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Show details for Air Emissions (RCRA)Air Emissions (RCRA)
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Hide details for Surface ImpoundmentsSurface Impoundments
08/01/2009Environmental Fact Sheet: Coal Combustion Residues (CCR) - Surface Impoundments with High Hazard Potential RatingsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet presents the results of EPA's effort to identify and assess the structural integrity of impoundments, dams, or other management units, within the electric power generating industry, holding wet-handled coal combustion residuals (CCRs). EPA last updated this fact sheet in April 2012.
 
03/29/2001Industrial Surface Impoundments in the United StatesPublication
 Description: The surface impoundment study quantifies and describes the potential risks to human health in the environment posed by chemical constiuents present in the wastewaters managed by surface impoundments. It also identifies existing regulatory and nonregulatory programs that can be used to address potential risks.
 
04/01/2000APPLICABILITY OF THE SUBPART CC LDR EXEMPTION TO SOILSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Tanks, containers, and surface impoundments storing soils that contain hazardous waste are eligible for land disposal restrictions (LDR) exemption from Subpart CC only when VOCs meet 268.40 numerical concentrations or when soil has been treated by treatment technology in 268.42(a) for organic hazardous constituents. Wastes treated to meet alternative soil treatment standards remain subject to Subpart CC.
 
07/01/1998RCRA Organic Air Emission Standards for TSDFs and GeneratorsPublication
 Description: This document provides information about the requirements of RCRA organic air emission standards covered under 40 CFR Parts 264/265, subpart CC. It summarizes information about applicability, effective dates, tanks, surface impoundments, containers, miscellaneous units, inspection and monitoring requirements, and the difference between permitted and interim status facilities, and defines relevant terms.
 
06/01/1998MONOFILLS EXEMPT FROM THE MINIMUM TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: RCRA contains no general statutory or regulatory definition of a monofill. RCRA Section 3004(o)(3) states that the minimum technological requirements (MTR) may be waived by the Administrator for any monofill under certain conditions. The unit must have at least one liner with no evidence of leakage, be located more than one-quarter mile from an underground source of drinking, and be in compliance with the applicable groundwater monitoring requirements (Section 3005(j)).
 
09/01/1997GENERATOR STORAGE OF USED OILQuestion & Answer
 Description: Containers and tanks storing used oil do not need to comply with Parts 264/265, Subparts I or J, provided the used oil has not been mixed with a hazardous waste. Units other than tanks or containers (e.g., surface impoundments) storing used oil must be permitted or operating under interim status.
 
04/17/1997CLARIFICATION ON USE OF FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELING DURING RCRA CLOSURE AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION DURING RCRA CORRECTIVE ACTIONMemo
 Description: The Agency allows the appropriate use of fate and transport modeling to demonstrate, under clean closure, that materials contaminated with waste that are not removed do not present unacceptable risks. The use of modeling to make demonstration does not affect the requirements for removal of all wastes (SEE ALSO: RPC# 9/24/96-01). EPA's commitment to public participation is the same whether corrective action is implemented in the context of a RCRA permit or an enforcement order. EPA expects that non-RCRA cleanups will provide an appropriate level of public participation. The public has an opportunity to review and comment on whether it is appropriate for the Agency to defer RCRA corrective action to a non-RCRA program in certain instances.
 
02/01/1997DELAY OF CLOSUREQuestion & Answer
 Description: Owners and operators of hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and land treatment units can delay the closure timetable beyond the 90-day period and allow the units to accept nonhazardous waste, if the units meet the conditions of Sections 264.113(d)/265.113(d). Owners or operators of tanks, containers, waste piles, and incinerators are not allowed to delay closure. These units must comply with all applicable closure standards before being able to accept nonhazardous waste.
 
12/05/1996IMPLEMENTATION OF RCRA SUBPART CC STANDARDSMemo
 Description: The Subpart CC implementation schedule applies to facilities needing extra time to modify their processes to meet exemptions. All CC final rule provisions become effective no earlier than December 6, 1996. No waste determination is required for waste placed in units meeting Subpart CC standards. Surface impoundments used for biological treatment are exempt from Subpart CC.
 
06/01/1996DELAY OF CLOSURE FOR NON-RETROFITTED HAZARDOUS WASTE SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CONTINUING TO RECEIVE NON-HAZARDOUS WASTEQuestion & Answer
 Description: A surface impoundment newly subject to regulation may cease receiving hazardous waste before the four-year mandatory retrofitting deadline and thus avoid minimum technological requirements (MTR). An owner may continue receiving nonhazardous waste indefinitely without closing. The owner of a surface impoundment that ceases receiving hazardous waste does not have to begin closure activities until 90 days after the final receipt of nonhazardous waste. An impoundment not in compliance with Section 265.113(e) must begin closure within 90 days after the 4-year retrofitting period (Section 3005(j)).
 
05/01/1996SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RETROFITTING REQUIREMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: HSWA added requirements for minimum technological requirements (MTR) (Section 3004(o)), including double liners, leachate collection and removal systems, and groundwater monitoring for surface impoundments. Interim status surface impoundments in existence on November 8, 1984, had to retrofit to meet standards or close within four years. Existing impoundments newly subject to RCRA must retrofit or close in 4 years (Section 3005(j)). HSWA provided some variances for these retrofitting requirements.
 
02/20/1996CLARIFICATION OF RCRA CORRECTIVE ACTION PROGRAM WITH REGARD TO TSD UNITSMemo
 Description: RCRA regulated units (surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, and landfills) are solid waste management units (SWMUs). SWMUs are subject to RCRA corrective action authority (i.e., Sections 3004(u) or 3008(h)). Discusses integrated implementation of corrective action for releases to groundwater and other media from regulated units (SEE ALSO: Section 264.90(f) and 63 FR 56710; 10/22/98)). Dual authority is required when conducting cleanup at a regulated unit in a state authorized for RCRA groundwater requirements but not for corrective action. Changes necessary to comply with a corrective action order are exempt from the reconstruction limit. Closure need not be delayed to perform corrective action. EPA encourages coordination between closure and corrective action activities.
 
06/30/1995CLARIFICATION OF REGULATORY LANGUAGE WITH RESPECT TO PERMITTED HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINER STORAGE FACILITIESMemo
 Description: Bare concrete can serve as a container storage pad for secondary containment. No regulatory definition of sufficiently impervious is available. Bare concrete is insufficiently impervious for primary containment when in continuous contact with waste (e.g., in surface impoundments or waste piles). Secondary containment regulations are performance standards that allow for the use of materials other than concrete or asphalt.
 
08/15/1994Technical Report: Design and Evaluation of Tailings DamsPublication
 Description: Presents an introduction to the subject of tailings dams and impoundments, particularly with regard to their engineering features and their ability to mitigate or minimize adverse effects to the environment. Provides an overview of the various methods used to dispose of mine tailings and the types of impoundments used. Describes the basic concepts used in the design of impoundments, including a number of site-specific variables of concern. Discusses tailings embankment and stability and addresses water management in tailings impoundments. Proffers a case study on a lined tailings impoundment. Includes an appendix with comments received on the draft document with EPA responses.
 
07/22/1994REGULATION OF SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS UNDER THE SEPTEMBER 10, 1992 RECYCLED USED OIL MANAGEMENT STANDARDSMemo
 Description: The de minimis used oil exemption does not apply to used oil intentionally introduced into a wastewater treatment system. Surface impoundments managing used oil must operate under RCRA Subtitle C permits or interim status.
 
05/12/1994CLARIFICATION OF THE REGULATORY STATUS OF A REFINERY DITCH SYSTEMMemo
 Description: An unlined trough, trench, ditch is not ancillary equipment to a tank or sump because they are not constructed of leak proof material or do not have structural support or strength. Discusses the distinction between tank and surface impoundment. Can retrofit ditches to meet the criteria and quality as a wastewater treatment unit (WWTU).
 
