Skip common site navigation and headers
US EPA
RCRA Online
Begin Hierarchical Links You are here: EPA Home >> Wastes >> Information Sources >> RCRA Online >> Topics Search End Hierarchical Links
Welcome What's New Topics Full Text Search Advanced Search Help

Topics Search

Click on the blue carat to the left of a Topic, the list will expand to show the documents related to the selected Topic.

Show details for Air Emissions (RCRA)Air Emissions (RCRA)
Show details for BatteriesBatteries
Show details for Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT)Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT)
Show details for Bevill AmendmentBevill Amendment
Show details for BoilersBoilers
Show details for BurningBurning
Show details for Buy RecycledBuy Recycled
Show details for Characteristic WastesCharacteristic Wastes
Show details for Chemicals (RCRA)Chemicals (RCRA)
Show details for CleanupCleanup
Show details for Cleanup (RCRA)Cleanup (RCRA)
Show details for Closure (Hazardous Waste)Closure (Hazardous Waste)
Show details for CombustionCombustion
Show details for Combustion of Hazardous WasteCombustion of Hazardous Waste
Show details for ComplianceCompliance
Show details for CompostingComposting
Show details for Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators (CESQG)Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators (CESQG)
Show details for Construction and Demolition WasteConstruction and Demolition Waste
Show details for Construction and Demolition WastesConstruction and Demolition Wastes
Show details for ContainersContainers
Show details for Containment BuildingsContainment Buildings
Show details for Corrective Action (RCRA)Corrective Action (RCRA)
Show details for Corrosive WastesCorrosive Wastes
Show details for Crude OilCrude Oil
Show details for Delisting PetitionsDelisting Petitions
Show details for DisposalDisposal
Show details for Drip PadsDrip Pads
Show details for Educational MaterialsEducational Materials
Show details for Enforcement (RCRA)Enforcement (RCRA)
Show details for EPA FormsEPA Forms
Show details for Exclusions (RCRA)Exclusions (RCRA)
Show details for ExportsExports
Show details for F-wastesF-wastes
Show details for Financial Assurance (hazardous waste)Financial Assurance (hazardous waste)
Show details for Financial Assurance (nonhazardous waste)Financial Assurance (nonhazardous waste)
Show details for GasGas
Show details for GeneratorsGenerators
Show details for Grants (hazardous Waste)Grants (hazardous Waste)
Show details for Grants (municipal solid waste)Grants (municipal solid waste)
Show details for Groundwater MonitoringGroundwater Monitoring
Show details for Hazardous WasteHazardous Waste
Show details for Hazardous waste dataHazardous waste data
Show details for Hazardous Waste IdentificationHazardous Waste Identification
Show details for Hazardous Waste RecyclingHazardous Waste Recycling
Show details for Household Hazardous WasteHousehold Hazardous Waste
Show details for Identification of Hazardous WasteIdentification of Hazardous Waste
Show details for ImportsImports
Show details for IncinerationIncineration
Show details for IncineratorsIncinerators
Show details for Industrial FurnacesIndustrial Furnaces
Show details for Industrial WastesIndustrial Wastes
Show details for Jobs Through Recycling ProgramJobs Through Recycling Program
Show details for K-wastesK-wastes
Show details for Land Disposal RestrictionsLand Disposal Restrictions
Show details for Land Disposal UnitsLand Disposal Units
Show details for Land Treatment UnitsLand Treatment Units
Show details for LandfillsLandfills
Show details for Large Quantity Generators (LQG)Large Quantity Generators (LQG)
Show details for Legislation (hazardous waste)Legislation (hazardous waste)
Show details for Liability (Hazardous Waste)Liability (Hazardous Waste)
Show details for Listing Hazardous WasteListing Hazardous Waste
Show details for ManifestManifest
Show details for Medical WasteMedical Waste
Show details for Mercury WastesMercury Wastes
Show details for Military MunitionsMilitary Munitions
Show details for Mining WasteMining Waste
Show details for Miscellaneous UnitsMiscellaneous Units
Show details for Mixed Waste (radioactive waste)Mixed Waste (radioactive waste)
Hide details for Municipal Solid WasteMunicipal Solid Waste
02/01/2014Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2012Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2012. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. This fact sheet also explores the connection between personal consumer expenditures and the generation of wastes, part of EPA's attempt to seek a systematic approach that transitions from waste management to sustainable materials management (SMM). The full report incorporating the data tables is produced every other year and was last developed for the 2011 data.
 
05/01/2013Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2011 (Fact Sheet)Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2011. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. This fact sheet summarizes information contained in the full report, Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2011 Facts and Figures (EPA530-R-13-001).
 
05/01/2013Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2011 Facts and Figures (Full Report)Publication
 Description: This document describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2011. Specifically, this document provides information on MSW generation, recovery, and disposal from 1960 to 2011; per capita generation and discard rates; source reduction (waste prevention); materials that comprise MSW, as well as products found in the waste stream; aggregate data on the infrastructure for MSW management; and trends in MSW management from 1960 to 2011, including source reduction, recovery for recycling (including composting), and disposal via combustion and landfilling. The historical perspective presented in the document is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed.
 
11/01/2011Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2010Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2010. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. It is also accompanied by data tables that present detailed data that is produced each year and includes a summary of the methodology for developing this data. The full report incorporating these data tables is produced every other year and was last developed for the 2009 data.
 
10/01/2011RCRA Orientation Manual 2011Publication
 Description: This manual provides introductory information on the solid and hazardous waste management programs under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Designed for EPA and state staff, members of the regulated community, and the general public who wish to better understand RCRA, this document constitutes a review of the RCRA program and is not a substitute for RCRA or its implementing regulations. This document updates the 2008 RCRA Orientation Manual (EPA530-R-07-010).
 
09/19/2011Final Report of the Dialogue on Sustainable Financing of Recycling of Packaging at the Municipal LevelPublication
 Description: This report constitutes the work product of The Dialogue on Sustainable Financing of Recycling of Packaging at the Municipal Level. At the request of several state and local governments, EPA convened this multistakeholder initiative in summer 2010 to address financing challenges confronting recycling of packaging waste. This dialogue represented a significant opportunity to identify ways to reduce packaging waste, increase recycling, and reduce the overall impact of packaging materials on the environment. While the report is a result of an EPA-convened dialogue, the report is a work product of the dialogue participants, and not of EPA. Reference to any specific company or commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation or favoring by the United States Government.
 
07/01/2011Tribal Waste Journal: Innovations in Tribal Waste Management: Open Dump PreventionPublication
 Description: This issue of the Tribal Waste Journal relates information from tribal waste managers that are responsible for initiating, maintaining, and fostering support for new programs that provide ways to prevent open dumping. This issue aims to give a new perspective on open dumping by highlighting an assortment of successful environmental programs at various stages of development or implementation
 
12/01/2010Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2009 (Fact Sheet)Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2009. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. This fact sheet summarizes information contained in the full report, Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2009 Facts and Figures (EPA530-R-10-012).
 
12/01/2010Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2009 Facts and Figures (Full Report)Publication
 Description: This document describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2009. Specifically, this document provides information on MSW generation, recovery, and disposal from 1960 to 2009; per capita generation and discard rates; source reduction (waste prevention); materials that comprise MSW, as well as products found in the waste stream; aggregate data on the infrastructure for MSW management; and trends in MSW management from 1960 to 2009, including source reduction, recovery for recycling (including composting), and disposal via combustion and landfilling. The historical perspective presented in the document is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed.
 
07/01/2010Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 2010Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses a new study that shows that PAYT communities generate less waste; the Saving Money and Reducing Trash Benefit Evaluation Tool (SMART BET); the difference between proportional and variable price structuring; and PAYT programs in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Florida, Vermont, and Ohio.
 
11/01/2009Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2008Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2008. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. It is also accompanied by data tables that present detailed data that is produced each year, and includes a summary of our methodology for developing this data. The full report incorporating these data tables is produced every other year, and was last developed for the 2007 data.
 
09/01/2009SMART BET (Saving Money and Reducing Trash Benefit Evaluation Tool)Publication
 Description: This Excel-based tool is designed to help community waste managers decide whether unit-based pricing for solid waste management (also known as Pay-As-You-Throw or PAYT) is the right model for their town or city. SMART BET allows users, i.e., community waste managers, to input readily available information, such as tons of waste landfilled and recycled annually, local population, and landfill tip fees. The user may also provide a more detailed breakdown of the disposal and recycling streams, if this information is available. The tool then combines this information with nationwide average waste disposal data, typical SMART results, and greenhouse gas emission factors originally created for EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to provide the greenhouse gas and cost savings that your community is likely to see after implementation of PAYT.
 
09/01/2009Tribal Waste Journal: What is an Integrated Waste Management Plan (IWMP)?Publication
 Description: This issue of the Tribal Waste Journal discusses Integrated Waste Management Plans (IWMPs), which may offer tribes an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce open dumping, effectively manage solid waste, and protect human health and the environment for this generation and the next.
 
03/01/2009Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Spring 2009Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses articles in the Wall Street Journal and Parade Magazine about PAYT; international PAYT progress, including programs in the Czech Republic and Toronto; jobs created by recycling programs; and PAYT programs across the United States, including programs in San Francisco, New Hampshire, North Carolina, South Carolina, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.
 
11/01/2008Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2007 (Fact Sheet)Publication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2007. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. This fact sheet summarizes information contained in the full report, Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2007 Facts and Figures (EPA530-R-08-010).
 
