Environmental Economics

Economic Feasibility of Minimum Industrial Waste Load Discharge Requirements

This study presents order-of-magnitude estimates of the costs of implementing minimum and zero discharge requirements for the manufacturing and electric power industries. The analysis was made, for the most part, at the 2 digit S.I.C. level for the manufacturing industries. The assumed technology was maximum in-plant recirculation and reuse, concentration of the recirculation blowdown by evaporation, and final residual disposal by the applicable least-cost method among incineration, deepwell disposal, solar evaporation, and ocean disposal. It is concluded that a strict zero discharge requirement would have greatly variable and significant economic consequences, but that less stringent definitions of minimum discharge would be feasible. The limiting factors in applying a strict zero discharge requirement appear to be the availability of physical resources, particularly energy, for purposes of effluent concentration.

  • Keywords

    3. Cost and Economic Impacts Analysis
    3. Costs and Economic Impact Analysis - Specific Sectors and Pollutants
    3. Costs and Economic Impact Analysis - Economic Impacts
    Environmental Media:
    b. Water
    b. Water - Surface
    Bramer, Henry C.
    EPA Project Officer/ Manager:
    Geographic Area:
    Study Purpose:
    Empirical Application, Data Development, Policy Evaluation
    Inventory Record #: EE-0239
  • Participating Organizations

    Research Organization:

    Datagraphics, Inc.Address: 5100 Center Avenue
    City: Pittsburgh State: PA ZIP: 15232
    Phone: Fax:
    Funding Organization:
    Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Monitoring, Implementation Research DivisionAddress:
    City: Washington State: DC ZIP: 20460
    Phone: Fax:
  • Report Details
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    NTIS #:
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    Date Linked: 08/25/2017