04/06/1994CLARIFICATION OF ""ACTIVE MANAGEMENT"" IN CLOSING WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES (SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS)Memo
 Description: Remediation involving hazardous waste treatment triggers permitting. Whether in-situ stabilization is treatment is a site-specific determination. The regulatory status of the movement of wastes within an area of contamination (AOC) is discussed. A unit (e.g., surface impoundment) inactive prior to the effective date of applicable RCRA rules is not subject to Subtitle C unless the waste is actively managed. A one-time removal of waste is not active management. Waste removed from a unit is subject to all relevant regulations. Inactive units may be solid waste management units (SWMUs) subject to 3004(u), 3008(h), and/ or 7003 corrective action authorities.
 
04/01/1994SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT LEACHATE COLLECTION AND REMOVAL SYSTEMSQuestion & Answer
 Description: A leachate collection and removal system must be in place at least 30 days prior to the receipt of waste at a new surface impoundment. The owner/operator must carry out the construction quality assurance (CQA) program certifying compliance with the design specifications of the permit 30 days prior to the receipt of waste.
 
02/01/1994REGULATORY STATUS OF SHELL OIL'S NORCO, LOUISIANA FACILITY DITCH SYSTEMMemo
 Description: A trough, trench, or ditch connected to a tank or sump is ancillary equipment. Unlined conveyance systems allowing leakage or a discharge is not ancillary equipment, and may be considered disposal, and may be considered a surface impoundment, miscellaneous, or solid waste management unit (SWMU) subject to corrective action. An unlined trough, trench, ditch that is retrofitted may meet the definition of ancillary equipment to tank and qualify for the wastewater treatment unit (WWTU) exemption.
 
04/19/1993DISCUSSION PAPER ON POSSIBLE UNIVERSAL WASTEMemo
 Description: EPA is evaluating the applicability of the household hazardous waste (HHW) exclusion to lead-based paint abatement wastes (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 70233, 70241; 12/18/98). Part 279 prohibits the storage of used oil in unlined surface impoundments and applying used oil to roads. Fluorescent bulbs may be conditionally exempt in the future. EPA does not believe that F001-F005 solvents should be included as universal wastes. EPA is currently studying other solvent wastes to determine if they merit a listing (SEE ALSO: 61 FR 42318; 8/14/96). Spent antifreeze may exhibit the toxicity characteristic for lead and/or benzene. EPA is evaluating toxicity characteristic levels for lead and pentachlorophenol (PCP). New MCLs could affect future toxicity characteristic levels. Sandblast grit from the removal of lead-based paint may be D008.
 
07/01/1992LINERS AND LEAK DETECTION SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS, SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS, AND WASTE PILESQuestion & Answer
 Description: Summary of the minimum technological standards (RCRA 3004(o)) for new, replacement, and lateral expansions of landfills, surface impoundments, and waste piles completed after July 29, 1992.
 
01/15/1992Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Releases Final Rule on Liners and Leak Detection SystemsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet summarizes new requirements mandated by HSWA. The requirements institute minimum standards for double liners, leachate collection and removal systems, leak detection systems, and construction quality assurance programs at hazardous waste surface impoundments, landfills, and waste piles.
 
11/08/1991SUBTITLE D AND PULP AND PAPER MILL SULDGEMemo
 Description: No additional regulations are warranted under Subtitle D for landfills and surface impoundments receiving unlisted, dioxin-containing sludge from chlorine and chlorine derivative bleached pulp and paper mills.
 
11/01/1991REMOVAL OF TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC WASTES FROM A SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTQuestion & Answer
 Description: The one-time removal of toxicity characteristic (TC) waste from a surface impoundment on or after the TC rule’s effective date does not subject the unit to regulation (55 FR 11798; March 29, 1990). The unit can then be used to manage nonhazardous waste. The surface impoundment holding TC waste that is left in place and that is not actively managed after the TC effective date is not subject to regulation.
 
08/27/1991POTENTIALLY CONFLICTING REGULATION OF INFILTRATION GALLERIES BY THE OGWDW AND OSWMemo
 Description: Injection wells and infiltration galleries are not mutually exclusive. Units that are both infiltration galleries and injection wells were included in the April 2, 1991 extension of the TC compliance date for certain injection wells (56 FR 13406). Units that are infiltration galleries (e.g., leaking surface impoundments) but are not injection wells were not included in the extension.
 
07/31/1991TC RULE HAZARDOUS WASTE DETERMINATIONMemo
 Description: Pulp and paper mill wastes should be sampled at an outlet from the bleach plant (point of generation), prior to commingling (mixing) with other wastestreams, to determine whether they exhibit the toxicity characteristic for chloroform (D022). The dilution of characteristic hazardous waste at a pulp and paper mill is acceptable for CWA compliance provided there is no specified method of treatment (58 FR 29860; 5/24/93). The definition of aggressive biological treatment (ABT) units for the purposes of the F037 and F038 listings does not apply to the exemption for biological treatment units from the surface impoundment minimum technical requirements.
 
05/01/1991NO-MIGRATION PETITION FOR ROBINSON, ILMemo
 Description: Guidance on the revision of an existing petition or withdrawal and resubmission of a new petition after EPA’s denial of a land disposal restrictions (LDR) no-migration petition for a land treatment unit and surface impoundment.
 
03/08/1991SLUDGES WITHIN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS, NEWLY REGULATED DUE TO TC RULEMemo
 Description: Toxicity characteristic sludges that are generated in surface impoundments are solid waste (discarded by being abandoned). The sludges are solid waste subject to regulation not only when the surface impoundment is cleaned or closed but when sludge is generated (sludges are generated at the moment of deposition at the bottom of a unit).
 
12/01/1990LDR REQUIREMENTS DURING NATIONAL CAPACITY VARIANCES (NCVS)Question & Answer
 Description: Restricted wastes that are granted a national capacity variance are still subject to recordkeeping and analysis requirements and any applicable California list restrictions (3004(h)(2)) (SUPERSEDED: California list removed, see 62 FR 25997; May 12, 1997). Any landfill or surface impoundment holding such waste must meet minimum technology requirements.
 
10/14/1990LDR DETERMINATION OF WASTE STREAM DILUTIONMemo
 Description: The aggregation of wastes followed by legitimate centralized treatment is permissible dilution. Biological treatment is inappropriate for metals. Waste with land disposal restrictions (LDR) national capacity variance can be disposed if in a surface impoundment that has met minimum technical requirements.
 
07/31/1990MULTI-SOURCE LEACHATE AND TREATMENT STANDARDS OF LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONSMemo
 Description: Waste codes not required on the manifest. A TSDF may rely on waste analysis data from the generator, but the TSDF must periodically test representative samples. A lab may certify for land disposal restrictions (LDR) as representative of the waste handler. Waste analysis parameters. Stabilization of cyanide to reduce leachability is an inappropriate treatment and generally impermissible dilution. No dilution of toxicity characteristic wastes if land disposed. Generators must determine characteristics. If a listed treatment standard addresses the characteristic, it operates in lieu of characteristic (even if less stringent). Prohibited waste only placed in a minimum technological requirement (MTR) surface impoundment if meets treatment standards, variance or extension, or 268.4. Notice and certification for de-characterized waste is sent to the implementing agency. F039 HSWA. Permitted TSDFs with F039 submit Class 1 modification by 8/8/90. Lab packs must be burned in Subpart O incinerator, not cement kilns.
 
06/14/1990PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR DISPOSALMemo
 Description: Lead-contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE) or gear is subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR). Hazardous waste eligible for a national capacity variance may be disposed without treatment in a minimum technological requirement (MTR) landfill or surface impoundment if the waste is below California list prohibition levels (SUPERSEDED: California list removed, see 62 FR 25997; 5/12/97).
 
