, no samples were selected for TEM analysis, since analytical results indicated no concentrations above 0.05 fibers per cubic centimeter (cc).

Based on observations during the site visit, review of documents in MA DEP’s and EPA’s possession, and EPA’s sampling results, EPA concluded that there is a danger of contact with hazardous materials by the public, both inside unsecured buildings and outside the buildings. As a result of these conditions, the site met the criteria for a short term cleanup (a time-critical removal action).

Current Status
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On July 12, 2002, EPA signed an Action Memorandum recommending the following cleanup activities:
1. Develop and implement a site-specific health and safety plan.
2. Arrange and conduct a site tour with contractor personnel.
3. Consult with the town of Templeton public safety officials to secure affected site areas, and to minimize the potential for unauthorized access to these areas.
4. Mobilize personnel and equipment to the site.
5. Plan and conduct air monitoring, assuring protection of site workers and nearby off-site workers and residents.
6. Investigate and stabilize containers found to contain hazardous materials.
7. Develop and implement a plan for the proper sampling, identification, and characterization of hazardous materials.
8. Perform friable asbestos removal, inside and outside the buildings.
9. Investigate surface soil conditions and any associated contamination in the former landfill area; perform excavation and removal of soil material if necessary.
10. Coordinate with MA DEP on any actions required under the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act.
11. Assess and characterize any additional hazardous materials discovered during the course of this action.
12. Conclude removal actions; perform any necessary and appropriate site restoration, and demobilize.

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Links to Other Information
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Disclaimer Instructions about PDF

Public Record Locations
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OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440

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On-Scene Coordinator
Address: One Congress Street, Suite 1100 (HBR)
Phone #:617-918-1256
E-Mail Address:stanton.maryellen@epa.gov


Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, & 10 Tribal Nations
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Last updated on Thursday, August 1st, 2002
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