Environmental Economics

Hazardous Wastes: A Risk Benefit Framework Applied to Cadmium and Asbestos

This study develops a decision framework for evaluating hazardous waste standards in terms of social risks and product benefits. The analysis focuses of cadmium and asbestos as examples of land waste disposal problems, but it also estimates waste quantities in air and water. Effects of uncertainties in the individual estimates on overall confidence limits, resultant decision criteria, and research needs are evaluated. The approach encompasses the full chain of variables leading to decision criteria, including (1) wastes escaping into the various media from each step in the hazardous material flow process, including extraction, refining, manufacturing, use, and disposal; (2) cost and effectiveness of alternative waste control measures; (3) their economic, employment, and balance-of-trade effects; (4) environmental dispersion mechanisms; (5) human exposures, dose-damage relationships, and resultant mortalities; (6) risk/benefit relationships, and; (7) equity distribution, social acceptance, and other independent criteria.

  • Keywords

    Subject:
    2. Cost-Benefit and Cost Effectiveness Analysis
    2. Cost-Benefit and Cost Effectiveness Analysis - Specific Sectors and Pollutants
    2. Cost-Benefit and Cost Effectiveness Analysis - Methodology
    Environmental Media:
    a. Air
    b. Water
    c. Land
    d. Chemicals
    f. Multimedia
    a. Air - Tropospheric
    a. Air - Indoor
    b. Water - Groundwater
    c. Land - Solid Waste/RCRA
    d. Chemicals - Toxic Substances
    Authors:
    Moll, Kendall
    Baum, Sanford
    Carpender, Erwin
    Dresch, Francis
    Wright, Rose
    Jones, George
    Starry, Claire
    Starrett, David
    EPA Project Officer/ Manager:
    Geographic Area:
    Study Purpose:
    Empirical Application, Policy Evaluation
    Inventory Record #: EE-0230
  • Participating Organizations

    Research Organization:

    Stanford Research InstituteAddress: 333 Ravenswood Avenue
    City: Menlo Park State: CA ZIP: 94025
    Phone: Fax:
    E-mail:
    Funding Organization:
    Environmental Protection Agency,
    Office of Research of Development, Office of Health and Ecological Effects
    Address:
    City: Washington State: DC ZIP: 20460
    Phone: Fax:
    E-mail:
  • Report Details
    Type:
    Final
    Date:
    02/01/1977
    Number of Pages:
    258
    Comment:
    EPA #:
    NTIS #:
    Grant/Contract #:
    EPA-600/5-77-002
    PB-257951
    68-01-2915
  • How to Obtain Report


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    Date Linked: 05/28/2009
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    By World Wide Web: [http://www.ntis.gov].
    You will need the following NTIS report #: PB-257951