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Waste Site Cleanup & Reuse in New England
  Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont & 9 Tribal Nations
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Map this site in Cleanups in My Community
 Rockingham,  Vermont
 Windham County
 Street Address: RTE 5
 Zip Code: 05101

 EPA ID #: VTD980520092
 Site ID #: 0101475
 Site Aliases: Rockingham Landfill, Disposal Specialists, Inc. Landfill

 Site Responsibility: Federal, Potentially Responsible Parties

 Proposed Date 06/21/1988
 Final Date 10/04/1989

Site Description
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In the early 1960s, the 17-acre BFI Sanitary Landfill (Rockingham) site served as a borrow area for the construction of Interstate 91. In 1973, Browning-Ferris Industries, Inc. (BFI) bought the landfill from an individual who had started operations in 1968. State files indicate that industrial wastes, including heavy metals, bases, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were deposited in the unlined disposal area from 1968 to 1979. In 1983, Vermont licensed the site as a municipal landfill certified to accept hazardous waste from small quantity generators. The landfill was closed in 1991. In 1979, the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VT DEC) reported that nearby residential and monitoring wells downgradient of the site were contaminated. The contaminated residential wells are no longer in use. There were two leachate collection ponds on site. A tar cap covered a portion of the landfill to prevent the infiltration of rainwater; however, cracks in the cap have been observed, and it was covered with new refuse. Approximately 2,700 people live within 1 mile of the site, and 6,400 residents live within 3 miles. Three homes near the site are supplied water from a water supply line provided by BFI. The Connecticut River is located 560 feet to the east, along the drainage route of surface water leaving the site.

Threats and Contaminants
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The soil and groundwater contain contamination from VOCs and heavy metals including chromium, copper, and lead. Drinking water from contaminated wells in the area posed a threat to public health. The Connecticut River may have received contaminants from groundwater discharge, posing a threat to water quality and aquatic life.

Cleanup Approach
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The site is being addressed in two stages: initial actions and a long-term remedial phase directed at cleanup of the entire site.

Response Action Status
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Initial Action BFI provided an alternate drinking water supply to residences with contaminated wells. In 1989, BFI installed an active gas collection system to control landfill gases. In early 1993, BFI also installed a groundwater inceptor trench to collect surface water and leachate seeps that were discharging into the Connecticut River. In 1993, the EPA completed studies at the site and initiated an early action to address the source of contamination under the Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Method. In 1994, the potentially responsible parties capped the landfill and expanded the existing active gas and leachate collection system.

Entire Site: In the fall of 1994, a remedy was selected to address the cleanup of the groundwater. Through management of existing site controls, including the landfill cap, active gas and leachate collection systems, and long-term monitoring, the groundwater will clean itself naturally over time. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater, surface water, and residential wells will continue to ensure that established cleanup levels are met.

Five-year Reviews Five-year reviews of the Site were performed in 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014.

Enforcement HighlightsThe State issued three orders to the owner between 1980 and 1983, requiring BFI to determine the hydrogeology of the landfill, monitor on-site groundwater, and provide drinking water to affected residents nearby. In July 1992, the EPA entered into an Administrative Order on Consent with two parties, BFI, Inc. and Disposal Specialists, Inc., to perform the site investigations. An Administrative Order by Consent was signed between the EPA and the potentially responsible parties to perform the initial actions. A second Administrative Order was signed in September 1993 for the construction of the cap. A final agreement to cover all long-term activities at the site was finalized in 1996.

Environmental Progress
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Installation of the landfill, the cap, and gas and leachate collection systems has reduced the potential for exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater, and monitoring and natural restoration of groundwater continues.

Current Site Status
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The construction of the cap and expansion of the active gas collection and treatment system was completed in 1995. The cap and leachate collection and treatment system are being operated and maintained by the potentially responsible parties. Oversight of their work will continue. Five-Year Reviews have confirmed that the Site is protective of human health and the environment. Monitoring, inspections, and maintenance continue at the Site. The fourth Five Year Review and an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) were completed in 2014. The ESD extended the expected timeframe for cleanup of the Site.

Site Photos
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Links to Other Site Information
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Disclaimer Instructions about PDF

Newsletters & Press Releases:
Press Releases about this project   

Federal Register Notices:
Final NPL Listing  

Administrative Records:
Administrative Record Index, Non-Time Critical Removal Action (NTCRA), September 13, 1993 (668 KB)  
Administrative Record Index, OU 01 Record of Decision (ROD), September 21, 1994 (898 KB)  
Administrative Record Index, Draft Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) for Public Comment, September 2014 (597 KB)  
Administrative Record Index, Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD), October 1, 2014, (563 KB)  

Reports and Studies:
Five Year Review Report, September 29, 1999 (372KB)  
Second Five Year Review Report, September 21, 2004 (320KB)  
Third Five Year Review Report, September 1, 2009 (8.61MB)  
Fourth Five-Year Review Report, September 30, 2014 (12.7 MB)   

Decision Documents:
Institutional Controls for this Site  
View Records of Decision (RODS) on-line (EPA HQ)  
Record of Decision (ROD), September 21, 1994 (5.52 MB)  
Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD), September 29, 2014 (2.01 MB)  

Other Links:
NPL Site Narrative at Listing:  
Site Progress Profile  

Site Repositories
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Rockingham Free Public Library, 65 Westminster Street, Bellow Falls, VT 05101

OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440

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EPA Remedial Project Manager: Kevin Heine
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code: OSRR07-1
Boston, MA 02109 - 3912
Phone #: 617-918-1321
E-Mail Address: heine.kevin@epa.gov

EPA Community Involvement Coordinator: Emily Bender
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code: ORA01-1
Boston, MA 02109 - 3912
Phone #: 617-918-1037
E-Mail Address: bender.emily@epa.gov

State Agency Contact: Michael B. Smith
Address: VT Dept. Environmental Conservation
One National Life Drive
Davis One
Montpelier, VT 05602-3704
Phone #:
E-Mail Address:


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Last updated on Tuesday, November 3rd, 2015
URL: http://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/bfi