11/01/2008Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2007 Facts and Figures (Full Report)Publication
 Description: This document describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2007. Specifically, this document provides information on MSW generation, recovery, and disposal from 1960 to 2007; per capita generation and discard rates; source reduction (waste prevention); materials that comprise MSW, as well as products found in the waste stream; aggregate data on the infrastructure for MSW management; and trends in MSW management from 1960 to 2007, including source reduction, recovery for recycling (including composting), and disposal via combustion and landfilling. The historical perspective presented in the document is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed.
 
07/01/2008Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 2008Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses PAYT programs in Hamilton and Dartmouth, Massachusetts; how the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection offers funding for PAYT; how New Hampshire has embraced PAYT, including the cities of Exeter, Newmarket, and Epping; how Bath and Brunswick, Maine, are reaping benefits from PAYT; how legislative action in Iowa has led to widespread implementation of PAYT; the possibility of a PAYT program for Hawaii; and international PAYT highlights, including Toronto, Taiwan, Scotland, and the rest of the United Kingdom.
 
06/01/2008A Collection of Solid Waste Resources, 2008 Edition (CD-ROM)Publication
 Description: This CD contains more than three hundred publications on hazardous and nonhazardous waste including Spanish publications. The publications cover many topics including recycling and reuse, buying recycled, hazardous waste management, composting, and used motor oil. In addition, the CD includes a wide variety of educational materials. The CD also contains information about the Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC), an innovative national effort to find flexible, yet protective, ways to conserve the nation's resources.
 
04/01/2008Border Scrap Tire Project Action PlansPublication
 Description: This document describes scrap tire projects that are occurring throughout the United States-Mexico border region, based on the four principles of scrap tire generation, pile prevention, pile cleanup, and management participation.
 
03/01/2008Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Helps Communities Plan Ahead for Natural DisastersPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the guidance document Planning for Natural Disaster Debris (EPA530-K-08-001), which helps communities prepare to clean up after natural disasters and manage disaster debris.
 
03/01/2008Planning for Natural Disaster DebrisPublication
 Description: This guidance document discusses the management of debris from natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornados, floods, wildfires, and winter storms. This document can help a planner begin the planning process or revise an existing disaster debris management plan and it provides planners with more awareness for environmental protectiveness when it comes to dealing with disaster debris.
 
11/01/2007Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: 2006 Facts and FiguresPublication
 Description: This fact sheet is the latest publication describing the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2006. It contains information on the benefits of recycling, as well as data on waste generation, recycling, and disposal. It is also accompanied by data tables that present detailed data that is produced each year, and includes a summary of our methodology for developing this data. The full report incorporating these data tables is produced every other year, and was last developed for the 2005 data.
 
10/01/2007Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 2007Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses the PAYT bagged leaf collection program in Longmeadow, Massachusetts; international PAYT programs in South Korea, Toronto, Ireland, and the United Kingdom; and how communities all over the country are finding new ways to reduce their waste through PAYT initiatives.
 
09/01/2007Teach English, Teach about the Environment: A Resource for Teachers of Adult English for Speakers of Other LanguagesPublication
 Description: This document can help instructors teach English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) to adult students while introducing basic concepts about the environment and individual environmental responsibility. These concepts can help the newly-arrived be part of cleaner and healthier communities by understanding and practicing the 3Rs of solid waste management: reduce, reuse, and recycle.
 
07/30/2007FIVE ELEMENTS OF A TRIBAL INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANMemo
 Description: Discusses five elements representing the basic items that should generally be included in a tribe’s IWMP for that plan to be conisdered adequate for GPRA purposes by EPA. A plan that does not contain all five elements may be counted in the Annual Commitments System (ACS) if one or more elements are not necessary for a tribe’s situation. 1) Description of the community service area. 2) Description of the Tribe’s waste management program structure and administration. 3) Description of the Tribe’s current and proposed waste management practices. 4) Description of the funding and sustainability and the long-term goals of the Tribe’s waste management program. 5) Documentation of approval of the IWMP by appropriate governing body.
 
07/01/2007Working Together for a Healthy Environment: A Guide for Multi-Cultural Community GroupsPublication
 Description: This document is designed to help community-based organizations and community leaders or activists plan and execute community events that promote the 3Rs of solid waste management: reduce, reuse, and recycle. Community groups are in a unique position to take the lead in raising awareness about resource conservation, good solid waste management, and safeguarding the environment for future generations. This guide provides ideas for community events, such as workshops, radio events, and other campaigns, and resources for developing these events.
 
05/01/2007Border 2012: U.S.-Mexico Border Scrap Tire Inventory Summary ReportPublication
 Description: This document and accompanying map provide an inventory of the major known scrap tire piles found in the entire United States-Mexico border area. This information is helping the United States and Mexico determine the most effective and efficient ways to clean up and prevent scrap tire piles in the border area and identify possible markets for scrap tires.
 
01/01/2007Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Winter 2007Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses new nationwide statistics that show more than 7,000 PAYT communities nationwide; several new PAYT programs across the country; and how Coca-Cola has been promoting PAYT to help meet its own goals.
 
01/01/2007RCC Scrap Tire Workgroup Summary of Action PlansPublication
 Description: This document discusses the Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC) Scrap Tire Workgroup, which contributes to the overall goals of the RCC. The five committees of the RCC Scrap Tire Workgroup have developed action plans in order to support the following overall goals of the workgroup: divert 85% of newly generated scrap tires to reuse, recycling, or energy recovery by 2008 (vs. 70% in 2003) and reduce by 55% the number of tires in existing (270 million in 2003) stockpiles by 2008.
 
10/01/2006Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2005 Facts and FiguresPublication
 Description: This document describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2005. Specifically, this document provides information on MSW generation, recovery, and disposal from 1960 to 2005; per capita generation and discard rates; source reduction (waste prevention); materials that comprise MSW, as well as products found in the waste stream; aggregate data on the infrastructure for MSW management; and trends in MSW management from 1960 to 2005, including source reduction, recovery for recycling (including composting), and disposal via combustion and landfilling. The historical perspective presented in the document is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed.
 
10/01/2006Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 2006Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses a campaign known as WasteWise Communities, through which local governments will have the opportunity to report reductions of residential household waste as a result of PAYT and other recycling programs; the success and results of PAYT in Massachusetts; Ireland's use of ""Pay-By-Use"" (the equivalent of PAYT); a pilot program for PAYT in the United Kingdom; and global research by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on household waste generation and recycling habits, including PAYT.
 
09/01/2006Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse Gases: A Life-Cycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks; 3rd EditionPublication
 Description: This report examines how municipal solid waste management and climate change are related. Management of municipal solid waste presents many opportunities for greenhouse gas emission reductions. Source reduction and recycling can reduce emissions at the manufacturing stage, increase forest carbon storage, and avoid landfill methane emissions. Combustion of waste allows energy recovery to displace fossil fuel-generated electricity from utilities, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the utility sector and landfill methane emissions. Diverting organic materials from landfills also reduces methane emissions.
 
08/11/2006Disposal of Domestic Birds Infected by Avian Influenza – An Overview of Considerations and OptionsPublication
 Description: This document provides information to state and local decision makers addressing disposal problems associated with domesticated bird carcasses (and associated fecal material) infected by the avian influenza virus H5N1. It provides a description of successful disposal management options for infected carcasses and identifies critical considerations for decision makers.
 
05/01/2006WasteWise Endorser ProgramPublication
 Description: This document describes the WasteWise Endorser Program, which is designed to help spread the WasteWise message to more organizations. Endorsers are state and local government agencies, trade associations, nonprofit organizations, and businesses that help their members, constituents, or customers realize that reducing solid waste makes good business sense.
 
03/01/2006Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Spring 2006Publication
 Description: This edition of the PAYT Bulletin discusses the rise of PAYT; another survey that supports PAYT; how international support for PAYT continues to grow; and whether littering is an undesired side effect of PAYT.
 
04/01/2005Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States: Facts and Figures for 2003Publication
 Description: This document provides a summary of the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2003. This historical perspective is useful for establishing trends in the types of MSW generated and in the ways they are managed, as well as determining where the United States needs to make environmental improvement.
 
11/12/2004CLASSIFICATION AND REVISION OF APRIL 6, 2004, MEMORANDUM ON RECOMMENDED INTERIM PRACTICES FOR DISPOSAL OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE (CWD) CARCASSES AND WASTESMemo
 Description: Interim practices for consideration of disposing chronic wasting disease wastes in a MSWLF. Practices include segregation of carcasses, management of leachate, daily cover considerations, and compliance with Part 258.
 
10/18/2004DERIVATION OF ENERGY FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: EPA encourages the use of municipal solid waste materials to produce energy in combustion units or to utilize the energy of landfill gases.
 
10/01/2004Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 2004Publication
 Description: This edition of the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin discusses the PAYT system in Kansas City, Missouri; how the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe is protecting the earth with PAYT; a small town in Spain that became the first Spanish residents to use PAYT; PAYT programs in the Czech Republic; a PAYT crusader in a Colorado Homeowners Association; and a college town that gets smart about PAYT.
 
09/29/2004MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE AND RECYCLINGMemo
 Description: The responsibility of handling trash is primarily left to the state and local authorities. The federal government relies on voluntary approaches to encourage recycling and support local waste management programs. Over 232 million tons of municipal solid waste is estimated to be generated each year, which is about 4.5 pounds of waste per person per day.
 
09/01/2004Catalog of Hazardous and Solid Waste Publications, 17th EditionPublication
 Description: This catalog is a directory of EPA documents relevant to the RCRA program that lists hazardous and solid waste documents released by EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW). The catalog is a select list of publications that are frequently requested and is not a comprehensive list of all documents available.
 