06/04/1990REGULATORY INTERPRETATION OF OBJECTION TO CLEAN-CLOSURE EQUIVALENCY PETITION FOR STEEL ABRASIVES, INC.Memo
 Description: All landfills, surface impoundments, waste piles, and land treatment units that received waste after July 26, 1982 are subject to post-closure permitting and Part 264 Subpart F standards unless the owner demonstrates that closure under the previous Part 265 standards met Part 264 closure by removal standards (SUPERSEDED: See 63 FR 56711; October 22, 1998). Under RCRA 3005(i), EPA has the authority to revisit interim status clean closures and require post-closure permits if closure does not meet closure by removal standards of Part 264. In order to demonstrate clean closure, an owner generally should remove “hot spots” of contamination.
 
02/22/1990D001 CHARACTERISTIC WASTES - LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONSMemo
 Description: Waste cannot be disposed of unless treated to land disposal restrictions (LDR) treatment standards, disposed in no-migration unit, or subject to exemption or variance from treatment standards. D001 ignitable waste must be treated to treatment standard before disposal. There are special requirements for ignitable wastes placed in a surface impoundment, landfill, waste pile, and land treatment unit.
 
05/16/1989DELAY OF CLOSURE PERIOD FOR HWM FACILITIESMemo
 Description: Under limited circumstances, landfills, surface impoundments, and land treatment units may remain open after the final receipt of hazardous waste in order to receive nonhazardous waste.
 
05/01/1989INTERIM STATUS VS. PERMIT MODIFICATION FOR NEWLY REGULATED UNITSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Units managing newly regulated wastes at fully permitted facilities do not qualify for interim status under 3005(e). A permittee should modify the facility’s RCRA permit. Surface impoundments requiring permit modification due to a new listing or characteristic have four years from the date of promulgation to comply with the 3005(j)(6)(A) retrofitting requirements.
 
03/14/1989SUMMARY OF ASSISTANCE BRANCH PERMITTING COMMENTSMemo
 Description: Discusses an automatic waste feed shut-off design for munitions deactivation (popping) furnaces and fugitive emissions control from popping furnaces. Pits used for dewatering and open burning are surface impoundments, not miscellaneous units. EPA can use omnibus provisions to impose additional controls on open burning in surface impoundments. Waste explosives that do not have the potential to detonate cannot be destroyed in open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) units. Solvents contaminated with explosives that have the potential to detonate can be open burned. Because open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of waste explosives is treatment, not disposal, the land disposal restrictions (LDR) do not apply. Treatment residues may be subject to LDR. Clarifies when the disposal of explosives requires a permit and when unused explosives become wastes (SEE ALSO: 62 FR 6622; 2/12/97). Burning commercial fuel in fire training exercises is not regulated under RCRA. Discusses methods of determining soil background levels for the clean closure of surface impoundments and waste piles, circumstances in which the unit type can be redesignated during interim status, cleanup standards for corrective action, compliance points for soil and groundwater cleanup, timing of corrective action cleanup activities and site monitoring, termination of groundwater corrective action, the use of institutional controls, the use of trial burn data from one facility at other incinerators, the evaluation of trial burn plans for popping furnaces, and the use of in-place hydraulic conductivity testing during liner installation for surface impoundments and landfills. A landfill’s clay layer component of the final cover must be completely below the average frost depth. Addresses the use of natural material (calcium carbonate) and cement kiln dust in waste stabilization, the use of the RCRA corrective action plan (CAP) in HSWA permit preparation, the use of the 261.4(f)(2) authority to implement Subpart X standards in RCRA authorized states, and the permitting deadlines for Subpart X facilities.
 
11/30/1988INTERIM STATUS SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS & CLEAN CLOSED WASTE PILES, CODIFICATION RULE 12/01/87Memo
 Description: The owner of a surface impoundment or waste pile that received hazardous waste after 7/26/82 and clean closed per 265 standards must submit a post-closure permit application within 6 months of an EPA request (SUPERSEDED: See 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98). An owner of a waste pile clean closed per 265 should submit an equivalency demonstration before a Part B permit application is requested. Submitting an equivalency demonstration does not exempt the owner from having to submit a post-closure permit application.
 
10/15/1988SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RETROFITTING AND TIME ALLOWED FOR CLOSUREMemo
 Description: A surface impoundment in existence on 11/8/84 must meet the minimum technological requirements by 11/8/88 or cease receiving waste and close unless given an approved exemption. A permit as a shield is not applicable to 3005(j).
 
09/02/1988SUMMARY OF ASSISTANCE BRANCH PERMITTING COMMENTSMemo
 Description: Aboveground bolted flange joints that are inspected daily do not need secondary containment. Joints where waste may contact the thread must meet the secondary containment requirement for tank ancillary equipment. A trench below tank waste lines may qualify as secondary containment if it is sized to contain a release and if the trench is dry so that leaks can be detected. Discusses the status of new tank systems at facilities permitted between 7/14/86 and 1/12/87. To meet the definition of a boiler, the combustion chamber and energy recovery section must be of integral design. A unit with a “post-combustion” chamber between the combustion and energy recovery sections is not a boiler. A unit with a combustion section connected to an energy recovery unit by a duct and a control system is not a boiler. A unit with innovative insulation installation does not qualify as boiler under a variance petition if the insulation does not provide significantly better performance. The determination of boiler efficiency should be conducted under controlled conditions following a method specified by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Thermal relief vents can be used in the design of a new incinerator, but a permit should require backup systems to minimize their use. Addresses the application of the minimum technology requirements (3004(o)) to the vertical and lateral expansions of surface impoundments and landfills. The minimum technology waiver petition was granted due to alternate design and operational factors. The 3004(o)(2) waiver petition that would prevent the migration of contaminated groundwater beyond the waste management area (e.g. surface impoundment) is inadequate because it does not prevent all groundwater contamination. Incinerators may be eligible for research, development, and demonstration (RDD) permits. Provides guidance on the duration of Research, Development, and Demonstration (RDD) permits beyond a calendar year and criteria for renewing RDD permits. Discusses the applicability of the new tank system regulations in authorized v. unauthorized states. Includes guidance on the selection of principal organic hazardous constituent (POHCs) and the use of surrogate v. actual wastes during the incinerator trial burn. The actual waste can be spiked during the trial burn to raise principal organic hazardous constituent levels. Addresses the sampling frequency during a trial burn. The mass feed rate of a principal organic hazardous constituent (POHC) input used for destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) calculations must equal mass feed rate in the wastestream only. When sampling for particulates and semi-volatile POHCs during an incinerator trial burn, two separate Modified Method 5 (MM5) trains should be used. Only one confirmatory sampling event is necessary to trigger compliance monitoring. Discusses the disposal of purged water generated during groundwater sampling and analysis. An owner of a landfill or surface impoundment submitting a no migration waiver petition must use a worst-case soil permeability factor in groundwater modeling. The constituent concentration, retardation factors, and constituent half-life must be evaluated when developing a model for a no migration waiver petition for a surface impoundment or a landfill (3004(o)(2)). The owner of a site with a complex hydrogeology should use a 2 or 3-dimensional model to support a no migration demonstration. Provides criteria for evaluating landfill composite bottom liner equivalency. Addresses the evaluation of a final cover slope using a soil loss equation. EPA recommends the use of glass vessels when performing compatibility testing on a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner. Scarifying and remolding do not meet the minimum technological requirements for a landfill secondary soil liner. A contingency plan must designate a sufficient number of emergency coordinators to provide 24-hour and vacation coverage. The federal regulations require a compressive strength test for stabilized wastes (going to a landfill) that pass the paint filter test only if true chemical stabilization has not occurred.
 
06/20/1988SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT SAMPLING PLAN FOR HOLLOMAN AIR FORCE BASEMemo
 Description: Provides guidance on a delisting petition sampling plan at a facility with large-volume surface impoundments, drainage ditches, and lakes.
 
06/16/1988LAND BAN ISSUES - 1988 UPDATEMemo
 Description: A surface impoundment not meeting the minimum technical requirements (MTR) may continue to receive restricted wastes if it has a waiver under 3005(j). Units receiving waste subject to a national capacity variance or a case by case extension must meet MTR. Provides criteria for case-by-case extensions, a discussion of the soft hammer provisions, guidance on the treatment of soil, and treatment capacity information. Addresses the lack of capacity due to surface impoundment closure.
 
