Pacific Southwest, Region 9: Superfund
Serving Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, the Pacific Islands, and Tribal Nations
Pacific Coast Pipeline
EPA #: CAD980636781
Congressional District: 26
Other Names: Fillmore Texaco Refinery
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Description and History
NPL Listing History
NPL Status: Final
Proposed Date: 06/24/88
Final Date: 10/04/89
From 1920 to 1950, the 55-acre Pacific Coast Pipeline site was operated by Texaco as an oil refinery. During this time, refinery wastes were deposited into unlined waste pits. The largest waste pit was located on the western boundary of the site. In 1980, Texaco requested permission from the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (LARWQCB) to use refinery wastes to resurface on-site service roads. During site investigations, the LARWQCB detected lead at the site. Between 1981 and 1984, Texaco performed an environmental assessment of the site. Soil and groundwater were found to be contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Santa Clara River is located within 1 mile of the site.
To date, drinking water wells have not been affected by contamination from the Site. Before serving water to the public, water purveyors test it to make sure it meets all federal and state drinking water standards.
Contaminants and Risks
- Soil and Sludges
Soil: The lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil have been cleaned up. There is no risk for industrial land use for this site.
Groundwater: The groundwater is contaminated with benzene. However, no one is drinking or otherwise exposed to the contaminated groundwater so there is no current risk to residents and businesses.
In 1986, Texaco excavated the main waste pit and other smaller areas and transported the soil to a federally approved hazardous waste storage facility.
Entire Site: Texaco, and now Chevron, conducted an investigation into the nature and extent of contamination at the site under EPA oversight. A cleanup remedy was selected in 1992 that called for pumping and treating the groundwater. In 1995, two extraction wells were installed to pump groundwater contaminated primarily with benzene and treat it with a carbon treatment system. A soil vapor extraction system (SVE) was installed to remove contaminants from two hot spots. The treatment systems reduced the amount of benzene in groundwater but were unable to clean up the groundwater to drinking water standards. EPA approved the shut down of the systems in 2002. Additional investigation of soil and soil gas has been done at the site subsequent to the groundwater Record of Decision (ROD). In 2011, the ROD was amended and new groundwater and soil cleanup remedies were selected.
On September 20, 2011, the third Five Year Review determined that the remedy at the Pacific Coast Pipeline Superfund Site is currently protective of human health and the environment. There is currently no exposure to the contaminated groundwater as no one is drinking or using groundwater impacted by the Site. Access to the property is restricted, so exposure to contaminated soil is limited.
Ground Water Cleanup Selected
A multi-phase cleanup approach will be taken to address the long-term groundwater cleanup at the site. This cleanup remedy is expected to reach cleanup goals in the southern plume in 25 years. The northern plume, which has less benzene, will be cleaned up using Monitored Natural Attenuation, which will take approximately 50 years to reach the cleanup goal. Specifically, the remedy includes:
Air Sparging: Air will be injected into the groundwater in the southern plume to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to break down the benzene. This phase will start in summer 2014.
Groundwater Circulation: After the air sparging, pumps will circulate the groundwater in the southern plume to move underlying sulfate-rich waters into the benzene plume. The sulfate will boost bacteria growth, which will continue to break down the benzene in the groundwater.
Monitored Natural Attenuation: This phase involves relying solely on the naturally occurring bacteria to break down the benzene. Groundwater sampling of monitoring wells will confirm the effectiveness of this process. This phase started in the northern plume in 2013 and will start in the southern plume following completion of the groundwater circulation, estimated to be in 2020.
Soil Cleanup Selected
The soil at the former refinery has lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various locations across the property. The contaminated soil will be excavated and disposed of in an on-site pit, which will be capped. After the soil cleanup is complete, the property can be used for commercial and recreational uses only.
For both groundwater and soils, Institutional Controls will be implemented under the ROD amendment, to limit use of property to commercial and recreational use and prohibit use of groundwater until cleanup levels are achieved.
Update November 2013: In 2013, approximately 42,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil were excavated and placed in two on-site consolidation pits, which were capped. In spring and summer 2014, Chevron will finish the final backfilling and grading.
Cleanup Results to Date
Construction of all cleanup remedies is complete. Ongoing treatment of groundwater and soil vapors will continue to reduce contamination at the PCPL site until established cleanup goals are met.
Potentially Responsible Parties
Potentially responsible parties (PRPs) refers to companies that are potentially responsible for generating, transporting, or disposing of the hazardous waste found at the site.
Texaco Inc. owned and operated the property during most of its operation as a refinery and pumping station and is the responsible party at this site. Chevron Corporation merged with Texaco Inc. in 2001, and Texaco Inc. became an indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Chevron Environmental Management Company, another indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, manages the site cleanup on behalf of Texaco Inc.
Documents and Reports
Public Meetings: On Tuesday, March 19, 2013, EPA and Chevron conducted two Public Site Tours for 90 Minutes each at 3:00pm and 5:30pm. The purpose of the tours was to discuss the site history and cleanup progress to date..
On February 28, 2013, EPA conducted an Open House which included brief presentations on the Site cleanup progress, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease and Registry (ATSDR) working with the community and a presentation on the CA Cancer Registry recent East Fillmore Cancer Assessment results. Presentations are available in the above "Documents and Report Section" under Community Involvement.
Public Information Repositories
The public information repositories for the site are at the following locations:
Fillmore City Hall,
524 Sespe Road,
Fillmore, CA 93015
EPA Site Manager
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Community Involvement Coordinator
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Public Information Center
After Hours (Emergency Response)