07/22/2004NOTICE AND CONSENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: The Federal government lacks the statutory authority to regulate notice and consent for transboundary movements of municipal solid waste under the bilateral agreement between the United States and Canada. The process for exporting hazardous waste to the US includes a notice of intent to export and a process whereby the US may consent to the import.
 
07/22/2004NOTICE AND CONSENT OF TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: The Federal government lacks the statutory authority to regulate notice and consent for transboundary movements of municipal solid waste under the bilateral agreement between the United States and Canada. The process for exporting hazardous waste to the US includes a notice of intent to export and a process whereby the US may consent to the import.
 
06/14/2004MOVEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FROM CANADA INTO MICHIGANMemo
 Description: All municipal solid waste (MSW) must be disposed of in a MSW landfill that is licensed and regularly inspected. Landfills must comply with requirements including responsible siting, safe operation and design, regular ground water monitoring, corrective action, closure and post-closure care. U.S. Customs Service visually inspects trucks importing waste for suspicious leaks and uses x-ray and radiation monitoring equipment.
 
04/06/2004RECOMMENDED INTERIM PRACTICES FOR DISPOSAL OF POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE CARCASSES AND WASTESMemo
 Description: States have used municipal solid waste landfills for disposal of potentially contaminated chronic wasting disease (CWD) waste carcasses. Municipal solid waste landfills where disposal occurs should be Part 258 compliant. Landfills withcomposite liner system and leachate collection system are preferrable and the leachate should be recirculated. A 20-foot base of municipal solid waste should be overlain by twelve inches absorbent material. Carcasses should then be placed on top of the absorbent material and lime, cement kiln dust, or other pH caustic should be added to fill the voids. Daily cover requirements include the immediate placement of 3 feet of municipal solid waste and then a final cover of 12 inches of an earthen material. Alternatives include a micro-vault or geomembrane-lined trench.(SUPERCEDED: Hale to Directors, 11/12/04 RO 14732)
 
03/12/2004DISPOSAL OF CANADIAN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN MICHIGAN LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: Canada is permitted to send trash to the U.S. by international law. Imported waste is managed according to U.S. regulations. Landfills are licensed and inspected by the state. Federal RCRA requirements and state regulations have rules to make landfill owners prevent leaks into the soil and water, cover the waste every day, and operate the landfills under careful controls.
 
03/01/2004Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Spring 2004Publication
 Description: This edition of the PAYT Bulletin discusses the PAYT programs of Fort Worth, TX, and Dubuque, IA; the Pay-By-Use program adopted in Ireland; OECD's recommendation of the use of PAYT; the online bulletin board discussion on PAYT hosted by Harvard University's Extension School; and Peter S. Menell, professor of law at University of California Berkeley, who has been promoting PAYT through his research and writings.
 
03/01/2004States May Issue Permit Variances for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (Fact Sheet)Publication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses EPA's proposed modifications to the federal criteria for municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLF) to allow EPA-approved states to issue research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) permits to MSWLF. The purpose of this action is to stimulate the development and use of safe, new alternative operational processes for disposal of municipal solid waste in landfills.
 
02/01/2004Tribal Waste Journal: Alaska Villages Chart Their Own Course Toward Solid Waste SolutionsPublication
 Description: This issue of the Tribal Waste Journal deals with several Alaskan villages that have overcome obstacles associated with solid waste management.
 
01/01/2004Pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) Online: People, Places, and PossibilitiesPublication
 Description: This flyer discusses the new online-only format of the PAYT initiative. As part of the online-only format, the PAYT Bulletin will no longer be available in hard-copy.
 
12/16/2003DISPOSAL OF CANADIAN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN NEW YORK LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: Shipments of municipal solid waste (MSW) between the U.S. and Canada occur routinely. The U.S. has a well-established regulatory system to determine what can be responsibly managed in landfills. Properly permitted and compliant MSW landfills enable solid waste disposal that appropriately minimizes the risk to public health and the environment.
 
11/01/2003Tribal Decision-Maker's Guide to Solid Waste ManagementPublication
 Description: This document discusses solutions to solid waste management problems faced by Native American tribes and villages, ways to improve existing solid waste systems, and how tribes and villages can develop new and more effective solid waste management programs.
 
10/01/2003Municipal Solid Waste in The United States: 2001 Facts and FiguresPublication
 Description: This document describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2001. This historical perspective is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways they are managed. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
10/01/2003Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 2003Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition celebrates ten years of growth and success of the PAYT program.
 
09/22/2003PRODUCT PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION AND RECYCLING Memo
 Description: EPA has no legal authority to establish regulations to use packaging with less environmental impacts. EPA works with states, communities, and businesses to encourage voluntary reduction of solid waste and educates citizens to choose products with packaging that is less environmentally harmful. Citizens can contact packaging associations and manufacturers about packaging standards and encourage companies to not use packaging with negative environmental impacts. The Federal government buys products made from recycled materials and issues recommendations on buying products with recycled content and other favorable attributes. Some states have legislation regarding product packaging.
 
08/26/2003TRANSBOUNDARY SHIPMENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAMemo
 Description: EPA is committed to the safe international movement of municipal solid waste from Canada into the United States. Currently, there is no statutory authority under RCRA for providing notice and consent of municipal solid waste imports and exports. EPA is working on a legislative proposal to Congress regarding the transboundary movement of waste between the United States and Canada. EPA is also working with Customs through a Memorandum of Understanding to address security concerns regarding transboundary shipments and to strengthen the cooperation between agencies to improve border security. EPA additionally works with the Canadian government, U.S. state agencies, and the Department of Homeland Security on border security issues.
 
08/26/2003TRANSBOUNDARY SHIPMENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAMemo
 Description: EPA is committed to the safe international movement of municipal solid waste from
Canada into the United States. Currently, there is no statutory authority under RCRA for providing notice and consent of municipal solid waste imports and exports. EPA is working on a legislative proposal to Congress regarding the transboundary movement of waste between the United States and Canada. EPA is also working with Customs through a Memorandum of Understanding to address security concerns regarding transboundary shipments and to strengthen the cooperation between agencies to improve border security. EPA additionally works with the Canadian government, U.S. state agencies, and the Department of Homeland Security on border security issues.
 
08/26/2003TRANSBOUNDARY SHIPMENTS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADAMemo
 Description: EPA is committed to the safe international movement of municipal solid waste from Canada into the United States. Currently, there is no statutory authority under RCRA for providing notice and consent of municipal solid waste imports and exports. EPA is working on a legislative proposal to Congress regarding the transboundary movement of waste between the United States and Canada. EPA is also working with Customs through a Memorandum of Understanding to address security concerns regarding transboundary shipments and to strengthen the cooperation between agencies to improve border security. EPA additionally works with the Canadian government, U.S. state agencies, and the Department of Homeland Security on border security issues.
 
05/21/2003DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BIOCYCLE AND EPA MSW DATAMemo
 Description: BioCycle and EPA data differ due to differences in their definitions of municipal solid waste (MSW). EPA's definition of MSW includes waste generated by households, businesses, and the nonmanufacturing component of industries. MSW is typically managed by the municipal government. EPA differentiates between combustion and landfilling in MSW in the United States: 2000 Facts and Figures (530-R-02-001). Not all combustion is waste-to-energy.
 
05/01/2003Tribal Waste Journal: Against All Odds: Transfer Stations TriumphsPublication
 Description: This issue of the Tribal Waste Journal deals with developing solid waste management plans that integrate transfer station operations with the rest of the solid waste management services.
 
05/01/2003WasteWise Resource Management: Innovative Solid Waste Contracting MethodsPublication
 Description: This document, developed by EPA’s WasteWise Program, explains the demonstrated additional cost savings and improved waste reduction through an innovative contracting strategy coined “resource management” (RM) and guides WasteWise partners and other organizations through the process of establishing a baseline for current waste streams, issuing a request for proposals, and designing a comprehensive waste management contract that utilizes RM. The appendices provide useful examples, such as a Request for Proposal template and compensation options.
 
03/01/2003Pay-As-You-Throw: A Cooling Effect on Climate Change Publication
 Description: This fact sheet describes the Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Program, explains how PAYT helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and addresses the measurement of greenhouse gas emission reductions.
 
03/01/2003Rules Changed to Help Accelerated Lead-Based Paint Removal (Fact Sheet)Publication
 Description: This fact sheet provides information about how EPA is reducing costs and removing obstacles associated with the disposal of residential lead-based paint. This action will speed up the removal of lead-based paint from older residences, thereby reducing health risks to children from lead.
 
01/06/2003TIRE PILES IN THE UNITED STATESMemo
 Description: States have the primary responsibility for municipal solid waste, including tires. Texas, New York, Colorado, Michigan, Alabama, and Ohio have the largest numbers of tires in stockpiles. State Scrap Tire Programs: A Quick Reference Guide (EPA530-B-99-002) and the Scrap Tire Management Council have information about scrap tires, including a list of contacts.
 
01/01/2003Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Winter 2003Publication
 Description: The PAYT Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This issue focuses on offering hope for New York City's Recycling Program.
 
11/19/2002WASTE REDUCTION AND RECYCLING IN THE UNITED STATESMemo
 Description: Handling trash is primarily the responsibility of state and local governments. EPA does not have the legal authority to require recycling or waste prevention. EPA relies on voluntary approaches to inspire recycling. Puzzled About Recycling’s Value? Look Beyond the Bin (EPA530-K-98-008) explains recycling’s benefits, including the conservation of natural resources, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions, and the expansion of the U.S. job market. The federal government tries to buy items that are made from recycled materials.
 
