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Pacific Southwest, Region 9: Superfund

Serving Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, the Pacific Islands, and Tribal Nations

Pacific Coast Pipeline

EPA #: CAD980636781

State: California(CA)

County: Ventura

City: Fillmore

Congressional District: 26

Other Names: Fillmore Texaco Refinery

Description and History

NPL Listing History

NPL Status: Final

Proposed Date: 06/24/88

Final Date: 10/04/89

Deleted Date:

From 1920 to 1950, the 55-acre Pacific Coast Pipeline site was operated by Texaco as an oil refinery. During this time, refinery wastes were deposited into unlined waste pits. The largest waste pit was located on the western boundary of the site. In 1980, Texaco requested permission from the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (LARWQCB) to use refinery wastes to resurface on-site service roads. During site investigations, the LARWQCB detected lead at the site. Between 1981 and 1984, Texaco performed an environmental assessment of the site. Soil and groundwater were found to be contaminated with heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Santa Clara River is located within 1 mile of the site.

To date, drinking water wells have not been affected by contamination from the Site. Before serving water to the public, water purveyors test it to make sure it meets all federal and state drinking water standards.

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Contaminants and Risks

Contaminated Media
  • Groundwater
  • Soil and Sludges

Soil: The lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil have been cleaned up. There is no risk for industrial land use for this site.


Groundwater: The groundwater is contaminated with benzene. However, no one is drinking or otherwise exposed to the contaminated groundwater so there is no current risk to residents and businesses.

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Who is Involved

Chevron is conducting the cleanup with EPA oversight.

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Investigation and Cleanup Activities

Initial Actions

In 1986, Texaco excavated the main waste pit and other smaller areas and transported the soil to a federally approved hazardous waste storage facility.

Cleanup Ongoing

Entire Site: Texaco, and now Chevron, conducted an investigation into the nature and extent of contamination at the site under EPA oversight. A cleanup remedy was selected in 1992 that called for pumping and treating the groundwater. In 1995, two extraction wells were installed to pump groundwater contaminated primarily with benzene and treat it with a carbon treatment system. A soil vapor extraction system (SVE) was installed to remove contaminants from two hot spots. The treatment systems reduced the amount of benzene in groundwater but were unable to clean up the groundwater to drinking water standards. EPA approved the shut down of the systems in 2002. Additional investigation of soil and soil gas has been done at the site subsequent to the groundwater Record of Decision (ROD). In 2011, the ROD was amended and new groundwater and soil cleanup remedies were selected.

Remedy Selected

On September 20, 2011, the third Five Year Review determined that the remedy at the Pacific Coast Pipeline Superfund Site is currently protective of human health and the environment. There is currently no exposure to the contaminated groundwater as no one is drinking or using groundwater impacted by the Site. Access to the property is restricted, so exposure to contaminated soil is limited.

Ground Water Cleanup Selected

A multi-phase cleanup approach will be taken to address the long-term groundwater cleanup at the site. This cleanup remedy is expected to reach cleanup goals in the southern plume in 25 years. The northern plume, which has less benzene, will be cleaned up using Monitored Natural Attenuation, which will take approximately 50 years to reach the cleanup goal. Specifically, the remedy includes:

Air Sparging: Air will be injected into the groundwater in the southern plume to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to break down the benzene. This phase will start in summer 2014.

Groundwater Circulation: After the air sparging, pumps will circulate the groundwater in the southern plume to move underlying sulfate-rich waters into the benzene plume. The sulfate will boost bacteria growth, which will continue to break down the benzene in the groundwater.

Monitored Natural Attenuation: This phase involves relying solely on the naturally occurring bacteria to break down the benzene. Groundwater sampling of monitoring wells will confirm the effectiveness of this process. This phase started in the northern plume in 2013 and will start in the southern plume following completion of the groundwater circulation, estimated to be in 2020.

Soil Cleanup Selected

The soil at the former refinery has lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various locations across the property. The contaminated soil will be excavated and disposed of in an on-site pit, which will be capped. After the soil cleanup is complete, the property can be used for commercial and recreational uses only.

For both groundwater and soils, Institutional Controls will be implemented under the ROD amendment, to limit use of property to commercial and recreational use and prohibit use of groundwater until cleanup levels are achieved.

Update November 2013: In 2013, approximately 42,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil were excavated and placed in two on-site consolidation pits, which were capped. In spring and summer 2014, Chevron will finish the final backfilling and grading.

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Cleanup Results to Date

Construction of all cleanup remedies is complete. Ongoing treatment of groundwater and soil vapors will continue to reduce contamination at the PCPL site until established cleanup goals are met.

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Potentially Responsible Parties

Potentially responsible parties (PRPs) refers to companies that are potentially responsible for generating, transporting, or disposing of the hazardous waste found at the site.


Texaco Inc. owned and operated the property during most of its operation as a refinery and pumping station and is the responsible party at this site. Chevron Corporation merged with Texaco Inc. in 2001, and Texaco Inc. became an indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation.  Chevron Environmental Management Company, another indirect subsidiary of Chevron Corporation, manages the site cleanup on behalf of Texaco Inc.

