| Site Responsibility: ||Federal, Potentially Responsible Parties |
| NPL LISTING HISTORY |
| Proposed Date ||10/22/1999|
| Final Date ||02/04/2000 |
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The main area of the Centredale Manor Restoration Project Superfund site, consisting of approximately 9 acres, is known as the Source Area located at 2072 and 2074 Smith Street in North Providence, Rhode Island. The entire site extends down the Woonasquatucket River from the main area of the site, south to the Lyman Mill Dam, and includes the restored Allendale Dam. The site consists of all contaminated areas within this area as well as any other location to which contamination from that area has come to be located, or from which that contamination came. Prior to 1936, the main area of the site was occupied by Centredale Worsted Mills, a woolens mill. Atlantic Chemical Company began operating on the main area of the site in approximately 1943. Atlantic Chemical Company changed its name in 1953 to Metro-Atlantic, Inc. and continued to operate until the early 1970s. New England Container Company, Inc. operated an incinerator-based drum reconditioning facility on a portion of the site from 1952 until about 1971. A major fire in 1972 destroyed most of the structures at the site. The Brook Village apartments were opened in 1977 and the Centredale Manor apartments were opened in 1982 on the grounds of these former facilities, with the two new buildings, parking lots and driveways occupying a large portion of the properties.
Threats and Contaminants
Dioxin was first identified in 1996 from fish collected from the Woonasquatucket River. Since that time, EPA has documented elevated levels of contaminants including dioxin/furans, PCBs, pesticides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), semi-VOCs, and metals in soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water at the site. Residents living along the Woonasquatucket River, recreational visitors, including anglers, and construction workers as well as wildlife are potentially exposed to site contamination and these exposures may present an unacceptable human health or ecological risk.
The site is being addressed in two stages: Immediate (removal) actions and long term (remedial) actions for cleanup of the soil, sediment, surface water and groundwater.
Response Action Status
|Initial Action ||Following initial investigations of the Woonasquatucket River in 1996 and an expanded sampling in 1998, RIDOH issued a fish consumption advisory in 1999. EPA conducted a Preliminary Assessment in June 1986, a Screening Site Inspection in March 1990, and an Expanded Site Investigation in July-September, 1998. |
|Time-critical removal actions ||EPA implemented initial time-critical removal actions in 1999 - 2000. These initial time-critical removal activities at the site included: sampling; clearing; the erection of fencing; a Flood Evaluation Study of the site and surrounding area; designing and implementing interim soil caps in certain undeveloped areas of the site; and community outreach. The design and construction of a third soil cap as part of reconstruction of a former tailrace was done in 2003 - 2004. Additional work on the outfall and the tailrace cap was completed in the Fall of 2006. In 2009-2010, additional time-critical removal activities were performed to address contaminated groundwater discharge into the Woonasquatucket River in a vicinity of the Brook Village parking lot. That action involved dewatering, excavation of the contaminated soil, and installation of a RCRA cap over the impacted area. |
|Non-time critical removal action ||EPA started a non-time critical removal action in February 2000, when the Agency signed an Approval Memorandum for the performance of two Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analyses (EE/CAs). These two EE/CAs were later combined into one, resulting in an EE/CA report issued in September 2000 which recommended restoration of the Allendale Dam and removal of dioxin-impacted soil and floodplain sediment from residential and recreational-use properties. Following a 60-day public comment period, EPA issued an Action Memorandum on January 18, 2001, approving the removal action. Implementation of the non-time critical removal action (NTCRA) began in the summer of 2001 with reconstruction of the Allendale Dam, and restoration of the Allendale Pond. This work was completed in February 2002. Following additional sampling of soil along the Woonasquatucket River in the spring and summer of 2002, removal of contaminated soil from residential and recreational-use properties was completed in the winter of 2002. Final restoration activities were completed in the fall of 2003. |
|Entire Site ||EPA conducted a series of investigations from 1999 to 2004 to characterize contamination in Source Area soil, groundwater, sediment, floodplain soil, surface water, and biota at the Site. These investigations included a vapor-to-water diffusion survey; characterization of contaminants on residential- and recreational- use properties adjacent to the river and in river sediments and surface water; biota characterization (including fish tissue and tree swallow testing); characterization of soil and groundwater contamination and hydrology at the Source Area; an investigation to characterize floodplain soil contamination in a forested wetland (Oxbow), located below Allendale Dam; a geomorphology investigation in the Allendale and Lyman Mill Ponds; a geophysical survey to map water depth and soft sediment thickness; sediment coring; and sediment stability evaluation (modeling) in Allendale and Lyman Mill Ponds. |
Supplemental studies conducted since 2005 included: an evaluation of groundwater dioxin migration into the Woonasquatucket River in the vicinity of the Brook Village parking lot; an additional sediment coring study; a surface water investigation; a sediment stability evaluation (modeling); and additional surface and subsurface floodplain soil data collection in the Oxbow.
