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09/12/2011EXPORT OF USED OR SPENT LEAD ACID BATTERIES FOR RECYCLINGMemo
 Description: Spent lead acid batteries (SLABs) are prohibited from exportunder the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unless the exporter has submitted a notice to EPA requesting approval to export, obtained written consent from the receiving country via EPA, complied with the appropriate export requirements in either 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 262 Subpart E or 40 CFR Part 262 Subpart H, and ensured that the shipments comply with the terms of the receiving country's written consent. All export notices must include details about the proposed shipments, such as the specific recycling facility in the country of import, the maximum amount of batteries they propose to export, and the port of entry to be used in the country of import. EPA utilized alerts to note the proper Harmonized Tariff System (HTS) Classification Commodity Code for spent lead acid batteries, informed U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) about the required paperwork for SLAB export shipments, and participated in the development of non-binding guidance on the environmentally sound management of SLABs under both the Basel Convention and the Commission for Environmental Cooperation.
 
04/01/2010Attention Auto Battery Recyclers and BrokersPublication
 Description: This flyer discusses EPA regulations that become effective on July 7, 2010, in all states, regulating the export of spent lead acid batteries (SLABs). The new requirements will apply to all auto battery recyclers and brokers in the United States that export SLABs. Exporters of SLABs must submit a written notification to EPA and obtain the receiving country’s consent.
 
06/08/2006GUIDANCE FOR GENERATORS DISPOSING OF FULLY-DISCHARGED LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE BATTERIESMemo
 Description: A fully discharged lithium sulfur dioxide battery would have zero volts and would be unlikely to exhibit the reactivity characteristic. Lithium sulfur dioxide batteries that have been discharged using a Complete Discharge Device (CDD) to a voltage of one volt per cell or less are unlikely to be reactive. Discharge of batteries to remove the electric charge is an acceptable waste management practice under the universal waste rule. Batteries are considered hazardous waste at the time of removal from service. Generators, transporters, and consolidation points managing universal waste are required to comply with the land disposal restrictions (LDR). If lithium sulfur dioxide batteries are reasonably expected to contain underlying hazardous constituents (UHCs) above its universal treatment standard (UTS) level, the UHC must be treated to the UTS level before land disposal. Once batteries have been discharged and are no longer characteristic hazardous waste, it is not necessary to treat UHCs at a RCRA-permitted facility. Decharacterized universal waste meeting LDR requirements, including applicable UTS for UHCs, can be managed as nonhazardous waste and may be sent to a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF).
 
09/03/1999WASTE FROM ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT DIRECTIVE (WEEE) AND THE BATTERIES AND ACCUMULATORS DIRECTIVEMemo
 Description: OSW has provided comments to the U.S. Trade Representatives Office concerning the proposals from the European Union entitled the Waste from Electronic and Electrical Equipment Directive (WEEE) and the Batteries and Accumulators Directive.
 
09/04/1998NOTICE OF CERTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE BATTERY LABELMemo
 Description: EPA approved new label for nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) rechargeable batteries in accordance with Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996. The new label depicts battery surrounded by three chasing arrows with word “RECYCLE” above it (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 50569; 9/22/98).
 
11/01/1997Implementation of the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management ActPublication
 Description: This document explains the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996; provides information on successful recycling programs for rechargeable batteries; contains a summary of the Battery Act's requirements, as well as a summary of state and federal requirements affecting battery recycling prior to passage of the Battery Act; specifies why proper disposal or recycling is necessary for nickel and cadmium (Ni-Cd) and small sealed lead acid (SSLA) batteries; and defines roles that state and local governments, retailers, businesses, and public agencies can play in establishing recycling programs. The document also includes sources of additional information and a list of references.
 
10/31/1997IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MERCURY CONTAINING AND RECHARGEABLE BATTERY MANAGEMENT ACTMemo
 Description: Section 104(a) of the Mercury Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act implements the federal Universal Waste (UW) rule as the management standard for batteries, regardless of state laws. Section 104(b) of the Act requires states wishing to regulate batteries to adopt provisions identical to those of the UW rule. Electrolyte removal is an activity specifically allowed of UW handlers, therefore regulation of electrolyte removal by any state is preempted by the Act.
 
05/30/1997TRANSPORTATION OF LEAD-ACID BATTERY COMPONENTS THAT ARE SHIPPED OFF-SITE FOR RECLAMATIONMemo
 Description: A facility shipping lead-acid battery plates would not be exempt from preparing a manifest under Part 266, Subpart G. Only the management of intact spent batteries prior to reclamation is exempt. Unmanifested waste reports (UWR) are not intended to be routinely submitted as an alternative to compliance with the manifest system. UWRs are designed to detect suspicious patterns of unusually high incidences of unmanifested wastes.
 
