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Pacific Southwest, Region 9: Superfund

Serving Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, the Pacific Islands, and Tribal Nations

Alameda Naval Air Station

EPA #: CA2170023236

State: California(CA)

County: Alameda County

City: City of Alameda

Congressional District: 09

Other Names: Alameda Point

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Description and History

NPL Listing History

NPL Status: Final

Proposed Date: 05/10/07

Final Date: 07/22/99

Deleted Date:

Alameda Naval Air Station is a closed Navy installation located on Alameda Island, adjacent to the City of Alameda in Alameda County, California. Alameda Island lies along the eastern side of the San Francisco Bay, adjacent to the City of Oakland. The boundaries of the former installation are roughly rectangular in shape (approximately two miles in length and one mile in width) and occupy 2,634 acres. Of the total acreage, approximately 1,636 acres consist of dry land and 998 acres are submerged. Alameda is bordered to the north by the Oakland Inner Harbor, and is surrounded by the San Francisco bay on the west and south sides. To the east is a mixture of residential, commercial, industrial, and public land including single-family homes, restaurants, retail stores, schools, shipyards and a state beach.

Prior to 1936, the area was occupied by a borax processing plant, an oil refinery, and an airport for the City of Alameda. Since 1936, when the Navy acquired title to Alameda, the air station’s primary mission was to provide facilities and support for fleet aviation activities. Alameda was designated for closure in September 1993, and the installation ceased all naval operations in April 1997.

The installation was placed on the National Priorities List in July 1999. A Federal Facility Agreement was signed in July 2001. Most of the base is planned for transfer to the City of Alameda.

Wastes generated at the Site included industrial solvents, acids, paint strippers, degreasers, caustic cleaners, pesticides, chromium and cyanide wastes, waste oils containing PCBs, radium associated with dial painting and stripping, medical debris, and inert and unexploded ordnance. Solid wastes generated at the Site were disposed into two on-base landfills. All liquid industrial wastewaters generated at the Site prior to 1974 were discharged untreated into Seaplane Lagoon and the Oakland Inner Harbor.

Wastes discharged to the Seaplane Lagoon and the two on-base landfills pose a threat to the surrounding San Francisco Bay aquatic life and a potential threat to terrestrial ecological receptors. Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) plumes at two former major industrial buildings pose a potential long term human health threat from inhalation of volatile vapors and possible ingestion of groundwater.

The Navy, with EPA oversight, has conducted investigations to support development of cleanup decisions for the 35 IR sites. At this point,

      • 1 site is still going through the Remedial Investigation phase of the cleanup
      • 1 site requires no further action
      • 4 sites are in Record of Decision stage
      • 29 sites have signed Records of Decision, with
      • 15 of those sites having no further remedial action required and the remaining
      • 14 currently undergoing remediation.

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Contaminants and Risks

Contaminated Media
  • Groundwater
  • Surface Water
  • Soil and Sludges
  • Environmentally Sensitive Area

Wastes generated at the Site included industrial solvents, acids, paint strippers, degreasers, caustic cleaners, pesticides, chromium and cyanide wastes, waste oils containing PCBs, radium associated with dial painting and stripping, medical debris, and inert and unexploded ordnance. Solid wastes generated at the Site were disposed into two on-base landfills. Both landfills are adjacent to the San Francisco Bay and the Site 2 landfill surrounds both fresh and salt-water wetlands which provide nesting and foraging habit for a wide range of migratory and native birds. Alameda Naval Air Station is also a nesting ground for the largest colony of endangered species of Least Tern in Northern California.
All liquid industrial wastewaters generated at the Site prior to 1974 were discharged untreated into Seaplane Lagoon and the Oakland Inner Harbor. These wastes pose a threat to the surrounding San Francisco Bay aquatic life and a potential threat to terrestrial ecological receptors.

Past activities at the base have resulted in a three acre plume of mostly dense non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination at Site 5, with another larger and deeper DNAPL plume at Site 4. These plumes pose a potential long term human health threat from inhalation of volatile vapors and possible ingestion of groundwater. Remediating these plumes is challenging. The 110 acre Seaplane Lagoon which received all liquid industrial installation wastes from 1936 to 1974 resulted in contaminated sediment requiring remediation.

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Who is Involved

The Navy is the lead agency responsible for clean up of the site. EPA is the lead regulatory agency charged with oversight of the Navy, with assistance from the California Department of Toxic Substances Control and the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board.

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Investigation and Cleanup Activities

For complete information on the closure of Alameda Naval Air Station, now known as Alameda Point, please go to the Navy's website where all current information is entered. The website address is located here.

Site Studies

Site 32 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 4A - Northwest Ordnance Storage Area): This site is at the Remedial Investigation (RI) Stage.

