Pacific Southwest, Region 9: Superfund
Serving Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, the Pacific Islands, and Tribal Nations
Pacific Coast Pipeline
EPA #: CAD980636781
Congressional District: 26
Other Names: Fillmore Texaco Refinery
Pacific Coast Pipeline Cleanup Schedule Through October 2013 is available in the "Document and Reports" Section Below.
On this page
Description and History
NPL Listing History
NPL Status: Final
Proposed Date: 06/24/88
Final Date: 10/04/89
From 1920 to 1952, the 56-acre Pacific Coast Pipeline site was operated by Texaco as an oil refinery. During this time, refinery wastes were deposited into unlined waste pits. The largest waste pit was located on the western boundary of the site. In 1980, Texaco requested permission from the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (LARWQCB) to use refinery wastes to resurface on-site service roads. During site investigations, the LARWQCB detected lead at the site. Between 1981 and 1984, Texaco performed an environmental assessment of the site. Soil and groundwater were found to be contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Santa Clara River is located within 1 mile of the site.
Approximately 10,000 people obtain drinking water and as many as 4,000 acres of agricultural land are irrigated from wells within 3 miles of the site. To date, drinking water wells have not been impacted by contamination from the Site. Before serving water to the public, water purveyors test it to make sure it meets all federal and state drinking water standards.
Contaminants and Risks
- Soil and Sludges
Groundwater and soil are contaminated with heavy metals and VOCs. People who accidentally ingest or come in direct contact with contaminated soil or groundwater may be at risk.
Who is Involved
This site is being addressed through Federal and potentially responsible parties' actions.
Investigation and Cleanup Activities
This site is being addressed in two stages: immediate actions and a long-term remedial phase focusing on cleanup of the entire site.
Immediate Actions: In 1986, Texaco excavated the main waste pit and other smaller areas and transported the soil to a federally approved hazardous waste storage facility.
Entire Site: Pacific Coast Pipeline conducted an investigation into the nature and extent of contamination at the site under EPA oversight. A cleanup remedy was selected in 1992 that called for groundwater treatment through solvent extraction. Treatability studies and the design of the remedy were completed in 1994. Cleanup actions began in 1995. Two extraction wells were installed to pump groundwater contaminated primarily with benzene, which was then removed from the water by a carbon treatment system. A soil vapor extraction system (SVE) was installed to remove contaminants from two hot spots to protect groundwater. Additional investigation of soil and soil gas has been done at the site subsequent to the groundwater ROD; a ROD Amendment is planned to address final site remedial actions. The second five year review was completed in September 2006.
Benzene concentrations in soil gas decreased by 96% between 1997 and 2002. By January 2002 the SVE system had accomplished its goal, which was to reduce the level of benzene in soil so it would no longer migrate down to the groundwater. The SVE system was shut off, soil gas concentrations were monitored for 8 months, and no re-bound above the shut-off criteria was observed. Soil vapor monitoring was discontinued in November 2002.
The extraction wells reduced benzene concentrations in the groundwater but elevated levels remained in the center of the two plumes. In 2002 the groundwater extraction system was shut off so Texaco could conduct a pilot study. In 2003-2004 Texaco conducted a pilot project that involved injecting Oxygen Release Compound, a magnesium peroxide compound, into the groundwater at the two plumes in order to help break down the benzene and speed up the cleanup. This pilot test performed below expectations so this treatment was not pursued. EPA will select another cleanup remedy to amend the groundwater ROD.
2002 was the last year the crude oil pumping station operated at the site. By 2004 the last above ground storage tank had been removed. Soil sampling conducted in this area indicates that contaminants remain in the soil above health based levels. PAHs, arsenic, and organic lead were detected above soil Regional Screening Levels. EPA will prepare a final ROD to address this contamination.
On September 20, 2011, the third Five Year Review determined that the remedy at the Pacific Coast Pipeline Superfund Site is currently protective of human health and the environment. There is currently no exposure to the contaminated groundwater as no one is drinking or using groundwater impacted by the Site. Access to the property is restricted, so exposure to contaminated soil is limited.
For long-term protectiveness and to make the property ready for reuse, the Record of Decision was amended on September 29, 2012, to implement final soil and groundwater remedies, as follows:
Ground Water Cleanup Selected
A multi-phase cleanup approach will be taken to address the long-term groundwater cleanup at the site. This cleanup remedy is expected to reach cleanup goals in the southern plume in 25 years. The northern plume, which has less benzene, will be cleaned up using Monitored Natural Attenuation, which will take approximately 50 years to reach the cleanup goal. Specifically, the remedy includes:
Air Sparging: Air will be injected into the groundwater in the southern plume to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to break down the benzene.
Groundwater Circulation: Pumps will circulate the groundwater in the southern plume, to move underlying sulfate rich waters into the benzene plume. The sulfate will boost bacteria growth, which will continue to break down the benzene in the groundwater.
Monitored Natural Attenuation: This phase involves reliance on naturally occurring processes in the northern plume to break down the benzene and sampling groundwater monitoring wells to ensure this process is effective.
Soil Cleanup Selected
The soil at the former refinery has lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various locations across the property. The contaminated soil will be excavated and disposed of in an on-site pit, which will be capped. After the soil cleanup is complete, the property can be used for commercial and recreational uses only.
For both groundwater and soils, Institutional Controls will be implemented under the ROD amendment, to limit use of property to commercial and recreational use and prohibit use of groundwater until cleanup levels are achieved.
Please review cleanup schedule through October 2013 under the "Document and Reports" section below.
Cleanup Results to Date
Construction of all cleanup remedies is complete. Ongoing treatment of groundwater and soil vapors will continue to reduce contamination at the PCPL site until established cleanup goals are met.
Potentially Responsible Parties
Potentially responsible parties (PRPs) refers to companies that are potentially responsible for generating, transporting, or disposing of the hazardous waste found at the site.
Texaco Inc. owned and operated the property during most of its operation as a refinery and pumping station and is the responsible party at this site. Chevron Corporation merged with Texaco Inc. in 2001, and Texaco Inc. became an indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Chevron Environmental Management Company, another indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, manages the site cleanup on behalf of Texaco Inc.
Documents and Reports
Public Meetings: On Tuesday, March 19, 2013, EPA and Chevron conducted two Public Site Tours for 90 Minutes each at 3:00pm and 5:30pm. The purpose of the tours was to discuss the site history and cleanup progress to date..
On February 28, 2013, EPA conducted an Open House which included brief presentations on the Site cleanup progress, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease and Registry (ATSDR) working with the community and a presentation on the CA Cancer Registry recent East Fillmore Cancer Assessment results. Presentations are available in the above "Documents and Report Section" under Community Involvement.
Public Information Repositories
The public information repositories for the site are at the following locations:
Fillmore City Hall,
524 Sespe Road,
Fillmore, CA 93015
EPA Site Manager
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Community Involvement Coordinator
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Public Information Center
After Hours (Emergency Response)