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06/01/2007Assessment of the Potential Costs, Benefits, and Other Impacts of the Expansion of the Comparable Fuel Exclusion - Proposed RulePublication
 Description: This report analyzes the costs, benefits, and other impacts of the proposed rule to expand the comparable fuel exclusion to emission-comparable fuel and two alternative options to the rule considered by EPA.
 
05/31/2007Draft Technical Support Document for the Expansion of the Comparable Fuels ExclusionPublication
 Description: This document presents supporting information for the proposed expansion of the comparable fuels rulemaking to emission-comparable fuel (ECF). It discusses ECF constituents; provides information on the industrial boiler designs and fuels used in these boilers; discusses the use of CO as an indicator for incomplete combustion; describes a qualitative risk assessment conducted for dioxins and furans and compares organics data between hazardous waste burning boilers and industrial boilers; describes the compliance conditions for ECF generators and burners; and presents the costs and savings for generators and burners.
 
05/31/2007Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Proposes to Expand Comparable Fuels ExclusionPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the proposed rule to expand the hazardous waste comparable fuels exclusion to encompass a new category of liquid hazardous waste-derived fuel known as emission-comparable fuel (ECF). ECF is fuel that is produced from a hazardous waste but which generates emissions when burned in an industrial boiler that are comparable to emissions from burning fuel oil. In other words, the fuels are comparable from an emissions standpoint but not from a physical standpoint.
 
08/01/2006Environmental Fact Sheet: Issues in MACT Rule Reopened for CommentPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the reconsideration proposed rule for the standards for hazardous air pollutants from hazardous waste combustors. EPA is requesting comment on several issues regarding the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for new and existing hazardous waste combustors that were issued on October 12, 2005 (70 FR 59402). The NESHAPs are based on the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) for hazardous waste combustors. In addition, EPA is proposing amendments to several compliance and monitoring provisions in the rule.
 
03/01/2006Environmental Fact Sheet: Changes to Pollution Emission Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors: Administrative Stay And Proposed New StandardsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the three-month administrative stay that EPA is issuing for one of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) requirements for hazardous waste combustors. The Agency is issuing the temporary administrative stay while reconsidering the particulate matter standard for new cement kilns that burn hazardous waste. In a second action, EPA is issuing a proposed rule soliciting comment on a revised particulate matter standard for new sources based on data submitted in a petition from the cement manufacturing industry. These new particulate matter data were not available when the NESHAP was issued in October 2005.
 
09/01/2005Environmental Fact Sheet: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air PollutantsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the final rule from October 12, 2005, that promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from hazardous waste combustors (HWCs). The standards implement section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act by requiring hazardous waste combustors to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control technology (MACT).
 
11/15/2001REGULATORY STATUS OF THE CATOXID FLUIDIZED BED REACTORMemo
 Description: The Catoxid unit operates as a recycling unit designed to react secondary material feeds to produce a chemical intermediate used directly in the manufacture of EDC. The Catoxid unit is a manufacturing process and does not meet the definition of halogen acid furnace (HAF) (SEE ALSO: 56 FR 7139; 2/21/91). EPA views HAFs as utilizing combustion and as being designed as boilers or operated in a manner similar to boilers. Acid generation that occurs in a closed, controlled chemical manufacturing process is not considered the "production of acid" for purposes of the HAF definition. Secondary materials going to such units are not solid wastes pursuant to the use/reuse exclusion if the process is legitimate recycling. State regulations can be more stringent than the federal regulations.
 
06/07/1999MAXIMUM ACHIEVABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) STANDARDS FOR CEMENT KILNS BURNING HAZARDOUS WASTE FUELSMemo
 Description: Agency response to a Senator regarding risk justification for Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. A beyond-the-floor standard for lead and cadmium would reduce emissions of these metals by 5.5 megagrams per year beyond floor emission level. A beyond-the-floor standard would not affect the quantity of hazardous waste fuels burned in cement kilns. There is a discussion of the Agency initiative to move from an almost exclusively technology-based program to a risk-based program (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99).
 
04/16/1999DEVELOPMENT OF MACT EMISSION STANDARDS FOR SEMIVOLATILE METALSMemo
 Description: Agency response to Senator on Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for semivolatile metals (SVM) hazardous waste burning cement kilns. EPA has documented positive correlation between SVM feedrates and emissions for hazardous waste combustors (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99).
 
