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Waste Site Cleanup & Reuse in New England
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 North Smithfield,  Rhode Island
 Providence County
 Street Address: MAIN ST
 Zip Code: 02824

 EPA ID #: RID980731442
 Site ID #: 0101291
 Site Aliases: Forestdale-Stamina, Mills, Inc.

 Site Responsibility: Federal, Potentially Responsible Parties

 Proposed Date 12/30/1982
 Final Date 09/08/1983

Site Description
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Stamina Mills, which is on a 5-acre parcel of land, began operating as a textile mill in the early 1900's. It was closed for an undetermined period of time during the Depression, and changed ownership in the 1940's. In 1969, a solvent scouring system which used trichloroethylene (TCE) for removing oil and dirt from newly woven fabric was installed. Sometime during that same year, a unknown quantity of TCE was spilled at the site. In 1975, the mill was closed. In 1977, a fire destroyed the manufacturing complex; the site has been vacant and unused since then. In 1981, in response to the discovery of private well contamination, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the Town of North Smithfield installed a public water line to area residences; however, not all residences were connected to the service. Subsequently, the EPA provided resources to extend the water system and complete connections to those residences. By 1987, all residences impacted by the spill were connected to the public water supply. The Village of Forestdale, with a population of approximately 1,000, is located within one-half mile of the site. A school and private residences with nearly 300 people are located within one-quarter mile of the site. Industrial and commercial facilities with about 1,200 people are within one-half mile of the site. The site is bordered by wetlands and the Branch River to the south.

Threats and Contaminants
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Groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily TCE and some of its by-products. Sediments are contaminated with TCE, dieldrin, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soil is contaminated with TCE, dieldrin, and heavy metals (including lead, arsenic, and cadmium), as well as PAHs. Surface water is contaminated primarily with VOCs. People who trespass on the site potentially are at risk from direct contact with contaminated soils, surface water, or groundwater. In 1986, a security fence was erected to prevent unauthorized entry into the site.

Cleanup Approach
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This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.

Response Action Status
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Immediate Actions In 1981, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the Town of North Smithfield installed a public water line to area residences and provided bottled water to those residences that were not connected to the services. In 1984, the EPA provided resources for extending the public water system and connecting additional residences to the system. By 1987, all residences impacted by the spill were connected to the public water supply. In 1986, EPA also installed a fence to prevent entry to the site. In 1988, EPA removed two tanks from the site, pumped the waste from the tanks, and sent it to an approved disposal facility. In 1990, EPA removed the contents of an aboveground storage tank, decontaminated the tank shell, and disposed of the tank contents at an approved disposal facility.

Entire Site - 1990 ROD In 1990, the EPA selected the following remedies to clean up the site: in-place vacuum extraction of soil contaminated with TCE in the spill area, which involves installation of a number of shallow wells to withdraw air containing TCE and other VOCs for carbon treatment; excavation of approximately 550 cubic yards of landfill waste and sediments in the 100-year flood plain and placement of excavated landfill waste under a new multi-layer cap; and the extraction of contaminated groundwater and treatment using ultraviolet light (UV) and hydrogen peroxide, an innovative technology to remove VOCs. The mill raceways were to be sealed, and on-site buildings demolished. Deed restrictions were to be used at the site to regulate land use and preserve the integrity of the remedy's components. The septic tank location was to be confirmed and its contents tested and removed. The contents of the tank and the tank itself would be disposed of, if necessary. A monitoring program for the groundwater, soil, surface water, and sediments was to be implemented to ensure the effectiveness of the selected remedies.
Demolition activities were completed in the summer of 1992. At that time, partially standing structures were demolished, debris and building rubble were sorted and disposed of, voids were collapsed and filled in, the two mill raceways were filled, the septic tank was located and its contents tested, and a majority of the site was graded and covered with clean fill. Quarterly groundwater sampling activities were initiated at the site in November 1992 and were used to establish a baseline of information prior to the design and construction of the groundwater extraction and treatment system. Pre-design field work including the operation of a pilot-scale soil vapor extraction and groundwater UV/Hydrogen Peroxide System was completed during the summer and fall of 1994. The construction of the soil vapor extraction system was completed in December of 1997. The system became operational in May 1998. The landfill capping design was completed and approved by EPA in March 1998. Construction activities were initiated in August 1998 and shortly thereafter technical problems arose which required a modification of the landfill remedy. Rather than being capped in place, landfill wastes were excavated and transported off-site for disposal. Upon completion, approximately 25,000 tons of landfill wastes, soil, and sediment were excavated and disposed of off-site. Excavation and final grading of the former landfill area was completed in October 1999. The groundwater extraction and treatment system design and construction was completed in the spring of 2000, and the system became operational in May of 2000. The groundwater treatment system was modified to consist of air stripping of the groundwater and the use of activated carbon for treatment of the vapor phase. The changes made to the landfill remedy and method of treatment of the groundwater were accounted for by EPA in the Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) signed on June 27, 2000. A preliminary close-out report (PCOR) was completed by EPA in August of 2000. The PCOR documents that the cleanup remedy has been constructed in accordance with the remedial design plans and specifications. Treatment of the groundwater and contaminated soils will continue until required cleanup levels are achieved or a decision is made by EPA and RIDEM to modify existing cleanup levels. A second ESD was issued in September 2007 regarding specific changes to the 1990 ROD relative to additional institutional controls and the potential vapor intrusion investigations planned at the site (follow up actions from the 2005 Five Year Review noted below).

