Class V Injection Well Subclasses | Region 10 | US EPA

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Class V Injection Well Subclasses


Name of Well Type and Description
GW
Cont.
Pot.*
Potential Contaminants
EPA
Well
Code
Drainage Wells (a.k.a. Dry Wells)
Agricultural Drainage Wells - receive irrigation tailwaters, other field drainage, animal yard, feedlot, or dairy runoff, etc. These wells are not allowed in Oregon.
H
Pesticides, nutrients, pathogens, metals transported by sediments, salts.
5F1
Storm Water Drainage Wells - receive storm water runoff from paved areas, including parking lots, streets, residential subdivisions, building roofs, highways, etc.
M
Heavy metals, Cu, Pb, Zn) organics, high levels of coliform bacteria. Contaminants from streets, roofs, landscaped areas, herbicides, pesticides.
5D2
Improved Sinkholes - receive storm water runoff from developments located in karst topographic areas.
H-M
Variable: pesticides, nutrients, coliform bacteria.
5D3
Industrial Drainage Wells - wells located in industrial areas which primarily receive storm water runoff but are susceptible to spills, leaks, or other chemical discharge.
H-M
Usually organic solvents, acids, pesticides, & various other industrial waste constituents. Similar to storm drainage wells but usually higher concentrations.
5D4
Special Drainage Wells - used for disposing water from sources other than direct precipitation. Four types were reported; landslide control drainage wells (Montana), potable water tank overflow drainage wells (Idaho), swimming pool drainage wells (Florida), and lake level control drainage wells (Florida)
M-L
Chlorinated & treated water, pH imbalance, algaecides, fungicides, muriatic acid.
5G30
Geothermal Reinjection Wells
Electric Power Reinjection Wells - reinject geothermal fluids used to generate electric power - deep wells.
M
pH imbalance, minerals & metals in solution. (As, Bo, Se), sulfates.
5A5
Direct Heat Reinjection Wells - reinject geothermal fluids used to provide heat for large buildings or developments - deep wells.
M
Hot geothermal brines with TDS between 2,000 to 325,000 mg/l. Co., CaSO., Sr & Ba, As.
5A6
Heat Pump/Air Conditioning Return flow Wells - reinject groundwater used to hear or cool a building in a heat pump system - shallow wells.
L
Potable water with temperatures ranging from 90 to 110F., may have scale or corrosion inhibitors
5A7
Groundwater Aquaculture Return Flow Wells - reinject groundwater or geothermal fluids used to support aquaculture. Non-geothermal aquaculture disposal wells are also included in this category (e.g. Marine aquariums in Hawaii use relatively cool sea water).
M
Used geothermal waters which may be highly mineralized & include traces of arsenic, boron, fluoride, dissolved & suspended solids, animal detritus, perished animals & bacteria.
5A8
Domestic Wastewater Disposal Wells
Untreated Sewage Waste Disposal Wells - receive raw sewage wastes from pumping trucks or other vehicles which collect such wastes from single or multiple sources. (No treatment).
H
Soluble organic & inorganic compounds including household chemicals. Raw sewage with 99.9% water & .03% suspended solids. May contain pathogenic bacteria & viruses, nitrates, ammonia.
5W9
Cesspools - including multiple dwelling, community, regional cesspools, or other devices that receive wastes & which must have an open bottom & sometimes have perforated sides. Nonresidential systems must serve greater than 20 persons per day if receiving solely sanitary wastes.
H
Soluble organic & inorganic compounds including household chemicals. Raw sewage with 99.9% water & .03% suspended solids. May contain pathogenic bacteria & viruses, nitrates, ammonia.
5W10
Septic Systems (Undifferentiated Disposal Method) - used to inject the waste or effluent from a multiple dwelling, community, or regional systems. Nonresidential systems must serve greater than 20 persons per day if receiving solely sanitary wastes.
H-L
Varies with type of system; fluids typically 99.9% water (by weight) & .03% suspended solids; major constituents include nitrates, chlorides, sulfates, sodium, calcium, & fecal coliform.
5W11
Septic Systems (Well Disposal Method) - examples of wells include actual wells, seepage pits, and sewage drain holes that serves a multiple, community, and regional dwellings. Nonresidential systems must serve greater than 20 persons per day if receiving solely sanitary wastes.
H-L
Varies with type of system; fluids typically 99.9% water (by weight) & .03% suspended solids; major constituents include nitrates, chlorides, sulfates, sodium, calcium, & fecal coliform.
5W31