05/31/1988DEADLINES APPLICABLE TO PROPOSED DELAY OF CLOSURE REGULATION, GUIDANCEMemo
 Description: The proposed delay of closure rule (53 FR 20738; 6/30/88) would allow owners and operators of landfills and certain surface impoundments to delay closure to receive nonhazardous waste. Units which have lost interim status are not eligible for a delay of closure. Owners of units who wish to delay closure must obtain a permit or permit modification. Surface impoundments that are not retrofitted to meet the minimum technological requirements are subject to special requirements if the owner wishes to delay closure. Units that delay closure remain subject to Subtitle C. Units remain subject to the closure plan submission deadlines despite the proposed delay of closure rule (53 FR 20738; 6/30/88). Because the proposed rule is less stringent than the existing closure regulations, authorized states are not required to adopt the new provisions. Interim status units that cease receiving hazardous waste on 11/8/88 may continue to receive nonhazardous wastes until the closure plan is approved as well as during the closure period provided it does not impede closure.
 
05/27/1988SOIL BACKGROUND LEVELS AS CLEAN CLOSURE STANDARDS, USE OFMemo
 Description: Clean closure levels for surface impoundments, waste piles, and land treatment units must be based on EPA-recommended exposure levels or factors that have undergone peer review by EPA. Where no health-based levels exist, clean closure levels are based on background or exposure levels submitted by the owner based on toxicity data. Includes recommendations for clean closure levels for lead and cadmium. Lead background levels should be established by taking soil samples at an uncontaminated area of the facility or by using published literature data on lead levels in similar soils (SUPERSEDED: see RPC# 5/7/90-01).
 
05/12/1988DEMONSTRATING EQUIVALENCE OF PART 265 CLEAN CLOSURE WITH PART 264 REQUIREMENTSMemo
 Description: Under 270.1(c), owners of interim status surface impoundments and waste piles who clean closed under the old Part 265 closure standards may demonstrate equivalency with the 264 closure standards. Discusses the contents of the demonstration equivalency and the procedures for submittal. If an attempt at a closure equivalency demonstration does not meet the 264 standards, the owner must submit a Part B permit application. Addresses the acceptability of specific information supporting equivalency demonstrations. An owner of an interim status landfill where waste was removed at closure can reclassify it as a waste pile and demonstrate clean closure equivalency, or the owner may request a shortened post-closure care period (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98).
 
05/11/1988REDESIGNATION OF SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS AS LANDFILLS DURING INTERIM STATUSMemo
 Description: An interim status surface impoundment that does not meet the minimum technological requirements must be retrofitted or closed by 11/8/88 pursuant to 3005(j). The redesignation of a unit as a landfill does not meet either criterion in 270.72(c) for changes during interim status.
 
05/01/1988LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS - DISPOSAL OF WASTES GRANTED A VARIANCEQuestion & Answer
 Description: Restricted wastes that are granted a capacity variance may be disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments only if the facility is in compliance with the minimum technological requirements (MTR). These wastes may also be disposed of in land treatment facilities that are not in compliance with MTR (SUPERSEDED: 268.8 removed, see 61 FR 15599; 4/8/96).
 
05/01/1988RETROFITTING INTERIM STATUS SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The conversion of an interim status surface impoundment into a landfill without triggering permitting would have to be approved under 270.72(c) (SUPERSEDED: See 270.72(a)(1)), and could not amount to “reconstruction” under 270.72(e) (SUPERSEDED: See 270.72(b)) under changes during interim status. An impoundment converted to a landfill in these circumstances would be an existing unit. If waste is removed and replaced, then the unit would be a replacement unit and would have to meet the minimum technology requirements (MTR) (3004(o)). If the waste addition exceeded the level in the Part A, then the unit would be an expansion subject to MTR.
 
04/28/1988MINIMUM TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS WAIVER PETITION SECTION 3004(0)(2) (SHELL OIL)Memo
 Description: A facility’s proposed alternative to the double liner and leachate collection system requirement cannot be approved if it allows the migration of hazardous constituents into the groundwater, since this is not as effective as the standards outlined in 3004(o)(1)(A)(i).
 
04/01/1988EFFECTIVE DATES FOR CHARACTERISTIC & LISTED WASTES PER 03/19/87 CLEAN CLOSURE REGULATIONMemo
 Description: Clarifies the applicability of the “Clean Closure Conforming Changes Rule” (52 FR 8704; 3/19/87) in authorized and unauthorized states. HSWA 3005(i) states that all units (e.g. surface impoundments) clean closed pursuant to the 265 standards are not relieved of post-closure care obligation until the owner demonstrates equivalency with the 264 standards.
 
03/30/1988SUMMARY OF PERMIT ASSISTANCE TEAM (PAT) COMMENTSMemo
 Description: Samples taken from turbid groundwater may not be valid. Proper well development requires that wells be clay and silt free. Discusses the use of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in well construction, the calculation of purge volume, and Part 264, Appendix IX. An accelerated groundwater monitoring schedule can be used to bring a facility into compliance. The maintenance of a groundwater monitoring network may include the redevelopment of a well. Well maintenance should be included as a permit condition. Replacement units (e.g. landfills and surface impoundments) must be retrofitted to meet the minimum technological requirements. If a proposed alternative to a double liner does not meet the requirements of 264.221(c), the location characteristics or operating practices must compensate for the deficiency. A redundant flexible membrane bottom liner may be equivalent to the 3004(o)(5)(B) interim statutory design, thus meeting the 3004(o)(1) minimum technological requirements. Addresses the use of the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model v. Moore’s Equation for calculating leachate volume when designing a collection system, the proposed modifications to the cap design to reduce erosion potential, and the use of a test plot to support alternative landfill design cover. A high-density polyethylene liner must be supported by a stable base. An owner of a petroleum refinery undertaking a land treatment demonstration must fully characterize the waste, including addressing the Skinner List constituents in the waste analysis plan. A properly conducted land treatment demonstration should include an evaluation of the waste degradation, transformation, and immobilization, as well as a toxicity study. A land treatment unit cannot accept sludges containing high concentrations of water if the soil moisture conditions cause saturation of the unit. Discusses the selection of principal hazardous constituents for a land treatment unit. An owner of a land treatment unit who has not demonstrated satisfactory treatment of hazardous constituents may need to close the unit. Addresses the presence of a high water table at a land treatment unit and the possible responses. An owner of an existing interim status land treatment unit may be eligible for an immediate full-scale permit if the land treatment demonstration addresses all of the necessary requirements. In states that are authorized for the RCRA base program but not for the HSWA provisions, construction cannot begin at a new facility until both the state and EPA permits are issued. The land disposal restrictions (LDR) program is a self-implementing portion of HSWA, superseding the permit as a shield provision. Permit content should be edited for applicability, importance, clarity, and precision prior to issuance. A minimum detection limit (MDL) can be used to establish background as a groundwater protection standard. Any component required in a RCRA facility investigation (RFI), such as monitoring releases not requiring immediate response, should be included as a permit condition. Monitoring wells installed as part of a HSWA corrective action may be designated as point of compliance wells. Permits containing corrective action conditions for groundwater treatment programs must specify methods of handling groundwater containing hazardous waste and must include pumping and removal requirements. Air stripping may not be an appropriate treatment method for groundwater contaminated with methyl isobutyl ketone. A permit or 3008(h) order should address the air emissions from treatment units such as an air stripper. Includes criteria for the referral of facilities to the Agency for Toxic Substances aND DISEASE REGISTRY (ATSDR) UNDER 3019. Emerging technologies, such as in-situ bio-reclamation, should be demonstrated as effective in pilot-scale field studies prior to approval. 264 Subpart F compliance monitoring standards should be applied to the verification monitoring at solid waste management units (SWMUs) during corrective action. A HSWA corrective action pe
rmit may include a technical feasibility clause discontinuing the program once contaminant levels can no longer be reduced. EPA discourages the approval of a waiver allowing the disposal of nonhazardous waste in a landfill that has lost interim status.
 