Five Year Reviews A five year review was completed in September 2005.
The trigger for this five-year review was the Preliminary Close-out Report (PCOR) that was issued on August 9, 2000.

The results of this five-year review found that the remedy was constructed in accordance with the requirements of the Record of Decision and the Explanation of Significant Differences. The remedy currently protects human health and the environment because it is functioning as designed. The immediate threats have been addressed and the remedy is considered protective in the short term. However, in order for the remedy to be protective in the long-term, the following actions need to be taken: institutional controls need to be addressed, and vapor intrusion studies need to be conducted.

A second five year review was completed in September 2010.

The results of this five-year review found that the remedy currently protects human health and the environment because it is functioning as designed. Both short term and long term threats have been addressed as institutional controls (i.e., local ordinance) have been established which restrict the use of groundwater at the site and the neighborhood surrounding the site. In addition, vapor intrusion studies have been conducted, as recommended in the 2005 Five Year Review, and have determined that no potential vapor intrusion exposure issues occur near the site.

Enforcement HighlightsIn 1991, an Administrative Order was issued by EPA to Kayser-Roth, the operator of the site, to perform the cleanup of the site. To date, the operator has been in compliance with the requirements of the order. In March of 2003, the United States also entered into a Consent Decree with Kayser-Roth resolving the issue of past costs. Kayser-Roth agreed, as part of the settlement, to reimburse the Government for around $7.2 million.

Environmental Progress
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Providing a public water supply, eliminating the on-site landfill, and fencing the site have reduced the potential for exposure to the contamination at the Stamina Mills site while the treatment of the groundwater and soil continues.

Current Site Status
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A soil vapor extraction and treatment (SVE) system operated on a seasonal basis (i.e., from May to November each year) from 1998 - 2002. A multi-phase extraction system (MPE) operated until 2010. In response to operational problems, a change was made to the method of treatment of extracted gases from the SVE/MPE system. The change from photocatalytic oxidation to activated carbon was made and completed in the Spring of 2000. That change and a decision to excavate the landfill and dispose of the waste off-site rather than capping waste in-place was documented in the first ESD isssued in June 2000. The construction of the groundwater extraction and treatment system was completed in May of 2000 and has been operational since that date. With the completion of the groundwater extraction and treatment system, all construction activities at the site were completed and cleanup activities at the site entered the operations and maintenance phase. The Town of North Smithfield, RI established an groundwater ordinance that ceases any new well construction and well pumping activity within an area defined as the Stamina Mill Remediation District on April 19, 2006. The second ESD, issued in September 2007, provides additional details regarding specific changes to the 1990 ROD relative to the need for groundwater institutional controls and potential vapor intrusion investigations. In 2008 through 2010 a vapor intrusion study was conducted. A five year review as conducted in 2010 which determined that the site continues to be protective of human health and the environment. Presently, EPA is working with the Town of North Smithfield to establish environmental land use restrictions on the Stamina Mills property to provide an additional layer of institutional control for the site, and preliminary reuse discussions are occurring with the Town in 2015 with the assistance of EPA Headquarters Superfund Redevelopment Initiative. The third, five year review of the Site is also due in September 2015.

Site Photos
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SDMS 452991

Links to Other Site Information
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Disclaimer Instructions about PDF

Newsletters & Press Releases:
Press Releases about this project  

Federal Register Notices:
Final NPL Listing  

Administrative Records:
Administrative Record Index, OU 01 Record of Decision (ROD), September 28, 1990 (575 KB)  
Administrative Record Index, OU 1 Second Explanation of Differences (ESD), October 1, 2007, (229.17 KB)  

Reports and Studies:
Five Year Review Report, September 30, 2005 (17.7MB)  
Second Five Year Review Report, September 14, 2010 (15.7 MB)   

Decision Documents:
View Records of Decision (RODS) on-line (EPA HQ)  
Record of Decision, June 28, 1990 (2188K)  
Explanation of Significant Differences, June 27, 2000 (1017K)  
Second Explanation of Significant Differences, September 27, 2007 (1.97 MB)  
Institutional Controls at this Site  

Other Links:
NPL Site Narrative at Listing:  
Site Progress Profile  

Site Repositories
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North Smithfield Public Library, 20 Main Street, Slatersville, RI 02876

OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440

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EPA Remedial Project Manager: Anna Krasko
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Square, Suite 100
Mail Code: OSRR07-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1232
E-Mail Address: krako.anna@epa.gov

EPA Community Involvement Coordinator: Sarah White
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Square, Suite 100
Mail Code: ORA20-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1026
E-Mail Address: white.sarah@epa.gov

State Agency Contact: Lou Maccarone
Address: Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management
Office of Waste Management
235 Promenade Street
Providence, RI 02908
Phone #: 401-222-2797, ext. 7142
E-Mail Address: louis.maccarone@dem.ri.gov


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Last updated on Wednesday, November 4th, 2015
URL: http://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/stamina