WYCKOFF CO./EAGLE HARBOR
WASHINGTON
EPA ID# WAD009248295
EPA Region 10
Kitsap County
Bainbridge Island

1st Congressional District

Other Names:
Last Update: December, 2011

Hide details for Site DescriptionSite Description

The Wyckoff Co./Eagle Harbor site is located on Bainbridge Island in Central Puget Sound, Washington. The site includes the former Wyckoff Company wood-treatment facility and subtidal/intertidal sediments in Eagle Harbor. Different environmental media, sources of contamination, enforcement strategies, and environmental risks in different areas of the site led to the division of the site into four work areas called "operable units." The four units are: West Harbor, East Harbor, Wyckoff Soil, and Wyckoff Groundwater.

The former wood-treating facility, located at the mouth of Eagle Harbor, operated from 1903 to 1988. This facility and a former shipyard are the major sources of widespread sediment contamination in the 500-acre harbor. Marine sediments in Eagle Harbor are contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organics, as well as heavy metals such as mercury, copper, lead, and zinc from the shipyard, at levels toxic to marine life. On the Wyckoff facility, soil and groundwater are contaminated with creosote and its accompanying PAHs, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and other wood treatment compounds. An estimated one million gallons of creosote product remain in the site's soil and groundwater.

About 2,000 people live within one mile of the site. The nearest residence is located less than 1/4 mile away. Land use in the area is largely residential and commercial. The harbor is heavily used by recreational boaters, "live-aboards," and ferry transport to and from Seattle. A local citizen group called "Association of Bainbridge Communities," or ABC, is receiving funding under EPA's Technical Assistance Grant Program to support their involvement in this site.


Site Responsibility: This site is being addressed through federal and potentially responsible parties' actions.

NPL Listing HistoryDates
Proposed Date:09/18/1985
Removed Date:
Withdrawal Date:
Final Date:07/22/1987
Deleted Date:


Hide details for Threats and ContaminantsThreats and Contaminants

Media Affected: Soils, Sediments, and Groundwater
Elevated levels of PAHs, PCPs, and dioxin/furans have been found in soil, in groundwater, and in seeps on adjacent beaches. Contaminants in the form of free-phase product have also been found pooled on the harbor bottom next to the site. Marine sediments contain PAHs, metals (primarily mercury), and PCP. Individuals and/or marine organisms who come into direct contact with contaminated groundwater, sediments, soils, or seeps may be at risk. A health advisory against eating fish and shellfish from Eagle Harbor, issued by the Kitsap Health Department, has been in effect since the early 1980s.


Hide details for Cleanup ProgressCleanup Progress

Early Actions: Under an EPA order, the Wyckoff Company installed a groundwater extraction and treatment system to remove and treat contaminated groundwater at the Wyckoff facility. The system has been in operation since 1990. EPA took over operations in 1993. As of January 2002, approximately 365 million gallons of groundwater have been extracted and treated, and almost 100,000 gallons of oily product have been recovered from the ground. An additional 1,000 gallons of oily product were recovered in early 1998 by divers from the harbor floor adjacent to the Wyckoff facility. In 1993 and 1994, EPA removed buried creosote sludge, sludges and creosote in tanks, and asbestos. A 50-acre hotspot area of PAH-contaminated harbor sediments near the Wyckoff facility was capped in 1994, to prevent currents from further spreading sediment contaminants. In Spring 1996, EPA demolished remaining Wyckoff buildings, including an incinerator stack. Demolition of the remaining large "west dock" was completed in December 1998.

Long-Term Actions (Fund lead): EPA completed the investigation of Eagle Harbor in 1989. Design of the 1992 cleanup plan for the shipyard and adjacent sediments in the West Harbor was completed by the potentially responsible parties (PRPs) under a 1993 EPA Administrative Order. Construction, including soil stabilization, hydraulic controls, dredging of a sediment hotspot, and capping, was completed in 1997 under an EPA Consent Decree signed in April 1997.