03/02/1988CLEANUP LEVELS FOR LEAD AND CADMIUM IN SOILS FOR CLEAN CLOSUREMemo
 Description: VERIFIED REFERENCE DOSES (RFDS) AND Carcinogenic Potency Factors (CPFs) can be used to set soil cleanup levels during clean closures of surface impoundments, waste piles, and land treatment units. Where no EPA-recommended health-based limit exists for a contaminant, a soil cleanup level may be based on background levels or by data developed by the owner to support a health-based limit. If the cleanup level cannot be established, then clean closure cannot be achieved and the unit (i.e. surface impoundment, waste pile, or land treatment unit) must close as a landfill. Provides guidance for determining the background levels for lead in soil for clean closures of surface impoundments, waste piles, and land treatment units. Discusses how to determine background levels of lead in soil.
 
02/08/1988CLOSURE PERFORMANCE STANDARDMemo
 Description: EPA may use closure performance standards, post-closure permits, or 3008(h) orders to ensure effective closure. A closure performance standard can be used to require source control at a leaking surface impoundment. Closure must be consistent with future corrective action.
 
02/01/1988CLEAN CLOSURE OF INTERIM STATUS SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT AND WASTE PILEQuestion & Answer
 Description: Surface impoundments, waste piles, landfills, and land treatment units which received waste after 7/26/82 or certified closure after 1/26/83 must either have post-closure permits or demonstrate that clean closure was equivalent to Part 264 closure (270.1(c)) (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98). Post-closure permits for these units would include Part 264 groundwater monitoring, unsaturated zone monitoring, corrective action and post-closure care.
 
12/17/1987CLOSURE AND POST-CLOSURE ISSUES FOR INTERIM STATUS SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSMemo
 Description: EPA may extend the time allowed for the closure of a surface impoundment to allow groundwater corrective action so that the owner can achieve clean closure. Units closing by removal under Part 265 (e.g. surface impoundments, waste piles, and land treatment units) must obtain post-closure permits unless the owner demonstrates equivalence with 264.228, 264.280(e), or 264.258 closure by decontamination standards (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98). The owner of an interim status landfill that has closed by removal and has not triggered groundwater assessment does not have to monitor groundwater for the full list of Appendix VIII or IX constituents. Groundwater evaluation conducted as part of the 265 clean-closure demonstration should establish constituents that could reasonably be expected to exist at the impoundment. A surface impoundment that has triggered groundwater assessment may not be able to clean close.
 
11/25/1987TREATMENT SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS, REGULATORY OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO WOOD PRESERVERSMemo
 Description: A wood preserving treatment surface impoundment is not a hazardous waste experiment unit. A wood preservative surface impoundment must obtain a permit, close, or convert to a land treatment unit.
 
10/29/1987UCAPCO APPLICATION FOR A VARIANCE UNDER 3004(C)(2) OF RCRAMemo
 Description: Variances from the minimum technological requirements (MTR) may be obtained if an alternate system can prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents into the groundwater. The term groundwater is not limited to only groundwater beyond the waste management area (surface impoundment, waste pile, landfill).
 
10/26/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT DELISTING PETITIONS, USE OF VHS MODELMemo
 Description: The vertical horizontal spread (VHS) model is used to evaluate wastes in landfills and surface impoundments for purposes of delisting petitions. The organic leachate model (OLM) is also used.
 
10/23/1987SUPERNATANT FORMED IN LIME STABILIZATION OF WASTE PICKLE LIQUOR AS HAZARDOUS WASTEMemo
 Description: Supernatant from the lime-stabilization of waste pickle liquor is derived from K062. The supernatant portion does not qualify for the 261.3(c)(2)(ii) exclusion, which applies only to sludge generated from the treatment process. A surface impoundment holding supernatant is subject to regulation.
 
10/23/1987SUPERNATANT FROM TREATMENT OF SPENT PICKLE LIQUOR (K062)Memo
 Description: Supernatant from lime-stabilization of waste pickle liquor is derived from K062. The supernatant portion does not qualify for the 261.3(c)(2)(ii) exclusion, which applies only to sludge generated from the treatment process. A surface impoundment holding supernatant is subject to regulation.
 
10/16/1987OPERATING DAY DEFINED FOR TANKS AND SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSMemo
 Description: Once each operating day for tanks means once each day that manufacturing operations are conducted. Operating day for surface impoundments means each day waste is placed in surface impoundments. Leak detection and visual inspection are required whether or not manufacturing operations occur.
 
10/08/1987DECISION DEADLINES FOR RETROFITTING WAIVER REQUESTSMemo
 Description: Interim status surface impoundment retrofit waivers are not necessary for units holding Bevill exempt mining and mineral processing wastes.
 
10/05/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS HOLDING ONLY K-WASTES GENERATED UNDER A TEMPORARY EXCLUSIONMemo
 Description: Waste disposed in a surface impoundment during a temporary delisting exclusion is not subject to Subtitle C after the final denial decision unless it is actively managed (removed, excavated, shipped, mixed, or treated). The units are solid waste management units (SWMUs) for purposes of corrective action.
 
10/01/1987APPLICABILITY OF THE 261.4(A)(2) EXCLUSIONSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Wastewater diverted from an outfall to a surface impoundment that does not mix with U.S. waters does not qualify for the industrial wastewater discharge exclusion. Discharge to the impoundment is illegal operation of unit. Discusses the CWA definitions of “discharge of pollutant” and “waters of the United States.”
 
08/07/1987MTR COMPLIANCE DATES FOR SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS (THERMEX ENERGY)Memo
 Description: The loss of a temporary exclusion is the same as being a newly listed waste for purpose of complying with minimum technical requirements (MTR) for surface impoundments (SIs). There is a conflict between the Section 3005(j)(1) and Section 3005(j)(6) MTR dates. Part B permit application for an interim status facility is due when requested by the State or Regional office. Implementation of closure must begin either 90 days after the SI stops receipt of waste or when the closure plan is approved. The time allowed for closure implementation or completion may be extended.
 
08/07/1987PERMIT REQUIREMENTS, THERMEX ENERGY/RADIANMemo
 Description: The loss of a temporary exclusion is the same as being newly listed for the purpose of complying with the minimum technical requirements (MTR) for surface impoundments (SIs). Addresses the conflict between the 3005(j)(1) and 3005(j)(6) MTR dates. Part B permit applications for interim status facilities are due when requested by a state or Regional office. A facility must initiate closure either 90 days after the SI stops receiving waste or when the closure plan approved. The time for closure implementation or completion may be extended.
 
07/24/1987ALTERNATE CONCENTRATION LIMIT (ACL) POLICY FOR HSWA PROVISIONSMemo
 Description: The 3005(j) aggressive biological treatment surface impoundment retrofitting exemption requires interim status facilities to be in compliance with a permitted facility groundwater monitoring program. Alternate concentration limits (ACLs) can be used to determine which groundwater monitoring program, compliance or corrective action, should be added to the permit.
 
07/24/1987WASTES GENERATED BY COKE AND COAL TAR PLANTSMemo
 Description: There are no solids or organics content or % water limits for “primarily aqueous” wastewater streams. Addresses the industrial wastewater discharge exclusion (261.4(b)(2)) and “commonly defined by the industry as wastewaters,” and provides examples. The wastewater treatment unit (WWTU) exemption is not for surface impoundments. Discusses “trigger” levels for possible coke by-product K-listings. The listing will be based on 261.11 criteria, which are based on potential hazards and mismanagement, but are not based directly on waste minimization.
 