11/04/2002REDUCTION, RECYCLING, AND INTERSTATE TRANSPORT OF SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: EPA promotes waste recycling and reduction, especially through the Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC). Waste should be safely managed wherever it is sent.
 
10/31/2002SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATESMemo
 Description: Handling trash is primarily the responsibility of state and local authorities. Federal laws currently do not allow EPA to establish regulations requiring people to recycle trash. EPA relies on voluntary approaches by cooperating with states, communities, and businesses to encourage reuse, waste reduction, and recycling.
 
08/21/2002EPA'S ROLE IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMemo
 Description: Laws do not direct EPA to play a direct role in litter control. State and local governments are primarily responsible for managing solid waste and assessing fines. EPA encourages recycling. The document Puzzled About Recycling’s Value? Look Beyond the Bin explains recycling’s benefits.
 
07/17/2002RECYCLING OPTIONS FOR SCRAP TIRESMemo
 Description: Scrap tires can be reused or recycled in many ways, such as being used for reef building, recycled in asphalt paving, used for erosion control, and burned for energy recovery. The option of landfilling tires varies from state to state. EPA does not condone dumping tires on the land or in deep ocean canyons.
 
07/01/2002Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 2002Publication
 Description: The PAYT Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This issue focuses on global climate change and Pay-As-You-Throw.
 
07/01/2002RECYCLING OF PLASTIC WASTESMemo
 Description: EPA promotes a hierarchy of waste management options that includes waste prevention, followed by recycling, and finally disposal. EPA does not have the authority to require plastic collection and recycling. Plastics are difficult to recycle. States have attempted to improve the plastics recycling rate in a variety of ways. EPA focuses its efforts on creating better markets, improving collection efficiencies, and working with industry to improve the recyclability of the materials. The Jobs Through Recycling (JTR) program concentrates on improving the marketplace for recyclables.
 
06/24/2002CURRENT RECYCLING PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVESMemo
 Description: State and local authorities are primarily responsible for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). National laws do not allow EPA to establish federal recycling regulations. EPA publishes information, provides technical support, and develops voluntary programs to encourage recycling. Since materials collected for recycling are determined by existing markets, EPA helps to develop new markets and expand existing markets for recovered materials by working with states, local communities, businesses, trade associations, and consumers.
 
06/15/2002Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Proposes Rule To Allow States To Issue Research Development and Demonstration Permits For Municipal Solid Waste LandfillsPublication
 Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing this action to add new provisions to the Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) that will allow approved states to issue research, development and demonstration (RD&D) permits for landfill operations.
 
06/01/2002Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 2000 Facts and FiguresPublication
 Description: This report describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 2000. The historical perspective is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
06/01/2002Waste Transfer Stations: A Manual for Decision-Making (FINAL)Publication
 Description: Waste Transfer Stations: A Manual for Decision-Making is a voluntary guidance document that will help planners, builders, and operators of waste transfer stations ensure that their facilities do the best possible job with the least impact on the surrounding community.
 
05/01/2002Solid Waste Management: A Local Challenge With Global Impacts (Kit)Publication
 Description: This folder contains the following four fact sheets: What is Integrated Solid Waste Management (EPA 530-F-02-026a), How To Establish Recycling and Composting Programs (EPA 530-F-02-026b), What Are the Options For Waste Disposal (EPA 530-F-02-026c), and What Are the Components of Waste Collection and Transport (EPA 530-F-02-026d).
 
05/01/2002What Are the Components of Waste Collection and Transport?Publication
 Description: This fact sheet provides basic guidelines for planning waste collection and transport activities in cities. These guidelines support an ongoing process of improvements to waste practices through integrated solid waste management (ISWM). A case study at the end of this fact sheet shows how a community in Egypt benefited from implementing some of these guidelines.
 
05/01/2002What Are the Options For Waste Disposal?Publication
 Description: This fact sheet describes the dangers of open dumping and burning and explains procedures for proper landfill disposal and controlled burning. At the end of this fact sheet is an example of how using one of these options benefited the Gaza Strip.
 
05/01/2002What is Integrated Solid Waste Management?Publication
 Description: This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid waste, identifies the important issues you should consider when planning for solid waste management, and describes the link between solid waste management and climate change.
 
03/01/2002Reusable News, Spring 2002Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News contains articles on Wastewise partnering with Climate Neutral to reduce greenhouse gases and measuring the energy benefits of recycling.
 
01/01/2002Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Winter 2002Publication
 Description: The PAYT Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This issue focuses on Large Cities and Pay-As-You-Throw.
 
01/01/2002Recycling is Working in the United StatesPublication
 Description: The U.S. Recycling Economic Information (REI) Study is a groundbreaking national study that demonstrates the importance of recycling and reuse to the U.S. economy. The study, commissioned by EPA and numerous states through a cooperative agreement with the National Recycling Coalition, shows that recycling is working.
 
11/01/2001Reusable News, Fall 2001Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News contains articles on the link between climate change and waste management, product stewardship goes on-line, recycling program lures kids (hook, line, and sinker), recycled carpet, Wastewise encourages partners to adopt resource management, roadside landscaping turns to compost, and biobased products and energy.
 
09/05/2001POLLUTION AND LITTER CONTROLMemo
 Description: The United States now recycles over one quarter of household garbage due to efforts by citizens, community groups, businesses and governments. State and local governments further recycling through curbside recycling programs. Keep America Beautiful is one organization working to prevent litter in towns and cities.
 
09/05/2001USE OF MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVELS IN RCRA REGULATIONSMemo
 Description: The regulated community should comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) as stated in 40 CFR Appendix I, 258.40, and 265 Appendix III, not the MCLs as revised under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Most states have approved solid and/or hazardous waste programs and may have more stringent requirements.
 
07/01/2001Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1999 Facts and FiguresPublication
 Description: This report describes the national municipal solid waste (MSW) stream based on data collected from 1960 through 1999. The historical perspective is useful for establishing trends in types of MSW generated and in the ways it is managed. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
07/01/2001Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 2001Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition focuses on programs in San Francisco, Massachusetts, and Austin, as well as the effectiveness and economic incentives of PAYT programs.
 
03/21/2001BIOPLEX WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGYMemo
 Description: In 1989, EPA published an “Agenda for Action” that proposed a solid waste management hierarchy of waste prevention, recycling, and waste disposal. Communities should implement an integrated solid waste management plan according to their individual needs. EPA research has shown that recycling and source reduction activities produce greater greenhouse gas savings than energy recovery from waste-to-energy facilities or landfill gas-to-energy projects.
 
02/22/2001REPLACEMENT TIRE MANAGEMENT UNDER THE TRANSPORTATION, RECALL, ENHANCEMENT, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND DOCUMENTATION ACTMemo
 Description: The management of scrap tires, a form of municipal solid waste, is handled primarily at the state level. Figures from the Scrap Tire Management Council show that on average, over 270 million scrap tires are generated each year. The Transportation, Recall, Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act provides that in the case of a remedy involving replacement of tires, the manufacturer shall, to the extent possible, prevent replaced tires from being resold, and limit the disposal of replaced tires in landfills. Replaced tires would go instead to recycling, recovery, beneficial use, and incineration with energy recovery, where possible.
 
01/31/2001FUNDING FOR SCRAP TIRE RECYCLING FACILITIESMemo
 Description: The Municipal Solid Waste Funding Authority provides limited funding to governments or non-profit organizations for programs addressing municipal solid waste generation and management problems. The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program provides funding to private and non-profit small businesses to conduct research on new technologies, products, and processes. The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers the 504 Certified Development Company Loan Program and the 7(a) Loan Guarantee Program, which provide long-term, fixed asset financing to small businesses.
 
01/01/2001Waste Transfer Stations: Involved Citizens Make the Difference Publication
 Description: This booklet describes key information needed to develop an opinion about a proposed or modified transfer station. It contains information on what role transfer stations play in the community, how they might impact the community, and how you as a concerned citizen can participate in the decisions concerning their location and operation.
 
12/28/2000DISPOSAL OF VIDEO MONITORS IN LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: EPA is exploring ways of encouraging greater recycling of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and electronic devices. EPA is developing regulation under RCRA that would promote recycling of CRTs and reuse and recycling of CRT glass.
 
12/26/2000COMPOSTING AND LANDFILLING OF YARD WASTESMemo
 Description: EPA does not have authority under RCRA to require recycling or to impose waste disposal bans. Management of municipal solid waste is regulated by state and local governments. EPA promotes alternative management methods such as composting.
 
12/05/2000DISPOSAL OF SPENT HOUSEHOLD SMOKE DETECTORSMemo
 Description: Waste smoke detectors are not hazardous wastes but may be subject to state or local solid waste provisions. Household smoke detectors contain americium 241, a metallic radionuclide that is byproduct material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.
 
11/09/2000DISPOSAL OF SCRAP TIRES FROM BRIDGESTONE/FIRESTONE INC. RECALLMemo
 Description: Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. has estimated that the recall will affect 6.5 million tires. A majority of recalled tires are being shredded and beneficially reused as fuel or recycled as crumb rubber. Over 270 million scrap tires are generated per year in United States.
 
10/06/2000RECYCLING AND SOURCE REDUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BEVERAGE CONTAINERSMemo
 Description: Currently EPA does not have statutory authority under RCRA to establish regulations for recycling or source reduction or to mandate a national deposit-refund system for beverage containers. EPA has set national goal to recycle 35% of municipal solid waste (MSW) by 2005.
 