Human health and ecological risk assessments were completed in 2004 and 2005. In the fall of 2004, EPA also initiated the process of formulating potential remedial alternatives for long-term cleanup of the site which was completed in 2012. EPA completed supplemental human health and ecological risk assessments in 2011 and 2012.
|Previous Private Actions ||From 1970 to 1986, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RIDEM) conducted or supervised several investigations at the property. In November 1981, a Notice of Violation and Order was issued by RIDEM to the then-property owners for violations of the State Hazardous Waste Management Act. This Order required that the property owners immediately identify all hazardous material on-site, then dispose of all hazardous wastes off-site. It is not known if the property owners ever attempted to comply with this Order. In February 1982, according to RIDEM records, approximately 400 drums were excavated from the site. Of these, about thirty drums had chemical residue which had to be analyzed. The empty drums were crushed and sent to a solid waste facility and at least eight drums containing hazardous material were sent off-site to a licensed facility. In 1982, RIDEM required that prior to the construction of Centredale Manor, soil samples be collected in the area of the building footprint. As a result of this sampling and analysis, approximately 6,000 cubic yards of soil were excavated and disposed of as non-hazardous solid waste.|
|Enforcement Highlights||Since January 1999, EPA has conducted a number of PRP search activities. These have included issuing many information request letters (known as 104(e) letters) and locating and interviewing persons familiar with former operations at the site and conditions of the property at 2072 and 2074 Smith Street prior to and during construction of the apartment complexes. EPA also obtained a title search and reviewed RIDEM files, old newspapers and fire department records to determine historic information about former releases at the site. From 1999 to 2000, EPA issued five general notice letters. In Spring 2000, EPA issued a Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) to those five potentially responsible parties, ordering them to complete time-critical removal activities. All five parties complied with the Order. In March 2001, EPA issued a second UAO to the same five potentially responsible parties as in 2000, ordering them to implement the non-time critical removal activities approved in EPA's January 18, 2001 Action Memorandum. From 2003 to 2004, EPA notified fourteen additional parties of their potential responsibility with regard to the site. In September 2003, EPA entered into an Administrative Order on Consent with ten Potentially Responsible Parties who agreed to implement and finance time-critical removal activities within the former tailrace. In October 2003, EPA issued a third UAO, ordering two additional companies to participate in this removal action. These additional parties have complied with the Order. In 2005, EPA issued additional 104(e) information request letters to further learn about activities along the Woonasquatucket River. In January 2006, EPA moved to enter two consent decrees (CDs): one with Brook Village Associates Limited Partnership and the second with Centredale Manor Associates. The consent decrees provide for contribution to future site-related costs and natural resource damages. The settlements became effective in April 2007 and have raised almost $4 million. In 2007, EPA notified three additional parties of their potential responsibility with regard to the site. In September 2007, EPA entered into a fourth Administrative Order on Consent with a Potentially Responsible Party who agreed to conduct additional studies. In August 2008, EPA sent notices of potential liability to six additional parties. In August 2009, EPA entered into another Administrative Order on Consent with a Potentially Responsible Party to conduct and finance the time-critical removal activities noted previously. In August 2013, EPA entered into an Administrative Order on Consent with a dozen Potentially Responsible Parties to implement a pre-design investigation to better define the scope of the remedy called for in the 2012 Record of Decision for the Source Area. In June 2014, EPA issued a Unilateral Administrative Order for the performance of the remedy to one of the Potentially Responsible Parties. In July 2014, the Potentially Responsible Party notified EPA that it does not intend to comply with the UAO. EPA and a number of the Potentially Responsible Parties are currently in litigation. In June 2015. the court entered an ability-to-pay Consent Decree between New England Container Corporation (NECC) and EPA for $8.75 million toward the site cleanup. |
EPA has completed initial time-critical removal activities at the site including the construction of two interim soil caps, fencing-off these contaminated areas, and placing warning signs informing people not to eat the fish caught in the Woonasquatucket River. Additional removal activities included capping and reconstruction of a drainage swale (i.e., former tailrace) to reduce discharge of contaminated groundwater into the Woonasquatucket River in the vicinity of the Brook Village parking lot. Additionally, several Potentially Responsible Parties conducted non-time critical removal activities downstream from the main area of the site. These non-time critical removal activities included restoration of the Allendale Dam and Allendale Pond, which was completed in February 2002, and delineation and removal of highly contaminated soil from residential properties within the floodplain of the river, which was completed in Winter 2002/2003.