Remedy Selected

Site 3 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 2B - Abandoned Fuel Storage Area): A draft Feasibility Study (FS) was submitted for regulator review in October 2005 and, based on comments and requests from the regulators, the Navy has performed additional sampling and the final FS was completed in December 2011. This site is at the Record of Decision (ROD) Stage.

Site 4 (part of Navy OU 2B - Building 360 - Aircraft Engine Facility): A six-phase heating removal action installed in 2006 was designed to remediate one of the DNAPL plumes beneath Site 4 and removed a significant quantity of the VOC contamination in the groundwater at this location. This technology was one of those evaluated in the FS. The final FS was completed in December 2011 and this site is at the ROD Stage.

Site 11 (part of Navy OU 2B - Building 14 - Engine Test Cell): A draft FS was submitted for regulator review in October 2005 and, based on comments and requests from the regulators, the Navy has performed additional sampling and the final FS was completed in December 2011. This site is at the ROD Stage.

Site 21 (part of Navy OU 2B - Building 162 - Ship Fitting and Engine Repair): A draft FS was submitted for regulator review in October 2005 and, based on comments and requests from the regulators, the Navy has performed additional sampling and the final FS was completed in December 2011. This site is at the ROD Stage.

Remedy Design

Site 5 (part of Navy OU 2C - Building 5 - Aircraft Rework Facility): A multi-stage six-phase heating groundwater removal action to remediate a large DNAPL plume beneath Site 5 was in operation for three years and was completed in December 2008. The groundwater has been treated to levels that approach drinking water standards. A TCRA to remove remaining radiologically-impacted storm drains and sewer lines was completed as of September 2010. A final Feasibility Study (FS) was submitted in May 2011. The final ROD was submitted on April 2014. This site is at the Remedial Design / Remedial Action Work Plan (RD/RA WP) Stage.

Site 10 (part of Navy OU 2C - Building 400 - Missile Rework Operations): The final ROD was submitted on April 2014. This site is at the RD/RA WP Stage.

Site 12 (part of Navy OU 2C - Building 10 - Power Plant): The final ROD was submitted on April 2014. This site is at the RD/RA WP Stage.

Cleanup Ongoing

Site 1 (Navy Operable Unit [OU] 3 - 1943 - 1956 disposal area, surrounding paved and unpaved areas, surrounding shoreline, a former firing range berm, and former burn area): The preferred alternative for soil remediation consists of combinations of excavation, off-site disposal, soil cover, wetlands mitigation and institutional controls for soil and in-situ chemical oxidation, monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater. A Time-Critical Removal Action (TCRA) was completed in 2007 to removal the former pistol range berm and associated lead contamination in soil. Another TCRA to remove areas of radium-impacted soil as well as fieldwork to conduct investigative trenching in the landfill cells to confirm volume calculations and confirm the absence of intact buried drums was performed in 2007 and completed in 2008. A Record of Decision documenting the selected remedy of partial excavation, landfill cover and in-situ treatment of groundwater contamination was signed in 2009. This site is at the Remedial Action (RA) Stage.


Site 2 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 4A - West Beach Landfill and Wetlands): The ROD was signed in October 2010. This site is at the RA Stage.

Site 6 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 1 - Building 41 - Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Facility): The final Record of Decision (ROD) was signed in September 2007. The selected alternative for soil remediation is excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil, which has been completed. The selected alternative for groundwater remediation is in-situ chemical oxidation to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater. Groundwater remediation is currently underway and the site will be cleaned to unrestricted use.

Site 13 (part of Navy OU 2A - Former Oil Refinery): The final FS was completed in June 2011. The final ROD was submitted on September 2012. This site is at RA Stage for groundwater. This site was transferred, except for the groundwater area.

Site 14 (part of Navy OU 1 - Former Fire Training Area): The ROD was approved in January 2007, and selected no further action for soil and active treatment using in-situ chemical oxidation to remediate volatile organic compounds in groundwater. Remediation of the groundwater using in-situ chemical oxidation is complete and contamination levels in the groundwater are decreasing and the remedy is undergoing Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and is expected to be completed in 2016.

Site 16 (part of Navy OU 1 - C-2 CANS Area - Shipping Container Storage): The final ROD was signed in September 2007. The selected alternative for soil remediation is excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil, which has been completed. The selected alternative for groundwater remediation is in-situ chemical oxidation to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater. Groundwater remediation has been discontinued. The Navy is preparing an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) to reuse Remedial Action Objectives (RAOs) and Remediation Goals (RGs).

Site 17 (part of Navy OU 4B - Seaplane Lagoon): The Final ROD was signed in November 2006 and selected dredging, dewatering and disposal at a permitted off-site waste disposal facility for remediation of contaminated sediments. This site is currently undergoing RA and is expected to be completed for unrestricted use in 2014.