09/01/2000Office of Solid Waste Publications ListPublication
 Description: This document provides a bibliography of available resources in the following areas: Combustion/incineration, composting, educational materials, Spanish documents, general OSW docs, hazardous waste, land disposal restrictions, landfilling, medical wastes, municipal solid waste, newsletters, oil and gas, source reduction, recycling, tribal/Native American, and used oil.
 
07/01/2000Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 2000Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. Articles in this issue highlight pay-as-you-throw efforts in Massachusetts as well as other "superstars" from coast-to-coast.
 
06/20/2000ORGANIC WASTE DISPOSALMemo
 Description: EPA is undertaking a complete review of municipal solid waste landfill regulations and seeks information on leachate recirculaton, landfilling of sewage sludge, and bioreactor landfills (SEE ALSO: 65 FR 18014; 4/6/00). EPA will also be proposing standards for landfill gas in 40 CFR Part 60.
 
04/07/2000LABELING OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN PRODUCTSMemo
 Description: EPA does not have authority to regulate household hazardous waste (HHW) or the labeling of these products. EPA’s authority is limited to issuing criteria for design of municipal solid waste landfills. The collection, transport, and disposal of HHW and other municipal solid wastes are state and local community issues.
 
04/01/2000Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Requests Information on Bioreactor Landfills and Performance of Alternative Liners for Landfills When Leachate is RecirculatedPublication
 Description: Announces that EPA is considering revisions to the Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (40 CFR Part 258) with respect to the use of alternative liners when landfill leachate is recirculated and with respect to allowing the operation of landfills as more advanced bioreactors. Requests information from the public on these types of landfill processes.
 
03/23/2000INTERSTATE TRANSPORT OF SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: EPA has no authority to regulate transport of waste between states. Commerce Clause of U.S. Constitution prohibits states from erecting barriers to interstate commerce by reserving power to regulate commerce for the Congress.
 
03/21/2000MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTMemo
 Description: EPA promotes integrated waste management approach. Management options include source reduction, recycling, combustion and landfilling.
 
01/01/2000Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Winter 2000Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition chronicles the rate setting activities of Portland, Oregon, and the implementation process in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia. It also provides a glimpse of the brand new program in Portland, Maine.
 
12/01/1999Collection Efficiency: Strategies for SuccessPublication
 Description: Provides new strategies for improving collection efficiency Discusses reducing collection frequency, automating collection, decreasing fleet size with dual collection, increasing employee productivity, and contracting and competition.
 
11/01/1999Environmental Fact Sheet: Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Standards Available for CommentPublication
 Description: Announces EPA's review of MSW landfill standards under Section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act.
 
11/01/1999Getting More for Less: Improving Collection EfficiencyPublication
 Description: Summarizes information presented to participants at a series of national workshops on collection efficiency. Defines collection efficiency as picking up more solid waste or recyclables using fewer trucks or fewer people or less time. Focuses on four specific cost-cutting strategies: changing collection frequency, improving routing, automating collection, and implementing dual collection. Outlines steps for designing changes to a collection system. Includes resources.
 
11/01/1999National Source Reduction Characterization Report for Municipal Solid Waste in the United States Publication
 Description: Estimates the amount of waste not created over a certain period of time. Examines factors that drive waste prevention activities, such as changes in design practices, operational changes, policy trends, and new technologies. Explains the methodology used to generate all the source reduction estimates presented in the report. Provides data on source reduction for the MSW stream as a whole, as well as for its component materials and product categories. Profiles source reduction activities of individual organizations, featuring backyard composting, elimination of unnecessary packaging, lightweighting, and material reuse. Includes glossary and appendices.
 
10/18/1999SUGGESTED FEDERAL PROGRAM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENTMemo
 Description: RCRA was enacted in 1976 to address the huge volumes of municipal and industrial solid waste generated nationwide. EPA’s internet site provides information on hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, and special waste. EPA has not developed a special logo or graphic for these types of waste. The Agency’s EMPACT program works with communities to collect, manage, and present environmental information.
 
09/24/1999EPA’S APPROACH TO RECYCLINGMemo
 Description: Handling trash is primarily the responsibility of state and local authorities. EPA cannot establish regulations requiring people to recycle; EPA instead relies on voluntary approaches and working cooperatively with states, communities, and businesses to encourage recycling.
 
09/24/1999MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: The number of municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLF) decreased from 8,000 in 1988 to 2,400 in 1996. In 1991, EPA created regulations on location, operation, design, and monitoring of MSWLFs. Handling trash is primarily the responsibility of state and local governments. The recycling of garbage increased by 67 percent between 1990 and 1996.
 
09/01/1999Biosolids Generation, Use, and Disposal in the United StatesPublication
 Description: Defines biosolids as the solid organic matter produced from municipal wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially used, especially as a soil amendment. Summarizes the various treatment, use, and disposal practices for biosolids and includes brief references to regulatory requirements. Provides estimates of the amount of biosolids generated, recovered, and disposed of in the U.S. Discusses current and possible future trends in the generation, use, and disposal of biosolids through 2010. Outlines beneficial uses of biosolids, addresses concerns about beneficial use, and presents several case studies that illustrate a variety of successful biosolids management programs. Appendix provides methodology used and detailed results of data analyses. Includes tables and figures.
 
09/01/1999Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1998 UpdatePublication
 Description: This document characterizes MSW from 1960 to 1997 and discusses trends and highlights changes that have occurred over the years. It includes information on total MSW generation, recovery, and discards from 1960 to 1997; per capita generation and discard rates; materials that comprise MSW, as well as products found in the waste stream; aggregate data on the infrastructure for MSW management, including estimates of the number of curbside recycling programs, drop-off centers, materials recovery facilities, and composting programs in the United States; trends in MSW management from 1960 to 1997; and projections of MSW generation to the year 2000. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
09/01/1999Environmental Fact Sheet: Source Reduction of Municipal Solid WastePublication
 Description: Outlines the significant growth in solid waste generation in the U.S. and the impact of source reduction on the national waste stream. Defines source reduction and addresses source reduction versus recycling. Profiles some key source reduction strategies. Addresses how source reduction affects climate change. Lists resources for further information.
 
09/01/1999Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 1999Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition focuses on the increasing global trend toward PAYT. The newsletter reports on the success of PAYT programs in Canada and Australia.
 
09/01/1999Reusable News (Fall 1999)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News focuses on the third annual America Recycles Day, scheduled for November 15, 1999. The newsletter also announces the Characterization in Municipal Solid Waste, 1998 Update report, highlights documents that report successful waste reduction programs, and lists additional recycling resources.
 
08/01/1999State Scrap Tire Programs: A Quick Reference Guide, 1999 UpdatePublication
 Description: This reference guide summarizes each state's scrap tire management legislation and programs in a matrix for each state program. It is intended to provide state regulators, as well as members of industry, with a quick reference on state scrap tire programs across the country. Information provided in the matrix includes state contacts; legislation and regulations about scrap tires; funding sources and fees authorized by the state, regulations applicable to collectors, sellers, and haulers; the storage and processor regulations; disposal restrictions; financial and market incentives to available to foster better scrap tire disposal/recycling management and reduction; and any other relevant information, such as special field tests or innovative uses for scrap tires.
 
07/01/1999Organic Materials Management StrategiesPublication
 Description: This document describes seven composting strategies for organic materials in the U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) stream. The report provides an analysis of of the benefits and costs of each strategy, the potential for diverting organic materials from landfills or waste-to-energy facilities, and the potential markets for diverted organic materials.
 
06/01/1999Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show HowPublication
 Description: Describes the creation of the Waste Reduction Record-Setters Project by the Institute for Local Self-Reliance, in cooperation with the EPA. Identifies successful waste reduction programs in communities, businesses, and other organizations and encourages their replication. Explains methodology used. Addresses keys to residential and institutional/commercial program success, cost-effectiveness, tips for replication. Includes tables, figures, list of abbreviations, and definitions of terms used in the report.
 
04/07/1999EPA's Pay-As-You-Throw Products and ToolsPublication
 Description: This document briefly defines the PAYT concept and describes and provides an order form for various PAYT products.
 
03/01/1999Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Spring 1999Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition announces the availability of the Rate Structure Design: Setting Rates For A Pay-As-You-Throw Program (EPA530-R-99-006), and reviews the concept of rate structure design. The bulletin also provides a sample of rate structures in various communities.
 
02/01/1999Preparing No-Migration Demonstrations for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Screening ToolPublication
 Description: This document is designed to assist owners and operators of MSW landfills to rapidly, but tentatively, determine their likelihood of preparing a successful no-migration demonstration (NMD) under the groundwater monitoring exemptions in 40 CFR 258.50(b). This screening tool does not provide in-depth discussions of technical, site-specific factors that must be measured and modeled during the latter stages of preparing a NMD, nor does it provide a definitive process for issuing a NMD. The document instead presents a profile of information from 17 NMDs filed by owners of MSWLFs who were successful in securing no-migration exemptions, and includes a practical, step-by-step approach for applying major screening factors.
 
12/16/1998LANDFILL LEACHATE RECIRCULATION POLICYMemo
 Description: Leachate recirculation in municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) is allowed in units that are constructed with a composite liner, but is not allowed in MSWLF units that are constructed with alternative liner designs. The statement in the “Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria - Technical Manual” indicating that the director of an approved state could allow leachate recirculation in MSWLF units constructed with alternative liner designs is incorrect. It is EPA’s intention to review and evaluate the technology of leachate recirculation and to propose a rule change in Fiscal Year 1999 if sufficient data is found to justify a change.
 