The potential immediate threats to public health and the environment have been reduced through: the construction of the fence at the Source Area; interim capping and removal of contaminated soil at the Centredale Manor and Brook Village properties; and construction of a fence between residential homes and sediment in the Allendale Pond and Lyman Mill Pond areas. Additionally, removal of highly contaminated floodplain soil from residential areas along Allendale and Lyman Mill ponds, reconstruction of the Allendale Dam and restoration of the Allendale Pond has reduced human exposures to soil, contaminated sediments at the bottom of the pond, and stabilized the erosion of this sediment to minimize migration further downstream.
The primary means of human exposure to dioxin and other contaminants from the Site occurs by eating contaminated fish from the Woonasquatucket River, and accidentally ingesting contaminated soil. There are specific precautionary measures residents can take to reduce the chances for potential exposure including:
• Do not eat fish from the Woonasquatucket River;
• Keep your house clean of dirt and soil from outside by taking off shoes before entering the house and washing clothing used when doing yard work;
• Keep yourself clean and avoid ingesting soil by washing hands with soap and water before cooking, eating, drinking or smoking; washing hands with soap and water after playing or working outside; helping children to avoid placing soiled hands or objects into their mouths.
Current Site Status
EPA conducted the Remedial Investigation activities between 1999 and 2005. The Feasibility Study (FS), which evaluates potential cleanup options for the site, was initiated in 2004 and an Interim Final FS report was issued in 2010. EPA held a number of dialogue meetings with many of the parties involved with the site during the analysis of remedial alternatives for the long-term cleanup of the site. An addendum to the Interim Final FS was issued in September of 2011, followed by a Proposed Plan identifying EPA's preferred cleanup approach for public comment. EPA held public informational meetings on the Proposed Plan on November 8, 9, and 10, 2011, followed by formal public hearings on December 7, 2011. The formal public comment period on the Proposed Plan began on November 14, 2011 and closed on March 2, 2012.
In response to a final non-cancer toxicity value for dioxins, issued by EPA in February 2012, a Technical Memorandum was prepared in May 2012 and a Proposed Plan Amendment for the site was released in July 2012. The formal public comment period on the Proposed Plan Amendment was held from July 19, 2012 until September 17, 2012. On September 28, 2012 EPA issued its selected cleanup plan, formally referred to as the Record of Decision (ROD), which also included a Responsiveness Summary with responses to the public comments received. The RIDEM concurred with the selected cleanup plan.
EPA’s selected cleanup plan will prevent direct contact with contaminated soil and sediment that presents an unacceptable risk; allow fish consumption and contact and additional non-contact recreational use of the Woonasquatucket River; prevent movement of contaminants into the Woonasquatucket River that could result in exceedances of water quality criteria; comply with federal drinking water standards at the Source Area; and reduce risk to wildlife.
