The purpose of this project is to evaluate the extent to which agricultural establishments accept and adopt alternative pest and pesticide management practices that are protective of water quality and what the basis of these choices is. First, an evaluation of the degree to which farmers accept state-of-the-art pest and pesticide management strategies will be made, based on what farmers report as their current practices and what their attitudes are towards these strategies. Second, these farmer practices and attitudes will be related to (1) the actual and perceived costs to farmers of adopting or not adopting water quality protective alternatives, and (2) the perceived importance of adoption of agricultural practices that are environmentally sound. Third, the degree of acceptance and adoption as well as perceptions of costs and importance underlying such behavior will be analyzed in terms of farmers' knowledge and information about the importance, effectiveness, and costs of adoption, personal attributes, and attributes of their farms and conditions under which they operate. Finally, a major research objective is to understand how the choices farmers make about pests and pesticide management compare with the opinions and choices of professionals working in specialized areas of pesticide use, agricultural production, and water quality.