12/01/1998Full Cost Accounting in Action: Case Studies of Six Solid Waste Management AgenciesPublication
 Description: Illustrates the ways that different agencies developed unique FCA systems and applied those systems to address local issues, ranging from establishing user fees to cover service costs to developing a financial strategy for closing an ash landfill. For each case study provides information on MSW system operations and costs, describes local FCA data and its developments, and explains how these data were used to address one or more local issues. Highlights the overarching uses and benefits of FCA rather than the early planning stages of incorporating FCA into existing budget and accounting procedures. Includes FCA glossary.
 
12/01/1998Municipal Solid Waste Source Reduction: A Snapshot of State InitiativesPublication
 Description: Examines state source reduction activities across the U.S. Highlights state goals or mandates that call for source reduction. Describes source reduction activities, reuse programs, and procurement guidelines in place within state operations and facilities. Addresses residential programs targeted to consumers and households. Presents state efforts to assist the business community in learning about source reduction options. Relates state assistance to municipal source reduction programs, primarily in the form of grants and other technical assistance. Includes exhibits and tables.
 
12/01/1998Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Winter 1998 Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition features the Pay-As-You-Throw video (EPA530-V-98-001). The newsletter summarizes the video, includes quotes from PAYT participants, and provides an order form.
 
09/01/1998Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 1998Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This issue highlights the PAYT efforts in Tacoma, Washington as well as state PAYT initiatives and references to events around the country.
 
08/01/1998Pay-As-You-Throw Video: A New Trend in Sustainable Solid Waste ManagementPublication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) video uses firsthand reports from community planners, solid waste experts, and researchers to review the PAYT program. The first module in the video, "Getting To Know PAYT," serves as a general introduction to the program. The second module, "The Nuts and Bolts of Implementing a PAYT Program," provides more detailed information about design and operational issues associated with PAYT.
 
07/01/1998Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Summer 1998Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition discusses the personalized outreach of PAYT programs, prevention of illegal dumping, and other PAYT events.
 
05/01/1998Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1997 UpdatePublication
 Description: This publication provides information on the recycling rates of individual materials in the United States during 1996. It also discusses the waste management practices currently used by municipalities. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
05/01/1998CRITERIA FOR MEETING THE SMALL, ARID, AND REMOTE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL EXCLUSIONQuestion & Answer
 Description: When determining whether a landfill meets the criteria for the small, arid, or remote landfill exemption, the amount of solid waste actually placed on the land (e.g., buried), must be counted toward the 20 tons per day average. Waste accepted for recycling or incineration need not be counted toward the average.
 
03/01/1998Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Spring 1998Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition focuses on the PAYT program in Massachusetts, the PAYT Web site, and PAYT research, workshops, and events.
 
02/01/1998Questions and Answers about Full Cost AccountingPublication
 Description: This brochure describes how full cost accounting works and how it can benefit communities that use it. The document provides a description of how the program integrates all of the costs associated with municipal solid waste disposal in order to better assess disposal costs.
 
12/01/1997Partnership in Solid Waste ManagementPublication
 Description: This tip sheet describes working in partnerships with other tribes, states, or local governments to address solid waste management issues. It discusses why partnerships are beneficial, what obstacles impede partnership, and how to develop a partnership agreement. The tip sheet provides a list of other partnership resources and a case study describing the partnership of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians with Swain County, North Carolina.
 
12/01/1997SITE-SPECIFIC FLEXIBILITY REQUESTS FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS IN INDIAN COUNTRYMemo
 Description: The site-specific flexibility guidance is not intended to sanction illegal dumping activity or promote sub-standard landfill management practices on Indian lands; the document establishes a process to issue site-specific rules that provide owners and operators of municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLF) in Indian Country the same flexibility afforded to landfills in states with approved programs
 
09/18/1997DEFINITION OF “END OF OPERATING DAY” FOR MSWLFSMemo
 Description: States are responsible for issuing municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permits, conducting site visits, enforcement, and all other implementation activities; owner and operators of MSWLFs in approved states should seek clarification on the definition of “end of an operating day” from their state agency.
 
09/01/1997Full Cost Accounting for Municipal Solid Waste Management: A HandbookPublication
 Description: This document introduces Full Cost Accounting (FCA) and describes how FCA identifies what MSW management costs, explains the peaks and valleys in MSW cash expenditures, illustrates MSW costs to citizens more clearly, adopts a businesslike approach to MSW management, develops a stronger position in negotiating with vendors, evaluates the appropriate mix of MSW services, and fine-tunes MSW programs. addresses compilation of FCA data, allocating costs, and reporting FCA data. Includes glossary of FCA terms.
 
09/01/1997Measuring Recycling: Guide for State and Local GovernmentsPublication
 Description: Contains instruction, definitions, case studies, tips, forms, and worksheets to help state and local governments calculate an MSW recycling rate. Provides information to help track broad as well as commodity specific categories of recycled materials. Establishes a voluntary, uniform method for calculating recycling rates. Offers advice and recommendations for obtaining accurate data, minimizing double counting, identifying possible errors or omissions in data, establishing relationships with the private sector to obtain commercial recycling data, ensuring the private sector's confidentiality when reporting data, using national waste characterization data to estimate waste generation when disposal data are not available, accounting for imports and exports of MSW and recyclable materials, streamlining and improving data collection, and reducing recycling measurement costs. Appendices include glossary, standard volume-to-weight conversion factors, survey forms, recycling rate worksheets, resources, sample language for Freedom of Information Act exemption, sample cover letters, and a methodology adjusting waste generation.
 
09/01/1997Native American Network (September 1997)Publication
 Description: This issue of the Native American Network features the White Mountain Apache Tribe's efforts to close a former dump site and discusses two new EPA grant programs for Indian Country. Other articles include the formation of the Tribal Association on Solid Waste and Emergency Response (TASWER), EPA's Solid Waste Circuit Rider program, new flexibility for small landfills, expansion of the WasteWi$e program to tribal governments, Southern Ute Indian Tribe co-sponsors a solid waste round table with EPA, Tribal Operations Committee (TOC), and site-specific flexibility for landfills in Indian Country. Resources featured include grant resources for solid waste activities in Indian Country, publications on solid waste and mining waste management in Indian Country, and a tip sheet on the upcoming deadlines for municipal solid waste landfills.
 
09/01/1997Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin: Fall 1997Publication
 Description: The Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) Bulletin is designed to help solid waste planners and others get the latest pay-as-you-throw news and events. This edition discusses new studies that document the results of PAYT programs and the PAYT videoconference.
 
08/01/1997Site-Specific Flexibility Requests for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Indian Country: Draft GuidancePublication
 Description: This document sets out a process designed to help owners and operators in requesting flexibility in federal municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) rules in Indian Country and to help EPA Regional offices in reviewing and processing such requests.
 
07/01/1997Geosynthetic Clay Liners Used in Municipal Solid Waste LandfillsPublication
 Description: Describes geosynthetic liners (GCLs), a new and innovative technology that meets federal performance standards of the Criteria for MSWLFs (40 CFR 258), used as a barrier system in MSWLF applications. Discusses GCL technology materials, hydraulic conductivity, shear strength and other characteristics, and testing. Lists available GCL products, their installation, and costs. Addresses performance factors and design and installation standards. Provides case studies. Includes references and sources of additional information.
 
07/01/1997Landfill ReclamationPublication
 Description: Describes landfill reclamation, a new and innovative technology that meets the federal performance standards of the Criteria for MSWLFs (40 CFR Part 258), used to expand MSWLF capacity and avoid the high cost of acquiring additional land. Discusses the reclamation process: excavation, soil separation (i.e., screening), and processing for reclamation of recyclable material or disposal. Lists steps in project planning: conduct a site characterization study, assess potential economic benefits, investigate regulatory requirements, establish a preliminary worker health and safety plan, and assess project costs. Discusses benefits and drawbacks. Provides case studies. Includes references and sources of additional information.
 
05/12/1997DISPOSAL OF FROZEN STRAWBERRIES CONTAMINATED WITH HEPATITIS A VIRUSMemo
 Description: The disposal of frozen strawberries contaminated with hepatitis A virus in a properly operated and maintained municipal solid waste landfill is appropriate and does not pose a risk of infection to disposal workers or the general public.
 
05/01/1997Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1996 UpdatePublication
 Description: This report analyzes municipal solid waste generation and management trends in the United States from 1960 to 1995 and the benefits of source reduction and recycling. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
04/01/1997Pay-As-You-Throw Fact Sheet: Throw Away Less and SavePublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the benefits and disadvantages of using pay-as-you-throw programs in your community.
 
04/01/1997Pay-As-You-Throw: A Fact Sheet for MSW PlannersPublication
 Description: This fact sheet for municipal solid waste planners discusses the benefits and disadvantages of using pay-as-you-throw programs in their community.
 
03/04/1997MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS AND OTHER WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODSMemo
 Description: No Congressional mandate exists for EPA to establish landfill standards that represent state-of-the-art technology. New landfills and lateral expansions of existing landfills must meet a performance standard based on releases to groundwater or be constructed with a liner and leachate collection system. Existing landfills may be lined or unlined (i.e., they are not required to retrofit liner systems). All landfill units must monitor releases, take corrective action in the event of a release, and meet post-closure care requirements. EPA requires financial assurance for all landfills by April 1997. The deadline may be extended for one year if the owner or operator has insufficient time to comply. Composting is a form of recycling. The solid waste management hierarchy considers source reduction to be the preferred solid waste management option, followed by recycling (including composting), combustion (with energy recovery), and landfilling. EPA has two on-going studies on resource recovery. An ORD study to develop a life-cycle inventory database and decision-support tool for solid waste managers and a study to develop a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for municipal solid waste.
 