01/08/1999MAXIMUM ACHIEVABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) RULEMAKING AND INCINERATION OF DIOXIN-CONTAMINATED WASTESMemo
 Description: The maximum achievable control technology (MACT) rule will establish emission limits for dioxins and furans. The rule will require hazardous waste combustors to demonstrate that dioxin in waste feed is sufficiently destroyed (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99). Treatment may be available for dioxin waste at the Coffeyville, Kansas incinerator in the future.
 
08/20/1998USED OIL-FIRED SPACE HEATERS AS UTILITY BOILERSMemo
 Description: Off-specification used oil can be burned in on-site space heaters as long as the heater has a maximum capacity of not more than 0.5 million BTU per hour. The definition of utility boiler is intended to apply to large boilers that have emission controls similar to industrial boilers and furnaces. Small on-site used oil space heaters exceeding the 0.5 million BTU per hour limit are not considered utility boilers even if the energy created is being sold. A space heater not meeting the provisions of the exemption is a nonindustrial boiler which is prohibited from burning used oil.
 
06/02/1998MAXIMUM ACHIEVABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) REGULATIONSMemo
 Description: The 1997 estimates show a reduction of dioxin/furan and mercury emissions from hazardous waste combustors as a result in part to the Hazardous Waste Combustion Strategy and the proposed maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. The “fast track” portion of the MACT rule contains waste minimization and pollution prevention requirements (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 33782; 6/19/98). The MACT proposal would require facilities to monitor emissions and conduct performance testing under the Clean Air Act requirements (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99). The MACT floor standard is defined by the technologies used by the best performing (lowest emitting) 6 percent of sources for that hazardous air pollutant.
 
12/19/1997CLARIFICATION ON USE OF WASTE HEATING VALUEMemo
 Description: A heating value of 5000 Btu or more is used as a test for determining the applicability of standards for boilers and industrial furnaces (Section 266.103(a)(5)(ii)(B)). The 5000 Btu level is not a cutoff for determining whether a secondary material meets the definition of solid waste or is being recycled legitimately. Such determinations should be made on a case-by-case basis.
 
07/21/1997INDEPENDENT THIRD PARTY AUDITS OF BOILER AND INDUSTRIAL FURNACE TRIAL BURNSMemo
 Description: Quality assurance (QA) managers may be part of corporation, but must not be directly responsible nor accountable to those who are directly responsible for the data collection during a trial burn.
 
05/23/1997REGULATORY STATUS OF BURNING SULFUR-CONTAINING SECONDARY MATERIALS TO PRODUCE VIRGIN SULFURIC ACIDMemo
 Description: The heating value of sulfur-containing material inserted in a sulfuric acid regeneration furnace determines if the activity is burning for energy recovery or reclamation. Materials with a heating value greater than 5000 Btu/lb are generally considered to be burned as a fuel rather than for metals recovery or as an ingredient. 5000 Btu/lb is not a regulatory threshold for the purposes of the definition of solid waste, but there is a strong presumption that secondary materials above 5000 Btu are burned for energy recovery and therefore are solid wastes (e.g., as in the case of characteristic by-products recycled by being burned). The section 261.4(a)(7) exclusion applies only to spent sulfuric acid and does not include other sulfur-containing materials.
 
05/02/1997MACT IMPLEMENTATION PROJECT’S (MIP’S) DRAFT COMPLIANCE PLANMemo
 Description: EPA released for public comment a compliance plan for the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) proposed standards called the public and regulatory notification of intent to comply (PRNIC) (SEE ALSO: PRNIC requirements finalized at 63 FR 33782; 6/19/98). The only enforceable aspects of the PRNIC are that it is submitted on time and that it is complete.
 
10/02/1996JOHNSTON ATOLL CHEMICAL AGENT DISPOSAL SYSTEM (JACADS) RISK RELATED ISSUESMemo
 Description: Discusses the draft site-specific combustion risk assessment, current method for assessing the non-carcinogenic risks associated with dioxin exposure, most appropriate data subsets for determining carcinogenic potency factors, methods for assessing the risks associated with exposure to either the sulfur or brominated analogs of dioxin, EPA’s treatment of putative compound synergistic interactions when applied to the facility assessment. EPA has not yet developed a methodology for quantitative assessment of risks due to exposures to potential endocrine disruptors.
 
09/30/1996PROPOSED MAXIMUM ACHIEVABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORSMemo
 Description: The Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) air emission standards will be issued under joint RCRA and Clean Air Act authority (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99). EPA does not have any indication from the regional offices that they intend to impose the proposed MACT standards in permits. The use of the omnibus permit authority under RCRA 3005(c)(3) to incorporate the proposed standards as permit conditions would require site-specific justification and may not rest solely on the proposal of these limits as national standards.
 