Septic System (Drainfield Disposal Method) - Multiple community, regional, and multiple dwellings that use a septic tank and drainfield system. Nonresidential systems must serve greater than 20 persons per day if receiving solely sanitary wastes.
H-L
Varies with type of system; fluids typically 99.9% water (by weight) & .03% suspended solids; major constituents include nitrates, chlorides, sulfates, sodium, calcium, & fecal coliform.
5W32
Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Disposal Wells -disposal of treated sewage or domestic effluent from small package plants up to large municipal treatment plants. (Secondary or further treatment)
H-L
Lower levels or organics & bacteria than other septic systems & cesspools.
5W12
Mineral & Fossil Fuel Recovery Related Wells
Mining, Sand, or Other Backfill Wells - used to inject a mixture of water & sand, mill tailings, & other solids into mined out portions of subsurface mines whether what is injected is a radioactive waste or not. Also includes special wells used to control mines fires & acid mine drainage wells.
M
Acidic waters
5X13
Solution Mining Wells - used for in-situ solution mining in conventional mines, such as stopes leaching.
M-L
2.4% sulfuric acid, pH less than 2 for copper & ferric cyanide solution for gold or silver.
5X14
In-situ Fossil Fuel Recovery Wells - used for in-situ recovery of coal, lignite, oil shale, & tar sands.
M
Steam, air solvents, igniting agents.
5X15
Spent-Brine Return Flow Wells - used to reinject spent brine into the same formation from which is was withdrawn after extraction of halogens or their salts.
L
Variable
5X16
Industrial/Commercial/Utility Disposal Wells
Cooling Water Return Flow Wells - used to inject water which was used in a cooling process, both open & closed loop processes.
L-M
Anti-sealing additives, thermal pollution, potential for industrial spills reaching groundwater.
5A19
Industrial Process Water & Water Disposal Wells - used to dispose of a wide variety of wastes & wastewaters from industrial, commercial, or utility processes. Industries include refineries, chemical plants, smelters, pharmaceutical plants, laundromats & dry cleaners, tanneries, carwashes, laboratories, etc. Industry & waste stream must be specified (e.g. Petroleum Storage Facility -storage tank condensation water; Electric Power Generation Plant - mixed waste stream of laboratory drainage, fireside water, & boiler blowdown; Car Wash - Mixed waste stream of detergent, oil & grease, and paved area washdown; Electroplating Industry -spent solvent wastes; etc.).
H
Potentially any fluid disposed by various industries, suspended solids, alkalinity, sulfate volatile organic compounds.
5W20
Automobile Service Station Disposal Well - repair bay drains connected to a disposal well. Suspected of disposal of dangerous or toxic wastes.
H
Heavy metals, solvents, cleaners, used oil & fluids, detergents, organic compounds.
5X28
Recharge Wells
Aquifer Recharge Wells - used to recharge depleted aquifers & may inject fluids from a variety of sources such as lakes, streams, domestic wastewater treatment plants, other aquifers, etc.
H-L
Variable: water is generally of good quality
5R21
Saline Water Intrusion Barrier Wells - used to inject water into fresh water aquifers to prevent intrusion of salt water into fresh water aquifers.
L
Varies: advanced treated sewage, surface urban & agricultural runoff, & imported surface waters.
5B22
Subsidence Control Wells - used to inject fluids into a non-oil or gas producing zone to reduce or eliminate associated with over draft of fresh water & not used for the purpose of oil or natural gas production
L
No specific type of injected fluid noted, similar to aquifer recharge wells.
5S23
Miscellaneous Wells
Radioactive Waste Disposal Wells - all radioactive waste disposal wells other than Class IV wells.
U
Low-level radioactive wastes
5N24
Experimental Technology Wells - wells used in experimental or unproven technologies such as pilot scale in-situ solution mining wells in previously unmined areas.
L-M
Varies depending on project.
5X25
Aquifer Remediation Related Wells - wells used to prevent, control, or remediate aquifer pollution, including but not limited to Superfund sites.
U
Nutrients used in Biodegradation of organics, oil/grease, phenols, toluene.
5X26
Abandoned Drinking Water Wells - used for disposal of waste.
M
Potentially any kind of fluid, particularly brackish or saline water, hazardous chemicals & sewage.
5X29
Other Wells - any other unspecified Class V wells: Well type/purpose & injected fluids must be specified.
U
Variable
5X27
* Groundwater Contamination Potential: L = Low, M - Moderate, H - High, U - Unknown


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