03/01/1997Financial Responsibility for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: An Introduction For Local Governments Publication
 Description: This document provides a brief overview of the requirements for owners and operators of MSW landfills to demonstrate financial responsibility for certain costs associated with their landfills, and enumerates the seven financial mechanisms that owners and operators may use to demonstrate financial responsibility. It also lists regional and headquarters MSW contacts.
 
03/01/1997Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Municipal Waste Management (Draft Working Paper)Publication
 Description: Examines the relationship between MSW management and climate change and explores how different management options for MSW may reduce or increase greenhouse gas emissions. Includes methodology for the study. Addresses raw materials acquisition and manufacturing, forest carbon sequestration, source reduction and recycling, composting, combustion, landfilling, and accounting for emission reductions.
 
03/01/1997Reusable News (Spring 1997)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News includes articles discussing EPA's solid waste sites on the Internet and the Jobs Through Recycling program. The newsletter also includes a progress report on EPA's Wastewi$e program.
 
01/01/1997LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTION NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR DECHARACTERIZED MIXED WASTE SENT TO AN ATOMIC ENERGY ACT LANDFILLQuestion & Answer
 Description: A generator treating prohibited characteristic mixed waste and rendering it nonhazardous must send a one-time notification and certification to EPA Region or authorized state if waste is sent to Atomic Energy Act (AEA) landfill; because 4004 prohibits open dumping of solid waste, the decharacterized waste can be sent to AEA landfill only if it meets Subtitle D criteria of Part 257 or 258
 
12/03/1996Reusable News (November/December 1996)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News includes articles discussing the benefits of recycling, an update of the Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines, and extending product responsibility. The newsletter also includes a progress report on EPA's Wastewi$e program.
 
11/01/1996Environmental Fact Sheet: Assurance Mechanisms Finalized for Local Government Owners of MSWLFsPublication
 Description: The Local Government Financial Test was proposed December 27, 1993 in response to comments from local governments requesting flexibility in meeting the financial assurance requirements of the Solid Waste Disposal Criteria promulgated on October 9, 1991. The Test allows local governments to meet their financial assurance obligations for closure, postclosure care and corrective action pursuant to the Criteria by demonstrating their financial strength. The effective date for these financial assurance requirements is now April 9, 1997 (small, dry, or remote landfills have until October 9, 1997 to comply).
 
09/12/1996OPTIONS FOR DISPOSING OF LEAD CONTAMINATED SOIL REMOVED FROM RESIDENTIAL AND PUBLIC BUILDING PROPERTYMemo
 Description: Lead contaminated soils that qualify for the household hazardous waste exclusion are exempt from RCRA Subtitle C but remain subject to RCRA Subtitle D disposal requirements when disposed off-site. A landfill that accepts household waste is regulated as a municipal solid waste landfill subject to Part 258. The HWIR-Media rule may not fully address concerns about RCRA's potential effect on lead abatement programs (SEE ALSO: 63 FR 65873; 11/30/98). EPA is interested in a rule that will accommodate routine cleanup activities such as lead abatement programs.
 
08/01/1996Full Cost Accounting Resource GuidePublication
 Description: This document identifies resources on Full Cost Accounting (FCA) for local elected and appointed officials and solid waste managers. Contains listings of federal, state, and local government documents, as well as materials produced by trade and professional groups. Presents information on how to order documents and their cost, when available, in each section. Also includes names of individuals in communities that are in various stages of implementing FCA.
 
07/17/1996Reusable News (August/September 1996)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News discusses the Full Cost Accounting Roundtable held by the International City/County Management Association, grants awarded by EPA's Jobs Through Recycling Program, an announcement of the second anniversary of the Waste Wi$e program, and information on reusing plastic packing peanuts and old mattresses. Also included in this issue is information on a meeting for industrial D Stakeholders, flexibility for small MSWLFs, closure and postclosure plans for MSWLFs and local governments, and managing solid waste on Tribal Lands. Additionally, several new documents are announced.
 
05/30/1996List of Municipal Solid Waste LandfillsPublication
 Description: This document provides a list of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills by state or territory.
 
05/03/1996Pay-As-You-Throw Workbook: A Supplement to EPA's Pay-As-You-Throw GuidebookPublication
 Description: This workbook is designed to supplement the guide, Pay-As-You-Throw: Lessons Learned About Unit Pricing (EPA530-R-94-004) . It includes a set of tools to help local officials plan out a program, convey the results of this work in presentations, and develop an outreach program to earn community support for pay-as-you-throw. The workbook also contains reprinted articles and reference materials officials can use to learn more about these programs.
 
05/01/1996REVISIONS TO THE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL CRITERIA TO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY TO STATES WITH EPA-APPROVED PROGRAMSMemo
 Description: The Land Disposal Program Flexibility Act of 1996 requires EPA to promulgate revisions to the municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) criteria to provide flexibility to states with approved programs to allow MSWLFs receiving less than 20 tons per day to use alternative frequencies for daily cover application and gas monitoring, and to allow alternative final covers and means to demonstrate financial assurance. The revisions must be promulgated by March 26, 1998. EPA is unable to predict a schedule for final rule promulgation. EPA believes small communities can carry out the current requirements without imposing a major resource burden (SEE ALSO: 62 FR 40708; 7/29/97).
 
02/27/1996CLARIFICATION OF THE ""MIXTURE RULE,"" THE ""CONTAINED-IN"" POLICY, LDR ISSUES, AND ""POINT OF GENERATION"" FOR U096Memo
 Description: U096 spilled on soil is subject to the contained-in policy. The contained-in policy does not specify levels at which contained-in determinations must be made. EPA leaves contained-in determinations to the discretion of the implementing agency. Under the Section 261.3(a)(2)(iii) mixture rule exemption, mixture of hazardous waste listed solely for exhibiting a characteristic (e.g., U096) and solid waste that no longer exhibits a characteristic can be disposed in a subtitle D landfill, but must still meet land disposal restrictions treatment standards (SEE ALSO: 268.3; 61 FR 18780; 4/29/96; 66 FR 27266; 5/16/01).
 
02/05/1996Reusable News Bulletin (January/February 1996)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News provides an update on EPA’s Jobs Through Recycling program, and an introduction to the Buy Recycled Institute which was launched by EPA and the US Conference of Mayors to provide one-day workshops around the country to teach participants how to identify recycling markets. It also contains an overview of the services provided by The Environmental Recycling Hotline, and a summary of the goals of the National Backyard Composting Council. Brief summaries of four new solid waste management documents are also included in the newsletter.
 
02/01/1996Reglamento de Residuos Universales (Spanish - The Universal Waste Rule Brochure)Publication
 Description: Spanish version of The Universal Waste Rule: Brochure. This flyer provides an overview of EPA’s Universal Waste Rule which is designed to reduce the amount of hazardous waste in the municipal solid waste stream, encourage recycling and proper disposal of certain common hazardous wastes, and reduce the regulatory burden on businesses that generate these wastes. The document includes an overview of what universal wastes are, who is affected by the rule, and the states role in implementation.
 
01/29/1996Making Solid (Waste) Decisions With Full Cost AccountingPublication
 Description: This document provides decision-makers with a method of compiling detailed cost information on MSW services in their communities; briefly defines FCA, which includes direct and indirect operating expenses as well as past and future expenses; explains how FCA works, along with its benefits and potential barriers; and provides snapshot examples of how communities are using FCA to improve their MSW operations.
 
01/01/1996Environmental Fact Sheet: Proposed Procedures and Criteria for Determining Adequacy of State/Tribal Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permitting ProgramsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the requirements for public involvement during the permit application process. It also describes the advantage of flexibility that a state or tribe will obtain with approval of their permitting program.
 
12/01/1995Source Reduction BibliographyPublication
 Description: This document outlines source reduction resources and publications that are available to municipal solid waste planners, policy makers, and others involved in managing or implementing programs on waste prevention. The bibliography is organized into ten source reduction topics, including Business and Industrial Program Development/Guidance, Community Source Reduction Program Development/Guidance, Materials Exchange, Policy/Legislation, and Variable Rates/Unit Pricing.
 
07/01/1995Guidance for the Sampling and Analysis of Municipal Waste Combustion Ash for the Toxicity CharacteristicPublication
 Description: This document contains guidance to assist generators of ash from municipal waste combustion facilities in determining whether the ash is hazardous because it exhibits the toxicity characteristic. It also discusses typical concerns during ash sampling, analysis using the TCLP, the importance of quality assurance and quality control, and criteria for evaluating data. There is also a listing of resources for designing a sampling and analysis plan and an appendix of definitions used in the guidance.
 
06/01/1995DESIGN CRITERIA EXEMPTION FOR SMALL, ARID, REMOTE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Small municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) in arid or remote areas (those that are exempt from MSWLF design criteria provided there is no groundwater contamination) must work towards compliance with design standards immediately upon the discovery of contamination.
 
05/15/1995Environmental Fact Sheet: Effective Date Delayed for Landfill Financial Assurance RequirementsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet summarizes a final rule under RCRA Subtitle D that delayed the effective date for compliance with financial assurance requirements for owners and operators of all municipal solid waste landfill facilities until April 9, 1997.
 
04/05/1995DELAY RULE FOR SUBTITLE D FINANCIAL ASSURANCEMemo
 Description: April 9, 1997 is the new deadline for municipal solid waste landfills to obtain financial assurance. This delay will allow the development of local government and corporate financial test mechanisms.
 