05/16/1997COLLECTION AND RECYCLING OF HOUSEHOLD BATTERIESMemo
 Description: EPA does not have the authority to require battery manufacturers to take back their products for recycling once they are used. EPA may not require states or local communities to collect and recycle used batteries. This memo summarizes the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act. The Act removed obstacles to a voluntary industry take-back system. EPA is aware of a voluntary industry take-back system for the nationwide collection and recycling of Ni-Cd (Ni-Cad) batteries.
 
05/13/1997LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Handlers of universal waste may place labels as prescribed in Section 273.34(a) on shrink-wrapped pallets of batteries rather than on each individual battery. A shrink-wrapped unit is a portable device (i.e., a container) for the purposes of Section 273.34(a). If the batteries show evidence of leakage or spillage after they have been shrink-wrapped, the shrink-wrapped unit must be placed in a container which can prevent release to the environment and the new container must be relabeled. Shrink-wrapped units may not meet DOT packaging specifications.
 
04/03/1997ATON BATTERIES AS DEBRISMemo
 Description: Intact containers are not debris. Mercury batteries that serve as aid to navigation (ATON) meet the definition of debris if they are deteriorated and ruptured, because they do not meet the definition of intact container. Batteries meeting the definition of debris can be treated in accordance with the alternative debris treatment standards. Non-debris mercury waste requires treatment by roasting or retorting (RMERC) or compliance with a TCLP standard.
 
02/13/1997UNIVERSAL WASTE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS DOCUMENTMemo
 Description: Presents a Universal Waste Questions and Answers Document. Addresses state authorization. Discusses the addition of wastes to the federal and state universal waste (UW) programs, fluorescent lamps (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99), land disposal restrictions (LDR) recordkeeping requirements, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, batteries, pesticide collection programs, liability and enforcement, storage limits, mixtures of UW and hazardous waste, and manifesting.
 
11/25/1996MERCURY-CONTAINING AND RECHARGEABLE BATTERY MANAGEMENT ACTMemo
 Description: The Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act is effective nationwide on May 13, 1996. Two goals are to limit mercury (Hg) content in consumer batteries, and to promote recycling and proper disposal of used rechargeable nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries, sealed small lead-acid batteries, and other widely used rechargeable batteries. Law limits Hg content of batteries and prohibits the sale of some Hg-containing batteries. Law requires uniform labeling and requires that collection, storage, and transportation be in accordance with the Universal Waste (UW) standards of Part 273. Law prohibits states from imposing standards not identical to UW standards. Law is not an amendment to RCRA. EPA is investigating implications on RCRA state authorization and is developing a codification rule.
 
06/19/1996REGULATORY STATUS OF SPENT LEAD-ACID BATTERIES SHIPPED TO A SECONDARY LEAD SMELTER FOR RECLAMATIONMemo
 Description: Lead-acid batteries (battery) that are held at a smelter in a transport truck for less than 24 hours, transported off-site for storage, and then shipped back to the smelter for reclamation remain exempt.
 
06/14/1996STATUS OF SLAGS FROM THE PROCESSING OF LEAD ACID BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Slag or matte from recovery of lead from lead acid batteries is a new treatability group under the land disposal restriction (LDR). The status of residuals as prohibited or nonprohibited is determined at point of generation (SEE ALSO: 55 FR 22568; 6/1/90).
 
05/01/1996FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE UNIVERSAL WASTE REGULATIONSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The universal waste (UW) regulations cover hazardous waste batteries (battery), pesticides, and mercury-containing thermostats (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05). Wastes (e.g., fluorescent mercury lamps) may be added to the UW system (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99). Spent lead-acid batteries may be handled under Part 266, Subpart G, or under Part 273. There are no specific provisions for satellite accumulation of UW. Only large quantity handlers of universal waste (LQHUW) must submit a one-time written notification and obtain an EPA identification number. Handlers may accumulate universal waste at or near point of generation for up to 1 year.
 
12/01/1995LEAD-ACID BATTERIES AND UNIVERSAL WASTEQuestion & Answer
 Description: Lead-acid batteries (battery) that are managed under Part 266, Subpart G, are not subject to the universal waste management standards under Part 273.
 