The investigation of the Wyckoff facility was completed in 1997. Original plans called for construction of a permanent physical barrier wall extending below the ground surface around the perimeter of the site to contain contamination, as well as construction of a more efficient groundwater "pump and treatment" system. However, an EPA "Remedy Review Board" convened in July 1998 to consider innovative groundwater cleanup options at the Wyckoff facility. In 1998 and 1999, EPA began a series of laboratory studies and consultation with prominent experts to evaluate a new innovative treatment option, called In-Situ Thermal Technologies (a remedy involving introduction of heat into the subsurface by steam injection and/or electrical currents to mobilize contaminants in the soil and groundwater for enhanced recovery) to determine its feasibility and effectiveness at Wyckoff. In September 1999, a Proposed Plan was issued and in February 2000, EPA signed a Record of Decision selecting In-Situ Thermal Technologies as the cleanup remedy with containment as a backup in case the thermal treatment pilot study was ineffective.

The early phase of the thermal cleanup called for containment of upland contamination through installation of a sheet pile wall along the shoreline in the intertidal area. The sheet pile wall was successfully installed in the winter of 2000/2001. In response to habitat mitigation requirements for placement of the sheet pile wall, EPA also created (winter 2000/2001) over 1200 lineal feet of new intertidal beach on the western portion of the site. The beach habitat was created by removing a dilapidated wooden bulkhead and sloping back the upland to accommodate foraging and spawning of fish. Concurrent with the installation of the sheet pile wall, EPA also completed 15 acres of additional sediment capping in the East Harbor. More sediment cap materials were added in 2001 to provide intertidal connectivity between the habitat beach and existing intertidal areas.

The thermal pilot study was initiated in November 2002. Operations were affected by equipment problems and the pilot study was terminated in April 2003. Technical problems included issues with the liquid and vapor extraction/conveyance systems and with the respective treatment processes.

Although thermal treatment achieves contaminant mass removal, thermal treatment will not achieve the RAOs or ARARs required for the Wyckoff site. Soil levels will not achieve the State of Washington Model Toxics Control Act standards for human contact or Washington State Sediment Management Standards and must, therefore, be capped to prevent direct contact and be contained with a shoreline barrier to isolate contamination from the marine waters. In addition, the groundwater must also be hydraulically contained to prevent contamination of the adjacent surface water. The 2000 ROD specified a contingency remedy of containment in the event thermal treatment did not meet ROD cleanup goals.

Ongoing groundwater extraction and treatment along with institutional controls are addressing immediate threats. A new groundwater treatment plant was constructed in 2008-2009. The new groundwater treatment plant started operations in April 2009. The old groundwater treatment plant will be demolished during the summer of 2010 using monies from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). In addition, the existing groundwater extraction well system will be upgraded using ARRA monies.

East Harbor Operable Unit: In 2007 residual contamination on the beach west of the former processing area was addressed by extending the subtidal cap into the intertidal areas (between -10 MLLW and +10 MLLW) . The cap extension was necessary because residual oily contamination had not been completely removed during the removal of the historic Wyckoff bulkhead. The beach cover system that was placed on top of the existing beach sediments will continue to meet the objective of the mitigation beach to provide fish-spawning habitat. The beach west of the former processing area is now open to the public.

West Harbor Operable Unit: In 2006, the Washington State Department of Transportation completed construction of an additional tidal barrier necessary to isolate upland contamination from the adjacent marine waters. Ongoing monitoring demonstrates that conditions now meet federal and state regulatory standards.



Hide details for Regional ContactsRegional Contacts

SITE MANAGER(S):Howard Orlean
E-MAIL ADDRESS:orlean.howard@epa.gov
PHONE NUMBER:206-553-2851
COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT COORDINATOR:Kay Morrison
E-MAIL ADDRESSmorrison.kay@epa.gov
PHONE NUMBER:206-553-8321
Information pertaining to this site is housed at the following location(s):
EPA Region 10 Superfund Records Center (Administrative Record)
1200 Sixth Avenue, ECL-076
Seattle, WA 98101
206-553-4494 or 1-800-424-4EPA

Bainbridge Island Public Library (Selected documents only)
1270 Madison North
Bainbridge Island, WA 98110