Site 26 (part of Navy OU 6 - Western Hangar Zone): The final ROD was signed in August 2006 and selected in-situ chemical oxidation for treating a VOC plume. There is no remedy necessary for soil. The site will be suitable for unrestricted use once the groundwater remedy is completed. Remediation of the groundwater using in-situ chemical oxidation was completed and transitioned to In-Situ Bioremediation in October 2010. This site is undergoing MNA and is expected to be completed in 2016.

Site 27 (part of Navy OU 6 - Dock Zone): The ROD was signed in January 2008. The selected remedy is in-situ chemical oxidation to treat VOCs in groundwater. No action is necessary for soil. Completion of the groundwater remedy allows unrestricted use of the site. The RA started in 2009. The remedy is expected to be completed in 2016.

Site 28 (part of Navy OU 6 - Todd Shipyards): The ROD was signed in September 2007. The selected remedy uses a combination of soil removal, metals reducing compound and institutional controls to remediate both soil and groundwater at the site. The site will be available for recreational use after the remedy is complete. The remedy is expected to be completed in 2015, and the site is at the RA Stage.

OU 5 (groundwater beneath portions of Sites 25, 30 and 31 and adjacent FISCA areas): The ROD was signed in August 2007 and selected biosparging with soil vapor extraction, nutrient/microorganism enhancement and MNA as the remedy for treating benzene and naphthalene contaminated groundwater. The remediation system is no longer operating. The Navy is preparing a ROD Amendment to support No Further Action. The groundwater will be cleaned to drinking water standards.

Cleanup Complete

Site 7 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 1 - Building 459 - Navy Exchange Service Station): The final Record of Decision (ROD) was signed in September 2007. The selected alternative for soil remediation was excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil, which was completed. There was no CERCLA action necessary for groundwater. Cleanup is completed.

Site 8 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 1 - Building 114 - Pesticide Storage Shed): The final ROD was signed in September 2007. The selected alternative for soil remediation was excavation and off-site disposal of contaminated soil, which was completed. There was no CERCLA action necessary for groundwater. Cleanup is completed.

Site 9 (part of Navy OU 2A - Building 410 - Paint Stripping Facility): The final Feasibility Study (FS) was completed in June 2011. The final ROD was submitted on September 2012. The OU-2A ROD documents No Action for soil and ICs preventing use of groundwater. This site was transferred.

Site 15 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 1 - Buildings 301 and 389 - Former Transformer Storage Area): The ROD recommending no further action was approved in May 2006, and the site was transferred.

Site 19 (part of Navy OU 2A - Yard D-13 - Hazardous Waste Storage): The final FS was completed in June 2011. The final ROD was submitted on September 2012. The OU-2A ROD documents No Action for soil and ICs preventing use of groundwater. This site was transferred.

Site 20 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 4A - Oakland Inner Harbor): No further action required and the site is closed out and transferred.

Site 22 (part of Navy OU 2A - Building 547 - Former Service Station): The final FS was completed in June 2011. The final ROD was submitted on September 2012. The OU-2A ROD documents No Action for soil and groundwater. This site was transferred.

Site 23 (part of Navy OU 2A - Building 530 - Missile Rework Operations): The final FS was completed in June 2011. The final ROD was submitted on September 2012. The OU-2A ROD documents No Action for soil and groundwater. This site was transferred.

Site 24 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 4B - Piers 1 and 2 Sediments): The final ROD was signed in April 2010, and the cleanup was completed in March 2013. The site is ready to transfer.

Site 25 (Former North Village Housing and Estuary Park): The ROD selected a soil remedy and was signed in September 2007. An extensive excavation to removal PAH contaminated soil was conducted in 2001 and the selected remedy in the ROD is institutional controls, with residential use of the property allowed. The ICs have been implemented. The cleanup is complete and the site is ready for transfer.

Site 29 (part of Navy Operable Unit [OU] 4A - Skeet Range): The site has a signed ROD selecting no further action, and was transferred.

Site 30: No further action required and the site is ready for transfer.

Site 31: No further action required and the site is ready for transfer.

Site 33 (part of Navy OU 4A - South Tarmac and Runway Wetlands): No further action required.

Site 34 (part of Navy OU 4A - Former Northwest Shop Area): The ROD was signed in April 2011. The final ROD was submitted on February 2014. This site is ready to transfer.

Site 35 (Areas of Concern in Transfer Parcel EDC-5): This site has a signed ROD in 2010 and completed the RA to cleanup small soil areas of contamination in August 2012, The site is available for unrestricted use. This site was transferred.