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Documents and Reports


Hide details for Administrative RecordsAdministrative Records
Remedial AR, Update #4
Suppl #4
Hide details for Community InvolvementCommunity Involvement
10/01/89Community Relations Plan (1989 Original)
05/01/11Pacific Coast Pipeline Site - Community Involvement Plan
05/07/12EPA and Chevron May 24, 2012 Site Tour Invitation
01/31/13Invite Postcard to EPA's February 28, 2013 Community Meeting
02/28/13ATSDR’s Presentation at EPA Community Meeting, February 28, 2013
02/28/13Fillmore California Cancer Assessment, 1996-2009 Presentation by John Morgan – February 28 2013 EPA Community Meeting
03/18/13Cleanup Schedule Through October 2013 (English & Spanish)
02/01/14EPA 2014 Field Work Announcement
Hide details for Fact SheetsFact Sheets
11/01/89EPA Signs Agreement with Texaco to Continue Investigation of Contamination at Former Refinery (English and Spanish)
07/01/90Texaco Begins Field Investigation Work at Former Texaco Refinery (English and Spanish)
12/01/90Texaco Installs Additional Wells Off Site (English &Spanish)
02/01/92EPA Announces Proposed Plan for Cleanup at Pacific Coast Pipeline Superfund Site (English and Spanish)
11/03/10EPA to Propose Final Cleanup Plan December 2010 / EPA Presentará el Último Plan de Limpieza diciembre 2010
05/31/11Pacific Coast Pipeline Superfund Site Proposed Plan / Plan de Limpieza para el Stio Superfund Pacific Coast Pipeline
06/16/11Public Meeting Powerpoint Presentation / Presentación Powerpoint de la Reunión Pública
04/11/12Cleanup Action Update / Actualización sobre el plan de limpieza
02/20/13Site Update (English and Spanish) Card
01/23/14Site Soil Cleaned Up Fact Sheet, January 2014 (English and Spanish Versions)
08/21/14EPA August 2014 Field Work Notice, 8/21/14
09/10/14Chevron Notice and Update, September 2014
Hide details for Legal DocumentsLegal Documents
11/15/89Administrative Consent Order
09/24/09Administrative Order for RI/FS
Hide details for Records of DecisionRecords of Decision
03/31/92Pacific Coast Pipeline (Texaco Fillmore Refinery) Superfund Site Record of Decision
09/01/11Record of Decision Amendment
Hide details for Technical DocumentsTechnical Documents
02/01/84Environmental Evaluation Report
06/26/87Assessment of Exposure and Public Health Risks During the Excavation of a Refinery Wastes Contaminated Site
09/29/89Remedial Investigation / Feasibility Study Workplan for the Texaco Facility - Fillmore, California
06/27/91Final Remedial Investigation Report, Texaco Fillmore Facility
12/10/91Final Baseline Risk Assessment
02/01/92Final Texaco Fillmore Site Feasiblity Study Report
12/16/94Final Phase 2 Design Report
05/02/95Final Phase 2 Remedial Action Work Plan
09/28/01First Five-Year Review Report
10/16/02Technical Memorandum - Proposal for Ground Water Treatment System Operational Modification and Pilot Study for Enhanced Bioremediation
05/26/05Evaluation of the Enhanced Bioattenuation Pilot Study
09/28/06Second Five-Year Review Report
11/14/07Report of Natural Attenuation & Soil Vapor Characteristics Above Dissolved-Phase Benzene-Plumes
01/12/10Reuse Assessment
04/20/10Addendum to 2nd Five Year Review
01/14/11Final Remedial Investigation / Focused Feasibility Study (RI/FS)
09/20/11Five-year Review Report, Third
06/15/12Groundwater Project Work Plan (excluding Appendix A)
02/15/13Quarterly Groundwater Monitoring Reporting for Fourth Quarter 2012
03/26/13Dust Suppression and Air Monitoring Plan
04/26/13Final Soil Remedial Action Work Plan (excluding appendices)
04/29/13Final Soil Remedial Design

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Community Involvement

Public Meetings: On Tuesday, March 19, 2013, EPA and Chevron conducted two Public Site Tours for 90 Minutes each at 3:00pm and 5:30pm. The purpose of the tours was to discuss the site history and cleanup progress to date..

On February 28, 2013, EPA conducted an Open House which included brief presentations on the Site cleanup progress, Agency for Toxic Substances Disease and Registry (ATSDR) working with the community and a presentation on the CA Cancer Registry recent East Fillmore Cancer Assessment results. Presentations are available in the above "Documents and Report Section" under Community Involvement.

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Public Information Repositories

The public information repositories for the site are at the following locations:

Fillmore City Hall,
524 Sespe Road,
Fillmore, CA 93015

The most complete collection of documents is the official EPA site file, maintained at the following location:

Superfund Records Center

Mail Stop SFD-7C

95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403

San Francisco, CA 94105

(415) 820-4700

Enter main lobby of 75 Hawthorne street, go to 4th floor of South Wing Annex.

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Contacts

EPA Site Manager
Holly Hadlock
415-972-3171
Hadlock.Holly@epamail.epa.gov
US EPA Region 9
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Community Involvement Coordinator
Jackie Lane
415-972-3236
1-800-231-3075
Lane.Jackie@epamail.epa.gov
US EPA Region 9
Mail Code SFD
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
EPA Public Information Center
415-947-8701
r9.info@epa.gov
State Contact
PRP Contact
Leslie Klinchuch
661-654-7269
leslieklinchuch@chevron.com
Community Contact
Other Contacts
After Hours (Emergency Response)
US EPA
(800) 424-8802

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