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Waste Site Cleanup & Reuse in New England
  Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont & 9 Tribal Nations
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Map this site in Cleanups in My Community
 Woodford and Bennington,  Vermont
 Bennington County
 Street Address: RTE 9
 Zip Code: 05201

 EPA ID #: VTD003965415
 Site ID #: 0101450
 Site Aliases:

 Site Responsibility: Federal, Potentially Responsible Parties

 Proposed Date 06/24/1988
 Final Date 03/31/1989

Site Description
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The 3-acre Burgess Brothers Landfill Site is located on the Woodford and Bennington town line. The site borders the Green Mountain National Forest. Burgess Brothers Construction Company operated the facility as a sand pit, salvage yard, and landfill from the 1940s until the mid-1970s. Union Carbide Corp.'s Bennington Plant disposed of wastes from battery manufacturing at the site, an unknown quantity of lead sludge, and the equivalent of 47,780 drums of hazardous wastes. The wastes were dumped into and buried in unlined settling lagoons located on the landfill. Studies have determined that soils, groundwater, and surface water both on and downgradient of the site are contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The area surrounding the site is largely rural and is sparsely populated, but 13,900 people live within 3 miles of the site. Residents use drinking water from private and public wells; the nearest well is located approximately 1 mile from the site. A spring that is used to supply drinking water to a portion of the town of Bennington is approximately 1 mile to the west of the site. Barney Brook and the Waloomsic River are located within 3 miles downgradient of the site; both are used for recreation. A freshwater wetland is located at the toe of the landfill.

Threats and Contaminants
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Groundwater, surface water, and soils are contaminated with metals including iron and lead, and VOCs, including vinyl chloride and trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). Human heath risks are from potential future ingestion of groundwater. Ecological risks are from ingestion of surface water, leachate and sediments. The site is restricted by a fence around the landfill. There are sensitive areas nearby, including freshwater wetlands and National Forest land, which are used for recreational purposes and could be impacted by site contamination.

Cleanup Approach
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The site is being addressed in a long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.

Response Action Status
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Entire Site Based on the findings of a remedial investigation, EPA selected the following remedy to clean up the site: multibarrier cap over the landfill area, soil cap over the marshy area, in-place air sparging of groundwater and soil vacuum extraction (SVE) of soil contaminated with VOCs in the former lagoon area (which involved installation of a number of shallow wells to withdraw air containing VOCs for carbon treatment), institutional controls, and long term monitoring. Deed restrictions are being used at the site to regulate land use and preserve the integrity of the remedy's components. A monitoring program for the cap, groundwater, soil, surface water, and sediments has been developed to ensure the long term effectiveness of the selected remedy.
All construction activities associated with implementing the remedy are complete and documented in a March 2000 preliminary close-out report (PCOR) by EPA. The PCOR documents that the cleanup remedy was constructed in accordance with the remedial design plans and specifications.

The SVE system, which became operational in December 2000 and was operated full-time for two years after which it was operated periodically until 2010.

With the capping of the landfill, groundwater flow direction was altered which increased the migration of VOCs away from the landfill. In 2011 EPA selected a new remedy to address this situation (see below for more detail). The new remedy and groundwater, surface water, and sediments will be monitored throughout the site for 30 years or until clean up standards are obtained.

The site will be inspected every five years to ensure that the cleanup remedy continues to be effective.

Long-Term Remedial Action The soil vacuum extraction/air sparging system (SVE/AS) operated from December 2000 through 2002, at which time it was determined that the air sparging component was no longer contributing to the VOC mass removal and its operation was discontinued. Operation of the SVE component continued with some of the vapor extraction wells being operated continuously, some intermittently, and others remained shut down as influent VOC concentrations and removal rates declined. In January 2004 influent concentrations stabilized at approximately 225 ppm, indicating the presence of an ongoing VOC source.
Operation of the SVE system was suspended in February 2005 and remained shut down for the rest of 2005 and all of 2006. At the direction of EPA, operation of the SVE system resumed in August 2007. Breakthrough of VOCs in the next-to-last carbon vessel occurred in October 2007. Following change-out of the spent carbon, the system was restarted in June 2008. Operation of the SVE system has continued since then, primarily with the two most downgradient extraction wells.

A reassessment of the remedy began in 2007 and was completed in 2011.