The selected cleanup plan in EPA's 2012 ROD, with an estimated cost of about $100 million (and subsequent pre-design investigations), generally requires:
• Installation of a RCRA Subtitle C cap over contamination in the Source Area;
• Excavation of the majority of contaminated sediment and floodplain soil in the Allendale and Lyman Mill reaches of the River and placement into an upland Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) with off-site treatment and/or disposal of dewatered sediment and floodplain soil that have the highest contamination levels;
• Placement of soil cover over the remaining contamination in the Oxbow to facilitate enhanced natural recovery and preserve valuable habitat;
• Implementation of Institutional Controls to prevent exposure and preserve the integrity of components of the selected cleanup plan and long-term monitoring and maintenance to protect the integrity of the RCRA cap, upland CDF, Allendale dam and thin-layer wetland cover; and
• Mitigation of wetlands and floodplains.
Two changes were made to EPA’s proposed cleanup plans after considering the comments received during the two formal comment periods:
1. EPA continues to believe the upland Confined Disposal Facility disposal option --with the highest levels of contaminated material taken off-site for treatment-- is the best approach to address contaminated sediment/soil; however, EPA has expanded the area where an upland CDF could be located to beyond what is in close proximity to the site, including locations outside the Town of Johnston. With this expansion, EPA believes a location can be identified that addresses most or all of the concerns raised by the public.
2. In response to concerns about the effectiveness of the proposed alternative, the selected cleanup plan for the Oxbow Area was modified and expanded to allow for additional removal of contaminated soil and sediment.
In 2014, RIDEM and EPA installed fences and implemented other interim protective measures specified in the 2012 ROD to limit exposure to the potentially contaminated floodplain soil on residential-use properties along Lyman Mill and Allendale Ponds while preparations for the long-term cleanup of the river is underway. Also in 2014, EPA directed a pre-design investigation and soil testing in the southern portion of the Source Area to better define the scope of that part of the remedy. That investigation found that no off-site disposal of waste material from the Source Area is required prior to RCRA Subtitle C cap installation. In early 2015, EPA began pre-design investigation to collect additional information for cleanup of the Oxbow large wetland area as specified in the ROD.
View of the Centredale Manor Restoration Superfund site looking North
along the Woonasquatucket River.
Photograph of the Reconstructed Allendale Dam.
Links to Other Site Information
Newsletters & Press Releases:
Federal Register Notices:
Reports and Studies:
|NPL Site Narrative at Listing:   |
|Site Progress Profile   |
|Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Removal Action, Scope of Work (SOW) Attached, April 12, 2000 (583 KB)   |
|Second Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Removal Action, Scope of Work (SOW) Attached, March 26, 2001(3.78 MB)   |
|First Amendment to Second Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Removal Action, September 06, 2001 (102 KB)   |
|Second Amendment to Second Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Removal Actions, March 25, 2002, (154 KB)   |
|Third Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) for Removal Action, September 11, 2003 ( 1.10 MB)   |
|Third Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Removal Action, October 8, 2003 (1.03 MB)   |
|Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) Settlement Agreement, September 25, 2007 (1.56 MB)   |
|Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent (AOC) for Removal Action, August 6, 2009 (2.71 MB)   |
|Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent (AOC), June 29, 2010 (1.47 MB)   |
|First Amendment to Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent, November 18, 2010 (99 KB)    |
|Unilateral Administrative Order (UAO) for Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) and Operation and Maintenance (O&M), June 10, 2014 (5.59 MB)   |
North Providence Union Free Library, 1810 Mineral Springs Ave., North Providence RI 02911
Marion J. Mohr Memorial Library, 1 Memorial Avenue, Johnston, RI 02919
OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440
|EPA Remedial Project Manager: ||Anna Krasko |
|Address: ||US Environmental Protection Agency|
5 Post Office Square, Suite 100
Mail Code OSRR07-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
|Phone #: ||617-918-1232 |
|E-Mail Address: ||firstname.lastname@example.org |
|EPA Community Involvement Coordinator: ||Emily Bender |
|Address: ||US Environmental Protection Agency|
5 Post Office Square, Suite 100
Mail Code ORA01-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
|Phone #: ||617-918-1037 |
|E-Mail Address: ||email@example.com |
|State Agency Contact: ||Louis R. Maccarone II |
|Address: ||RIDEM, Office of Waste Management|
235 Promenade Street
Providence, RI 02908-5767
|Phone #: ||401-222-2797 |
|E-Mail Address: ||firstname.lastname@example.org |