07/16/1987CASE-BY-CASE EXTENSION PETITION, INFORMATION REQUIREDMemo
 Description: Includes an overview of the requirements that facilities must meet to receive a case-by-case extension to the effective date of the land disposal restrictions (LDR). A surface impoundment or landfill managing waste during an extension must meet the minimum technological requirements (MTR).
 
07/14/1987ACLS APPLIED TO SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RETROFITTING PROVISION 3005(J)(3)Memo
 Description: Alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are part of the groundwater monitoring requirements for permitted facilities. The applicability of ACLs to an exemption request is governed by state law and regulations (3005(j)(3) and 3005 (j)(7)) for surface impoundment retrofitting.
 
07/14/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT (IS) RETROFITTING WAIVER REQUEST (OCCIDENTAL CHEMICAL)Memo
 Description: A surface impoundment located within 1/4 mile of a public water system aquifer is disqualified from a 3005(j)(2) retrofitting waiver.
 
07/01/1987RETROFITTING FOR PERMITTED SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The owner of a surface impoundment under interim status on 11/8/84 must comply with the minimum technological requirements by 11/8/88, even if the facility receives a permit before 11/8/88. EPA must issue or deny permits by 11/8/88 for all land disposal units under interim status on 11/8/84.
 
06/26/1987ADJACENT WASTE PILES INTO REGULATED SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT, PLACEMENT OF (CIBA-GEIGY)Memo
 Description: The placement of adjacent waste soil piles in a regulated surface impoundment as part of closure is permissible. The placement of hazardous waste beyond the boundary of a regulated unit constitutes lateral expansion and must meet minimum technological requirements (3004(o)(1)).
 
06/09/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT CLOSURE, APPLICABILITY OF 3005(I) OF RCRA TOMemo
 Description: An owner who closes an interim status surface impoundment but does not demonstrate compliance with 265.228(a) closure by removal standards is subject to a post-closure permit, including groundwater monitoring and corrective action (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98).
 
06/08/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RETROFITTING WAIVER REQUEST (UNION CARBIDE)Memo
 Description: The most recent, best available data should be used to determine compliance with CWA for purposes of a waiver from the minimum technological requirements for a surface impoundment under 3005(j)(3). A full Part 261 Appendix VIII analysis of groundwater is not needed for a waiver under 3005(j)(3)(C)(ii).
 
06/01/1987CLEAN CLOSUREQuestion & Answer
 Description: EPA interprets contaminated subsoils to include contaminated groundwater. Contaminated groundwater must be removed or decontaminated to achieve clean closure at a surface impoundment.
 
04/30/1987SECONDARY LEACHATE COLLECTION AND REMOVAL SYSTEMS - FML TOP LINERSMemo
 Description: Includes a summary of actual field information on the design and performance of top flexible membrane liners (FML) and on leachate collection and removal systems between liners for surface impoundments.
 
04/15/1987SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RETROFITTING REQUIREMENTSMemo
 Description: Permits issued to existing surface impoundments must require retrofitting within four years. The regulations force closure of all impoundments that do not retrofit. Permitted impoundments forced to close must follow the closure plan in the permit. Interim status impoundments must follow 265.113.
 
04/01/1987CLOSURE OF INTERIM STATUS SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Addresses the difference between the clean-closure standards prior to and after the 3/19/87, ruling (52 FR 8704). Wastes from clean-out must be managed as hazardous wastes unless they no longer meet the definition of hazardous waste. Impoundments which held characteristic waste may be required to be cleaned below characteristic levels.
 
03/30/1987SUMMARY OF PERMIT ASSISTANCE TEAM (PAT) COMMENTSMemo
 Description: A native soil foundation does not constitute a liner for the purposes of the 3005(j)(2) waiver. A 264.282 compatibility demonstration applies to both hazardous and nonhazardous waste. Addresses HSWA waste minimization requirements (3002(b)) and the application of sludge to land treatment units. The identification of principal hazardous constituents for land treated wastes must include all constituents that may enter the waste stream. A land treatment unit performance evaluation must include the unit’s ability to treat and degrade organic constituents, as well as its ability to immobilize heavy metals. Provides guidance on the frequency of soil pore liquid sampling at land treatment units (unsaturated zone monitoring) and guidance on screening groundwater monitoring wells. QA/QC methodology at a land treatment unit should include verification of the organic constituent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Includes guidance on the content of construction quality assurance plans. A person who conducts quality assurance measures for surface impoundments, waste piles, and landfills should be independent of the construction contractor. Discusses the use of Method 9090 for compatibility testing of liner materials with waste or leachate. All man-made materials that contact waste or leachate should be subjected to the immersion test portion of 9090. A sample of waste or leachate used in compatibility testing must be representative of the actual waste or leachate managed in the surface impoundment, waste pile, or landfill. A concrete pad cannot be equivalent protection. If the design slope of a final landfill cover exceeds 3-5%, the applicant must demonstrate that soil erosion will not be excessive and may need to perform a slope stability analysis. Waste and soil settlement must be included in calculations for the final landfill cover design to be substituted for a waste pile liner as equivalent protection under 3015(a). A flexible membrane liner should not be used in a final cover when the landfill is unusually deep and slopes are steep. Clean, not contaminated, soil should be used for the final cover. A leachate collection system design should be based on realistic infiltration rates. Geogrid and geotextile materials used in place of conventional drainage materials for a landfill must have an equivalent drainage capacity of a one-foot layer of compacted sand. Berms constructed of manufactured slag should not contain hazardous constituents. For landfills, the use of a composite primary liner below the primary synthetic liner is allowable. An owner of a land treatment unit who cannot establish vegetative cover may use an alternate closure procedure. A facility cannot extend closure in order to receive nonhazardous waste (SUPERSEDED: see current 264.113(d)). Addresses the role of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in exposure information and evaluation. The review of Exposure Information Reports should be coordinated with ongoing RCRA Facility Assessments.
 
03/11/1987REPLACEMENT UNIT, DEFINED - WASTE CONSOLIDATION FROM SEVERAL IMPOUNDMENTSMemo
 Description: A replacement surface impoundment or landfill is a unit that is taken out of service, emptied by removing waste, and reused. A replacement unit must meet minimum technological requirements before reuse. An impoundment may change to a landfill during interim status, but becomes a replacement unit under changes during interim status (SEE ALSO: 270.72(b)).
 
02/25/1987VULNERABILITY GUIDANCEMemo
 Description: Discusses the applicability of the groundwater vulnerability guidance to RCRA permitting standards. It may be used for site characterization, surface impoundment retrofitting variances, leachate migration potential and impact, and hydraulic conductivity data collection.
 
01/12/1987SOLVENT-BEARING WASTEWATER, SLUDGE, AND BRINE TREATED AND STORED IN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSMemo
 Description: Wastewaters and sludges with less than 1% total F001-F005 solvents are subject to the land disposal restrictions (LDR) national capacity variance and can be stored or treated in surface impoundments that meet minimum technical requirements (MTR). After the effective date, waste must be treated to meet the treatment standard, disposed pursuant to the case-by-case extension, or managed in a unit with a surface impoundment exemption.
 
12/29/1986SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS VIS-A-VIS NPDES-PERMITTED DISCHARGE POINTSMemo
 Description: A surface impoundment managing hazardous waste and that was not created by impounding water from “water of the US” is subject to RCRA. An impoundment located downgradient of an NPDES discharge point is regulated under CWA. Permit conditions are established by an EPA officer, not by the TSDF owner or operator.
 
10/01/1986RETROFITTING SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Surface impoundments not meeting the minimum technological requirements (3004(o)) cannot receive wastes after 11/8/88, unless the owner has obtained a variance. Closure does not have to occur by 11/8/88. The closure notification for an interim status unit is due by 6/8/88 (3005(j)).
 
09/05/1986SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RECEIVING NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AFTER HAZARDOUS WASTE W/O RETROFITTINGMemo
 Description: The HSWA and the legislative history do not state whether surface impoundments may receive nonhazardous waste after the final receipt of hazardous waste, EPA’s decision found in a 5/2/86 rule (SUPERSEDED: see 264.113(d), 265.113(d), and 54 FR 33376; 8/14/89).
 