09/14/1995STATUS OF UNUSED OFF-SPECIFICATION LEAD PLATES USED IN LEAD-ACID BATTERY PRODUCTIONMemo
 Description: Unused off-specification lead plates from lead-acid battery (batteries) production (i.e., nonlisted CCP) are not solid wastes when reclaimed. Used plates are spent materials and solid waste when reclaimed.
 
06/01/1995SPENT LEAD-ACID BATTERIES AND COUNTING REQUIREMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Spent lead-acid batteries (battery) that will be reclaimed are not subject to the generator’s monthly counting requirements. Wastes are counted only if they are subject to substantive regulation. Substantive regulations are those regulations which directly relate to storage, treatment, or disposal (SEE ALSO: Part 273).
 
01/12/1995WOULD REGENERATION EXEMPTION APPLY TO VARIOUS TYPES OF LOCATIONS AT WHICH LEAD-ACID BATTERIES ARE REGENERATED?Memo
 Description: The battery regeneration exemption applies to batteries regenerated at any type of facility. The exemption only covers batteries sent for regeneration. Other types of recycling are subject to Subtitle C regulation. Lead-acid batteries recycled in all ways are covered under Part 266, Subpart G (SUPERSEDED: 261.6(a)(3)(ii) removed, See Part 273 and 60 FR 25535; 5/11/95).
 
12/13/1994LE VALT MERCURY-CADMIUM BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Unused batteries sent for reclamation are CCPs being reclaimed, and are not solid wastes. Mercury-cadmium batteries must be treated by thermal recovery. EPA recognizes that most battery recycling technologies in the U.S. are not designed to treat these wastes (SEE ALSO: Part 273).
 
11/01/1994REGENERATION VERSUS RECLAMATION FOR SPENT LEAD-ACID BATTERIESQuestion & Answer
 Description: Spent lead-acid batteries returned to a battery manufacturer for regeneration are not subject to Subpart G of Part 266, nor to any other Subtitle C regulations. Battery regeneration is similar to recycling of a commercial chemical product (CCP). (SUPERSEDED: Section 261.6(a)(3)(ii) removed, See Part 273 and 60 FR 25535; 5/11/95)
 
04/15/1994Analysis of Potential Cost Savings and the Potential for Reduced Environmental Benefits of the Proposed Universal Waste RulePublication
 Description: This document addresses proposed changes to the management of universal wastes (e.g., nickel-cadmium and mercuric oxide batteries, mercury-containing thermostats) under RCRA. It discusses characteristics of universal wastes, cost analysis, and potential for reduction in environmental benefits, and the appendix lists sources for unit cost estimates.
 
03/31/1994INTERPRETATION ON REGULATORY STATUS OF MERCURY RELAYS AND SWITCHES WHEN RECLAIMEDMemo
 Description: Clarification of when a secondary material is a spent material and the definition of contamination are discussed. Materials such as used lead-acid batteries (battery), solvents, and mercury thermostats and switches are spent materials when sent for reclamation, even if they can still be used for their original purpose. Characteristic sludges and by-products are not solid wastes when reclaimed. Commercial chemical products (CCPs), whether listed or characteristic, are not solid wastes when reclaimed.
 
03/24/1994CLARIFICATION OF WHEN A SECONDARY MATERIAL MEETS THE DEFINITION OF ""SPENT MATERIAL""Memo
 Description: Clarification of when a secondary material is a spent material and the definition of contamination are discussed. Materials such as used lead-acid batteries (battery), solvents, and mercury thermostats and switches are spent materials when sent for reclamation, even if they can still be used for their original purpose (See Also: RO 14814). Characteristic sludges and by-products are not solid wastes when reclaimed. Commercial chemical products (CCPs), whether listed or characteristic, are not solid wastes when reclaimed.
 
02/04/1994REGULATORY STATUS OF MERCURY BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Containers as debris. Mercury battery (batteries) carcasses containing hazardous waste liquid or sludge may be hazardous debris based on a case-by-case determination.
 
12/23/1993MANAGEMENT OF LEAD-ACID BATTERIES THAT ARE RECYCLEDMemo
 Description: Section 266.80(a) applies to locations where lead-acid batteries are stored, but not reclaimed, regardless of the battery management activities that the owner or operator may conduct at other locations. Section 266.80(b) applies to locations where lead-acid batteries are both stored and reclaimed (SEE ALSO: Part 273).
 
11/10/1993REGULATORY STATUS OF BATTERY CARCASSESMemo
 Description: Intact containers are not debris. Because batteries are a type of container, battery carcasses are not debris and are not eligible for the alternate debris treatment standards.
 
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