A short summary of the status of each site is described below. When multiple sites are grouped together, it indicates that those sites have been combined into one Remedial Investigation / Feasibility Study and one Record of Decision. At this point,

      • 1 site is still going through the Remedial Investigation phase of the cleanup
      • 1 site requires no further action
      • 4 sites are in Record of Decision stage
      • 29 sites have signed Records of Decision, with
      • 15 of those sites having no further remedial action required and the remaining
      • 14 currently undergoing remediation.

Site 1 (Navy Operable Unit [OU] 3) - at Remedial Action Stage
Site 2 (Navy OU 4A) - at Remedial Action Stage
Sites 3, 4, 11 and 21 (Navy OU 2B) - at Record of Decision Stage
Sites 5, 10 and 12 (Navy OU 2C) - at Remedial Design / Remedial Action Stage
Sites 6, 7, 8 and 16 (Navy OU 1) - Sites 6 and 16 soil cleanup almost complete, groundwater cleanup ongoing; Sites 7 and 8 cleanup complete
Sites 9, 13, 19, 22 and 23 (Navy OU 2A) - at Remedial Action Stage for Site 13 groundwater; the rest has been transferred
Site 14 - undergoing Monitored Natural Attenuation
Site 15 - no further action - transferred
Site 17 (Navy OU 4B) - at Remedial Action Stage
Site 20 (Navy OU 4A) - no further action - transferred
Site 24 (Navy OU 4B) - cleanup complete - ready to transfer
Site 25 - cleanup complete - ready for transfer
Site 26 (Navy OU 6) - undergoing Monitored Natural Attenuation
Site 27 (Navy OU 6) - at Remedial Action Stage
Site 28 (Navy OU 6) - at Remedial Action Stage
Site 29 (Navy OU 4A) - no further action - transferred
Site 30 - no further action - ready for transfer
Site 31 - no further action - ready for transfer
Site 32 (Navy OU 4A) - at Remedial Investigation Stage
Site 33 (Navy OU 4A) - no further action
Site 34 (Navy OU 4A) - cleanup complete - ready to transfer
Site 35 - cleanup complete - transferred
OU 5 - groundwater cleanup discontinued

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Cleanup Results to Date

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Potentially Responsible Parties

Potentially responsible parties (PRPs) refers to companies that are potentially responsible for generating, transporting, or disposing of the hazardous waste found at the site.


Congress established the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Program under which Department of Defense installations undergo closure, environmental cleanup, and property transfer to other federal agencies or communities for reuse. Alameda Naval Air Station is a former Navy base and therefore the Department of the Navy is responsible for cleanup and restoration of the base with oversight from federal and State regulators.

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Documents and Reports

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Community Involvement

Public Meetings: In 1993 the Alameda Point Restoration Advisory Board (RAB) was established. The RAB currently consists of members of the Department of the Navy and the community, and representatives from the regulatory agencies and the City of Alameda. The RAB meetings are held bi-monthly and are open to the public. Meetings are held in the evenings, usually starting at 6:30 pm, the second Thursday of the odd numbered month at Building 1, Room 140, at 950 West Mall Square at Alameda Point.

Newsletters, fact sheets and Proposed Plans are mailed to between 400 and 1,400 households, businesses, public officials, and agencies in order to reach community members.
To be added to the mailing list, please contact Mr. Derek Robinson at the Navy at derek.j.robinson1@navy.mil.

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Public Information Repositories

The public information repositories for the site are at the following locations:

Alameda Point
950 West Mall Square Bldg 1 Room 240
Alameda, CA 94501

Alameda Public Library
1550 Oak Street
Alameda, CA 94501
510-747-7777

Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southwest
2965 Mole Road
San Diego, CA 92132
Attn: Diane Silva
619-556-1280

The most complete collection of documents is the official EPA site file, maintained at the following location:

Superfund Records Center

Mail Stop SFD-7C

95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403

San Francisco, CA 94105

(415) 820-4700

Enter main lobby of 75 Hawthorne street, go to 4th floor of South Wing Annex.

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Contacts

EPA Site Manager
Xuan-Mai Tran
Christopher Lichens
415-972-3002
415-972-3149
Tran.Xuan-Mai@epa.gov
Lichens.Christopher@epa.gov
US EPA Region 9
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Community Involvement Coordinator
David Yogi
415-972-3350
1-800-231-3075
Yogi.David@epa.gov
US EPA Region 9
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Public Information Center
415-947-8701
r9.info@epa.gov
State Contact
James Fyfe (DTSC)
510-540-3850
James.Fyfe@dtsc.ca.gov
Berkeley Field Office
700 Heinz Avenue, Suite 200
Berkeley, 94710-2721
PRP Contact
Derek Robinson, Navy
619-532-0951
derek.j.robinson1@navy.mil
1455 Frazee Road, Suite 900, San Diego, CA 92108
Community Contact
George B. Humphreys, RAB Co-Chair
Other Contacts
After Hours (Emergency Response)
US EPA
(800) 424-8802

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