08/11/1986CASE-BY-CASE EXTENSION UNDER THE LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS, INFORMATION REQUIREDMemo
 Description: An overview of information that EPA requires for receiving case-by-case extensions of the land disposal restrictions (LDR) effective date under section 3004(h)(3). Facilities can opt to use the treatment surface impoundment exemption under section 3005(j)(11).
 
08/07/1986LINER/LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM COMPATIBILITYMemo
 Description: HDPE (high density polyethylene) is not a universal material for a liner and leachate collection system for surface impoundments, waste piles and landfills. Different HDPE material varies in physical and chemical properties. A liner and leachate collection system must be chemically resistant to waste in a landfill. This memo provides suggestions for testing landfill components.
 
07/01/1986INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTIONQuestion & Answer
 Description: Section 3008(h) corrective action can apply to interim status surface impoundments that have certified clean closure, because the facility remains in interim status. Certification of clean closure does not terminate interim status. A list of four ways interim status can be terminated.
 
05/23/1986LIME SLUDGE IMPOUNDMENT SLUDGE, DELISTING OFMemo
 Description: A lime sludge surface impoundment containing K049 and K051 may be subject to permitting and closure requirements even if no waste management occurs based on a Regional interpretation.
 
05/12/1986DEIONIZATION ACID REUSED, NOT A WASTEMemo
 Description: Corrosive materials (deionization acid) that are beneficially reused as effective substitutes for a virgin material, meet relevant specifications for contamination levels, and used under controlled conditions are not solid waste. Discussion of the retroactive application of exclusions from the definition of solid waste. A surface impoundment holding waste which has never been solid waste need not be closed.
 
04/21/1986NEUTRALIZATION SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS, RETROFITTING VARIANCESMemo
 Description: Interim status surface impoundment may be exempt from retrofitting if they neutralize waste and demonstrate no migration of constituents. The section 3005(j)(4) exemption is similar to section 265.90(e). Section 3005(j)(2) may apply to a neutralization impoundment. An impoundment that is exempt from groundwater monitoring must comply with section 270.14(c).
 
04/09/1986NEUTRALIZATION SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS, GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR CLOSURE OF INTERIM-STATUSMemo
 Description: Interim status surface impoundments may close per section 265.228(b) without groundwater wells but remain subject to a post-closure permit (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 56711; 10/22/98), close per section 265.288(c) and install wells when a post-closure permit is called, or close per section 265.228(b) with wells and show closure by removal (SUPERSEDED: see 3/19/87; 52 FR 8704).
 
04/02/1986CLOSURE OF A DOE SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT THAT LOST INTERIM STATUSMemo
 Description: A waste from a surface impoundment that lost interim status may be removed, treated, and placed back in the unit at closure. The replacement of waste from the same surface impoundment for closure does not constitute reuse. When unable to remove all constituents from the unit the owner or operator should follow section 265.310 closure as a landfill requirements.
 
04/01/1986DELISTING OF K051 WASTE AT PETROLEUM REFINERY - EFFECT ON INTERIM STATUSQuestion & Answer
 Description: An explanation of temporary and informal exclusions. An impoundment holding informally excluded waste was subject to 11/8/85 loss of interim status. A discussion on the effect of temporary exclusion on facility’s interim status. An explanation of the 11/8/86 expiration date for temporary exclusions.
 
03/26/1986REPLACEMENT UNIT, DEFINITION, FOR SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTMemo
 Description: A replacement surface impoundment unit must retrofit to meet the liner and leachate collection system standards. Replacement unit means a unit is taken out of service, all or substantially all of the waste is removed, and the unit is reused. A surface impoundment is out of service if the normal flow of waste ceases. Ninetyfive percent (95%) removal is substantial removal. The receipt of new waste is reuse.
 
02/25/1986TORPEDO PROPULSION UNITS SHIPPED FOR RECYCLING, REGULATION OFMemo
 Description: Metal torpedo components which must be decontaminated before reuse are not exempt under 261.2(e). Components are scrap metal and are exempt when reclaimed. A sump defined as a tank can be a wastewater treatment unit (WWTU). Hazardous waste (HW) surface impoundments are not WWTUs. If it is storing HW prior to neutralization and is not part of WWTU or other exempt unit, a sump is subject to 262.34 or Parts 264/Part 265.
 
01/31/1986RCRA CORRECTIVE ACTION PROCEDURES AND AUTHORITIESMemo
 Description: Discusses the procedures for terminating interim status. The applicability of corrective action to land disposal units receiving hazardous wastes after 7/26/82. The applicability of and authorities for corrective action and monitoring requirements for facilities undergoing closure with continuous releases. Guidance on fuels as a hazardous wastes (SEE ALSO: 59 FR 55778; 11/8/94).
 
12/13/1985LAND DISPOSAL UNIT CLOSURE - CLARIFICATION OF PROPOSED AND PROMULGATED RULESMemo
 Description: A land disposal unit that closes prior to the effective date of any regulation listing or characterizing a waste in the unit as hazardous is not regulated under Subtitle C (active management). The same unit located at an interim status facility or a facility seeking a permit may be subject to portions of HSWA. Under 3004(o)(1)(A), landfill and surface impoundment permits must require the installation of liners, leachate collection systems, and groundwater monitoring systems (minimum technological requirements (MTR)). Section 3005(j) requires interim status surface impoundments in existence on 11/8/84 to be in compliance with MTR (3004(o)) by 11/8/88. A surface impoundment that becomes regulated after 11/8/84 due to a new listing or characteristic is subject to the minimum technological requirements (MTR) four years from date of a new listing or characteristic (3005(j) and 3004(o)(1)). A land disposal unit that is not required to obtain a RCRA permit and not otherwise subject to HSWA does not have to be retrofitted under 3004(o).
 
11/14/1985SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT RECEIVING LEACHATE, REGULATION OFMemo
 Description: A surface impoundment accepting landfill leachate exhibiting a characteristic is a hazardous waste facility.
 
10/01/1985PERSONNEL TRAINING DURING POST-CLOSUREQuestion & Answer
 Description: Personnel training may not be required during post-closure if the owner or operator of an interim status surface impoundment or landfill is no longer actively managing hazardous waste. The owner must address all of the information requirements of 270.14 and 270.17 in post-closure permit application.
 
08/27/1985GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT CLOSUREMemo
 Description: Groundwater quality is an integral part of closure for surface impoundments and waste piles. Post-closure permits, 3008(h) corrective action orders, and 3004(u) corrective action can be used to supplement interim status regulations. The approval and completion of closure by removal does not preclude the use of 3008(h) or 3004(u). A summary of 3005(i), 3004(u), and 3008(h) authorities as they pertain to surface impoundments and waste piles.
 
08/01/1985LEAK NOTIFICATIONQuestion & Answer
 Description: While Sections 264.221 and 265.221 do not require notification when a leak is detected in a surface impoundment’s secondary leachate collection system, EPA will include a notification requirement in the draft permit, including the notification of leakage rate and the concentrations of hazardous constituents.
 
08/01/1985MINIMUM TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The design, construction, and operation of a surface impoundment and landfill liners meeting interim statutory design of 3004(o)(5)(B) should prevent migration of hazardous constituents as long as unit remains in operation, including post-closure (SUPERSEDED: See 264.221(c), 265.221(c))
 
07/25/1985INTERPRETATION OF 3005(J)(1)Memo
 Description: An interim status surface impoundment that is not meeting 3005(j) minimum technical requirements by 11/8/88 must certify closure or demonstrate that technical closure requirements are met.
 
07/16/1985SULFIDE REACTIVITY CHARACTERISTICMemo
 Description: There is no approved test method for the reactivity characteristic (D003). 500 mg/kg available sulfide is adopted as the interim action level (SUPERSEDED: see RPC# 4/21/98-01). A surface impoundment which is a neutralization pond receiving only corrosive waste (D002) is exempt from groundwater monitoring.
 