08/14/1996USED OIL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS TO MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH USED OIL AND PROVIDE LITTLE OR NO ENERGY WHEN BURNEDMemo
 Description: Materials contaminated with used oil from which the free flowing oil has been drained are regulated as used oil if the material is burned for energy recovery. Burning for energy recovery for the purposes of used oil is limited to materials that have heating values of at least 5,000 BTUs per pound. A state may have a more stringent definition of burning for energy recovery.
 
05/23/1996EPA'S IMPLEMENTATION OF THE HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION AND COMBUSTION STRATEGYMemo
 Description: EPA can require combustion facilities to perform indirect exposure risk assessments under the omnibus authority (Section 3005(c)(3)). EPA does not require the use of a particular risk assessment model. In order to invoke the omnibus authority, EPA must show that additional requirements are necessary to protect human health and the environment. Discusses the scope and limitations of the omnibus provision. The Combustion Strategy does not impose regulatory requirements and is not subject to notice and comment. Discusses EPA rationale for targeting hazardous waste combustors under the Combustion Strategy. Facilities can challenge requests to perform a risk assessment (SEE ALSO: 61 FR 17358, 17371; 4/19/96).
 
05/10/1996APPLICABILITY OF OMNIBUS AUTHORITY AND SITE SPECIFIC RISK ASSESSMENTS TO WASTE MINIMIZATION AND COMBUSTION STRATEGYMemo
 Description: The use of the omnibus authority (Section 3005(c)(3)) in implementing the Combustion Strategy is consistent with the original intent of statute and regulations. The strategy does not impose regulatory requirements, but is a statement of policy. EPA requires a site-specific risk assessment at hazardous waste combustion facilities prior to permit determination under omnibus authority because combustion regulations do not fully account for indirect exposure pathways (SEE ALSO: 61 FR 17358, 17371; 4/19/96).
 
04/25/1996QUESTIONS REGARDING THE HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION AND COMBUSTION STRATEGY AND THE HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION NATIONAL PLANMemo
 Description: EPA’s response to various questions on the Hazardous Waste Minimization and Combustion Strategy and the Hazardous Waste Minimization National Plan. Two strategy updates have been published since September 1994. The strategy did not create a moratorium on new incinerators. EPA gives priority to the final permitting of existing facilities. EPA details the current understanding of continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS). EPA proposed revised standards for hazardous waste combustion facilities (SEE ALSO: 61 FR 17358; 4/19/96).
 
04/10/1996MAXIMUM ACHIEVALBE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) RULEMAKING FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORSMemo
 Description: Improperly designed hazardous waste incinerators and cement and light weight aggregate kilns (BIFs) can pose a hazard. EPA signed the proposed MACT rule on March 20, 1996, (61 FR 17358; 4/19/96) to establish tough dioxin, mercury, and lead emission standards (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99). The Agency will continue to use the omnibus permitting authority (270.32(b)(2) and 3005(c)(3)) to ensure protection on a site-specific basis. The Agency remains committed to developing tailored regulations in conjunction with the existing authorities for Bevill exempt cement kiln dust (CKD). Addresses the risks from CKD management identified in the CKD regulatory determination (60 FR 7366; 2/7/95). The decision affects all CKD, regardless of the fuel burned. The CKD program will be risk-based, flexible, and tailored to site-specific conditions.
 
04/01/1996ABILITY OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE BURNING BIF TO SPIKE METALS AND USE OF TEST DATA IN LIEU OF A TRIAL BURNMemo
 Description: EPA does not recommend spiking toxic metals at high concentrations during BIF trial burns. Burning waste fuels with high metals content in trial burns, compliance tests, or normal operations is an environmentally unsound practice. The Combustion Strategy recommends that toxic metals burned in hazardous waste combustors be addressed in a multi-pathway risk assessment under Section 3005(c)(3) omnibus authority. Decisions to allow the use of data in lieu of a trial burn or compliance test are made on a site-specific basis. Data-in-lieu of provisions are not intended to allow the elimination of retesting requirements.
 
03/29/1996SITE-SPECIFIC RISK ASSESSMENTS UNDER THE HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTION STRATEGYMemo
 Description: The April 1994 draft "Exposure Assessment Guidance for RCRA Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities" is applicable guidance for site-specific risk assessments (somewhat dated). EPA encourages using the most up-to-date technical information available and other relevant guidance. EPA encourages the use of actual field data when assessing exposures for evaluating modeling results.
 
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