2005 Five-Year Review A five-year review was completed in March 2005. The review concluded that the remedy was functioning as intended by the Record of Decision and that it provided short-term protectiveness. However the review also noted that there were a number of concerns and limitations with the selected remedy such that the capability of the remedy to provide long-term protectiveness was uncertain. The review recommended the source and groundwater remedies be re-evaluated and modified if determined to be necessary to achieve the cleanup objectives.

2010 Five-Year Review A second review was completed in 2010 and reaffirmed the findings of the 2005 review that the remedy needed to be reassessed for both source control and groundwater. It further noted that the core of the groundwater plume had moved farther downgradient from the landfill boundary while the overall plume configuration had not changed.

2011 Amended Remedy In 2011, EPA issued a Record of Decision Amendment that selected a new remedy to address the groundwater contamination at the site. The new remedy called for a groundwater barrier at the edge of the landfill and another farther downgradient to capture the contaminated groundwater.

Implementation of the Amended Remedy Studies determined that a groundwater interceptor trench would be a more efficient barrier technology than a trench system relying on material to breakdown the VOCs in the ground. The two barriers were constructed in 2013-2014. Start-up of the interceptor trenches began in November 2014.

Enforcement HighlightsThe potentially responsible parties signed an Administrative Order by Consent in 1991. EPA completed a Record on Decision (ROD) in September 1998. The potentially responsible parties signed a Consent Decree in 1999. The ROD was amended in 2011.

Environmental Progress
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Capping of the landfill and implementing institutional controls have reduced the potential of direct exposure to contamination. It has further minimized the infiltration of rainwater through the landfill carrying contamination into the groundwater and surface waters. Contamination in the groundwater has continued to migrate farther from the landfill and beyond the area of affected by the SVE system. As a result, EPA and Vermont ANR reassessed the remedy in order to address this situation. EPA amended the Record of Decision in September 2011 to select a different cleanup approach.

Current Site Status
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The landfill was listed in 1989. All construction is complete. The site is currently in the start-up phase for the interceptor trenches and above-ground treatment system.

Site Photos
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SDMS 493001

SDMS 493002

Links to Other Site Information
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Disclaimer Instructions about PDF

Newsletters & Press Releases:
Press Releases about this project   
Public Meeting Presentation about the Proposed Plan for the 2011 Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment, August 16, 2011 (707 KB)  

Federal Register Notices:
Final NPL Listing  

Administrative Records:
OU1 Record of Decision (ROD) Administrative Record (AR) Index, September 25, 1998 (538 KB)  
OU1 Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment Adminstrative Record (AR) Index, October 1, 2011 (348 KB)  

Reports and Studies:
Five-year Review Report, March 31, 2005  
Second Five Year Review Report, September 27, 2010 (2.03 MB)  
Focused Feasibility Study (FS) Report, OU 1, July 26, 2011 (13.4 MB)  
Proposed Plan to Amend the 1998 Record of Decision (ROD), July 2011 (12.9 MB)  
Third Five Year Review Report, September 23, 2015  

Decision Documents:
View Records of Decision (RODS) on-line (EPA HQ)  
OU1 Record of Decision (ROD), September 25, 1998 (3.00 MB)  
OU1 Record of Decision (ROD) Amendment, September 30, 2011 (4.31 MB)  
Institutional Controls at this Site  

Other Links:
NPL Site Narrative at Listing:  
Site Progress Profile  

Site Repositories
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Bennington Public Library, 101 Silver Street, Bennington, VT 05201
(802) 442-9051

OSRR Records and Information Center, 1st Floor, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100 (HSC), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (617) 918-1440

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EPA Remedial Project Manager: Terry Connelly
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code OSRR07-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1373
E-Mail Address: connelly.terry@epa.gov

EPA Community Involvement Coordinator: Sarah White
Address: US Environmental Protection Agency
5 Post Office Sq., Suite 100
Mail Code ORA20-1
Boston, MA 02109-3912
Phone #: 617-918-1026
E-Mail Address: white.sarah@epa.gov

State Agency Contact: Gerald Noyes
Address: VT Dept. Environmental Conservation
One National Life Drive
Davis One
Montpelier, VT 05602-3704
Phone #: 802-522-5614
E-Mail Address:


Serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, & 10 Tribal Nations
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Last updated on Tuesday, November 3rd, 2015
URL: http://www.epa.gov/region1/superfund/sites/burgess