04/01/1985HSWA MINIMUM TECH REQUIREMENTS FOR LINERS AND LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEMSMemo
 Description: Existing land-based units (surface impoundments, waste piles, and landfills) must be upgraded to meet minimum technological requirements (MTR) for double liners and leachate collection systems.
 
03/01/1985WASTE PILE LINERS - MTR (264.251)Question & Answer
 Description: The 3004(o) minimum technological requirements apply to landfills and surface impoundments, but not to waste piles. RCRA 3015(a) imposes liner and leachate collection requirements on new interim status waste piles, lateral expansions, and replacements. Expansions of interim status waste piles must be lined if they exceed the boundaries of the existing unit (3015(a)).
 
01/01/1985FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INACTIVE SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: An owner of a TSDF with an inactive surface impoundment must maintain both sudden and nonsudden liability insurance until closure is certified, even if the unit is not currently used to store hazardous waste.
 
01/01/1985TREATMENT SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS LOSING INTERIM STATUS BECAUSE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH GWM AND FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Owners and operators of interim status land treatment units were required to submit a Part B application, certify compliance with groundwater monitoring, and obtain financial assurance by 11/8/85 (3005(e)(2)). Land disposal units include all land-based hazardous waste management systems.
 
12/07/1984OILY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PONDS, PERMITTING COVERAGE OFMemo
 Description: The regulatory status of and options for permitting and managing oily sludges generated in refinery wastewater treatment ponds and surface impoundments is discussed (SUPERSEDED: see 261.31, F037 and F038 listings).
 
12/07/1984OIL/WATER EMULSIONS GENERATED BY PETROLEUM REFINERY WW SYSTEMS-K049 WASTEMemo
 Description: Slop oil emulsion solids (K049) are generated in the first vessel where the emulsion stratifies. Oil reclaimed in slop oil/oil recovery systems is not a hazardous waste (SEE ALSO: 261.4(a)(12)). Emulsion breaking in surface impoundments/earthen devices is considered storage. Non-reclaimed emulsion is a hazardous waste even if it is reclaimable. Storage not directly related to the reclamation process needs a permit.
 
12/01/1984ADDITION OF A SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT AT AN INTERIM STATUS FACILITYQuestion & Answer
 Description: Adding a new surface impoundment is an increase in design capacity requiring an owner or operator of an interim status facility to submit a revised Part A permit application. An increase in design is subject to the reconstruction limit for changes during interim status.
 
09/10/1984IMPROVEMENTS TO SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS UNDER INTERIM STATUSMemo
 Description: Rebuilding existing storage surface impoundments at an interim status facility is a permissible change provided the capacity of impoundments is not enlarged and no new units are added, and provided changes do not exceed the reconstruction limit.
 
05/01/1984NO LINER REQUIREMENT FOR EXISTING SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Owners of existing surface impoundments are not required to install liners. Owners of existing surface impoundments with liners are not required to describe them in a Part B permit application, although EPA recommends otherwise.
 
05/01/1984TANK V. SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTQuestion & Answer
 Description: An explanation of the difference between tanks and surface impoundments is provided. Tanks are self-supporting, while surface impoundments require supporting earthen materials (SEE ALSO: RPC# 4/8/83-01).
 
05/01/1984ZERO DISCHARGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIESQuestion & Answer
 Description: The scope of the 261.3(a)(2)(iv) mixture rule exemption parenthetical phrase on eliminated discharge is discussed. A surface impoundment subject to the zero discharge guidelines may qualify for the exclusion.
 
04/01/1984API SEPARATOR WASTEWATER AND SLUDGEQuestion & Answer
 Description: Wastewater from an API separator is not hazardous if it is not characteristic. Sludge precipitated from this wastewater in a surface impoundment is K051. Solids from filtering such wastewater are K051. The definition of an API separation system is discussed.
 
03/01/1984TANKS AND SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS HOLDING DE MINIMIS SPILLSQuestion & Answer
 Description: A tank or surface impoundment used to contain de minimis spills of commercial chemical products (CCPs) prior to the promulgation of the 261.3(a)(2)(iv)(D) mixture rule exemption is subject to interim status standards until 11/17/81, including closure requirements.
 
01/01/1984CIRCUMSTANCES FOR OBTAINING INTERIM STATUS FOR UNITS AT AN INTERIM STATUS FACILITYQuestion & Answer
 Description: A surface impoundment storing nonhazardous waste on 8/18/80, may still qualify for interim status if the owner or operator retests the waste after 11/19/80, and discovers the waste is hazardous. An impoundment meets the intent of “existing portion” and does not need a liner.
 
01/01/1984POST-CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS LOCATED IN A 100 YEAR FLOOD PLAINQuestion & Answer
 Description: The floodplain requirement under 264.18(b) applies even during post-closure of a surface impoundment. If dikes are lowered to reduce the height of a closure cap, the owner or operator must demonstrate that the design will be protective.
 
01/01/1984PROTECTIVE COVER REQUIREMENT FOR PERMITTED SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Part 264, Subpart K, indirectly addresses protective covers for surface impoundments through the performance standards in 264.221 and 264.226. RCRA guidance recommends a protective cover.
 
11/01/1983DEFINITION OF SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTQuestion & Answer
 Description: A ditch constructed primarily of earthen materials would meet the definition of a surface impoundment. Diluting hazardous waste in a ditch until it is no longer hazardous is treatment.
 
05/01/1983QUALIFIED VS. PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERQuestion & Answer
 Description: Under 264.226(c), “qualified” engineer does not have to be a registered professional engineer, but can include others whose training or background would qualify them to certify that the surface impoundment’s dike has structural integrity.
 
04/08/1983TANK AND SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT, DEFINITIONSMemo
 Description: A facility must evaluate units as free standing and filled to design capacity. Tanks have walls or shells that provide sufficient structural support to maintain structural integrity of the unit. Surface impoundments will not retain structural integrity without supporting earthen materials.
 
01/11/1983CLOSURE & POST-CLOSURE REQUIREMENTS REGARDING HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL FACILITIESMemo
 Description: Recontouring a final cover and adjusting in-place waste is not considered receipt of hazardous waste at a closed facility. Closure and post-closure plans are to account for vegetation and liquid inputs. Landfill closure standards require a final cover to minimze the migration of liquids through the closed landfill. Discussion of the addition of liquids during versus after closure (may be allowed during closure, including leachate recirculation, if part of closure plan). The recirculation of leachate during operation is not a closure activity. Receipt of hazardous waste after 1/26/83 causes impoundment or landfill to be a regulated unit, but redeposit of treated waste during closure does not make the unit regulated unit. If a landfill is a series of separately lined trenches, each trench is a separate waste management unit.
 
01/01/1983REGULATORY STATUS OF UNIT AND WASTE IF NONHAZARDOUS WASTE BECOMES REACTIVE WHEN DEWATEREDQuestion & Answer
 Description: Nonhazardous wastewater that becomes reactive (D003) when it is dewatered may cause a surface impoundment to be subject to regulation unless the waste is immediately removed.
 
12/29/1982LAND DISPOSAL PERMIT STRATEGYMemo
 Description: Discusses the historical priorities for permitting of land disposal units (surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, and landfills).
 
12/01/1982EXEMPTION FROM LINER REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING PORTIONSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The exemption from the liner requirements for existing portions of landfills, surface impoundments, and waste piles applies to bottom and side liners.
 
10/01/1982AUTHORIZING FOR WRITING PERMITS FOR SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Provides guidance on issuing permits for surface impoundments when the state has limited interim authorization.
 
10/01/1982SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT SUBMITTING PART BQuestion & Answer
 Description: The part B permit application for a surface impoundment that does not accept hazardous wastes after 1/26/83 does not have to address 264 Subpart F. An impoundment would be subject to Part 265, Subpart F (SUPERSEDED: see current 264.90(a)).
 
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