03/22/1995REVISED IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FOR CITY OF CHICAGO V. EDF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (MWC) ASH SUPREME COURT DECISIONMemo
 Description: Ash from waste-to-energy facilities burning municipal solid waste (MSW) is no longer exempt from Subtitle C if it exhibits characteristics under 3001(i). Municipal waste combustor ash must be evaluated for characteristics at the point the ash leaves the resource recovery facility, making the mixing of bottom and fly ash prior to a hazardous waste determination impossible in some cases (SEE ALSO: 10/1/94-02; 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94; 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95).
 
03/15/1995Environmental Fact Sheet: Report to Congress on Flow Control and Municipal Solid WastePublication
 Description: Announces EPA's Report to Congress on Flow Control and Municipal Solid Waste. Indicates that flow controls are an administratively effective tool for local governments to plan and fund solid waste management systems. Discusses how protection of human health and the environment is related to implementation and enforcement of federal, state, and local environmental regulations rather than flow control measures. Points out that flow control is not essential for developing municipal solid waste management capacity or for achieving recycling goals.
 
03/15/1995Report to Congress on Flow Control and Municipal Solid WastePublication
 Description: This report discusses flow controls, defined as legal authorities used by state and local governments to designate where municipal solid waste (MSW) must be taken for processing, treatment, or disposal. This report presents a comparative review of states with and without flow control authority, identifies the impact of flow control ordinances on protection of human health and the environment, and characterizes the impact of flow control on the development of state and local waste management capacity and on the achievement of state and local goals for source reduction, reuse, and recycling. Appendices include a summary of public comments on flow control; legal decisions concerning MSW flow controls; a summary matrix of state flow control authorities; flow control case studies; and technical analyses of waste generation, composting, recycling, waste-to-energy, and landfills.
 
03/15/1995Report to Congress on Flow Control and Municipal Solid Waste; Executive SummaryPublication
 Description: This executive summary outlines EPA's findings on flow controls for municipal solid waste, defines flow controls and factors encouraging their use, and summarizes a comparative review of states with and without flow control authority.
 
03/07/1995APPLICABILITY OF THE HOUSEHOLD WASTE EXCLUSION TO LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOILMemo
 Description: Lead-contaminated soil at a residence is exempt household hazardous waste (HHW) if it is the result of routine stripping and painting or natural weathering of lead-based paint (LBP). LBP chips from stripping and repainting of residence walls by an owner or contractor are HHW. Construction, renovation, or demolition debris is not HHW (SUPERSEDED: See RPC# 7/31/00-01). Waste generated by home health care providers may be HHW. Media and debris contaminated by residential heating oil tanks are household hazardous waste (HHW). Covering residential soil containing hazardous waste with sod, mulch, or gravel does not constitute generation, treatment, or disposal of hazardous waste and triggers no Subtitle C obligations. HHW mixed with a regulated hazardous waste is subject to Subtitle C regulation. The Subtitle D regulations (Part 257 open dumping rules and Part 258 municipal solid waste landfill regulations) may not apply to household waste disposed on residential property.
 
03/01/1995Reusable News (Spring 1995)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News focuses on household hazardous waste, and also includes articles on McDonald's ""buy recycled"" campaign and waste reduction efforts, paper procurement guidelines, plastics recycling, and life-cycle analysis.
 
02/15/1995Environmental Fact Sheet: Update Released on Solid Waste Management in the U.S.Publication
 Description: Announces the release of Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1994 Update. Summarizes the amount of waste generated and the impact of waste prevention and recycling.
 
02/14/1995Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste: 1995 UpdatePublication
 Description: This report analyzes municipal solid waste generation and management trends in the United States from 1960 to 1994 and the benefits of source reduction and recycling. See also 530-R-06-011 for most current information.
 
02/05/1995Reusable News Bulletin (November/December 1995)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News discusses the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) Recycling Exchange program, full cost accounting (FCA) and pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) workshops, and the first year results of the WasteWise program. The bulletin also summarizes two issues affecting the municipal solid waste program: the State/Tribal Implementation Rule (STIR) and the two-year extension for small municipal solid waste landfills located in arid or remote regions from complying with the Part 258 Subtitle D regulations. Contains insert 530-N-96-002a.
 
02/01/1995Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Determines that Ash From Waste-To-Energy Facilities is Subject to Hazardous Waste Regulations Upon Existing the Combustion BuildingPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the U.S. Supreme Court's interpretation of Section 3001(I) of RCRA and provides a statutory determination. The decision designates that a hazardous waste determination should be made when ash exits the combustion building, following the combustion and air pollution control processes. This determination allows facilities to combine bottom ash and fly ash before making a hazardous waste determination.
 
01/01/1995Reusable News (Winter 1995)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News reports on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rate, features an interview with the Federal Environmental Executive, and includes articles on Washington State's ""buy recycled"" campaign, construction and demolition waste reduction, and EPA's Source Reduction Mega Match program. This issue also includes an insert listing EPA publications on MSW.
 
10/15/1994Joining Forces on Solid Waste Management: Regionalization is Working in Rural and Small CommunitiesPublication
 Description: Presents an introduction to regionalization, the process whereby neighboring cities, towns, and counties pool resources to address local MSW challenges. Discusses some of the advantages and potential barriers associated with regionalization, explains the planning activities that need to precede a multi jurisdictional project, and describes the different types of organizational approaches that can be used to carry out regional solid waste management activities. Provides five successful regionalization efforts. Includes a resource guide.
 
10/01/1994STATUS OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (MWC) ASHQuestion & Answer
 Description: Municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash is subject to regulation if it exhibits a characteristic. Discusses the history of municipal waste combustion regulation. Ash from waste-to-energy facilities is a newly-identified waste for purposes of the land disposal restrictions (LDR). (SEE ALSO: 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94; 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95; RPC# 3/22/95-01)
 
09/29/1994APPLICABILITY OF CERCLA TO MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPS AND PCB-CONTAINING BALLASTSMemo
 Description: Disposal of fluorescent lamps in a hazardous waste landfill is exempt from CERCLA reporting, but not from CERCLA liability or response provisions. The disposal of fluorescent lamps or ballasts in a Subtitle D landfill or a TSCA landfill is not exempt from CERCLA release reporting requirements.
 
09/14/1994QUALIFICATIONS NECESSARY TO PERFORM ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION TASKSMemo
 Description: Discusses the methods for demonstrating that someone is a qualified groundwater scientist. The principles of the qualified groundwater scientist definition can be applied to related scientific disciplines such as environmental engineering. RCRA does not regulate the contents of a professional engineering certification.
 
08/18/1994REGULATORY STATUS OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR ASH FROM COMBUSTOR THAT BURNS ONLY HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE AND DOES NOT RECOVER ENERGYMemo
 Description: Ash from municipal waste combustors that do not recover energy and that burn only household waste is exempt household hazardous waste (HHW). Ash from resource recovery facilities that burn commercial waste is not exempt. Ash from combustors that burn other wastes in addition to HHW is not exempt (SUPERSEDED: see 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95).
 
07/15/1994Environmental Fact Sheet: Options Proposed for Managing Discarded Fluorescent and Other Lights That Contain MercuryPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the proposed two options for managing spent mercury-containing lights, such as fluorescent bulbs and high intensity discharge lamps: (1) exclusion of mercury-containing lamps from regulation as hazardous waste if disposed of in certain municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) or mercury-reclamation facilities (prohibits incineration in municipal waste combustors); (2) addition of mercury-containing lamps to the proposed universal waste system for certain widely generated hazardous wastes (primarily nickel-cadmium batteries and canceled pesticides), allowing generators to ship their lamps without a hazardous waste manifest and store lamps for a longer time.
 
06/15/1994Is Unit Pricing Right for Your Community?Publication
 Description: This document briefly defines unit pricing, and describes Pay-As-You-Throw: Lessons Learned About Unit Pricing (EPA530-R-94-004), EPA's manual that examines unit pricing and provides step-by-step detail in establishing a unit pricing program.
 
05/27/1994IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY OF U.S. SUPREME COURT DECISION CITY OF CHICAGO V. EDF FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTOR ASHMemo
 Description: The implementation strategy following the Supreme Court Decision states Section 3001(i) does not exempt ash from resource recovery facilities burning household and nonhazardous commercial wastes. Waste-to-energy facilities must set up programs to determine if ash is hazardous and must manage hazardous ash in an environmentally responsible manner. Discusses factors to consider in an enforcement response (SUPERSEDED: see RPC# 3/22/95-01).
 
05/15/1994Composting, Yard Trimmings, and Municipal Solid WastePublication
 Description: Examines planning, siting, designing, and operating composting facilities. Discusses planning; basic composting principles; collection methods; processing methods, technologies, and odor control; facility design and siting; environmental, health, and safety concerns; state legislation and initiatives; potential end-users; product quality and marketing; community involvement; and economics. Appendices include additional sources of information on composting, composting equipment, and glossary of compost terms.
 
04/15/1994Pay-As-You-Throw: Lessons Learned About Unit PricingPublication
 Description: This document examines the advantages and potential barriers to unit pricing systems; assists in determining if unit pricing is appropriate for a community; explains in step-by-step detail how to launch a unit pricing program; reviews unit pricing options; describes how to build consensus and plan a unit pricing program, how to design an integrated unit pricing program, and how to implement and monitor the program. The document also includes examples, definitions of terms, and a bibliography.
 
03/15/1994Environmental Fact Sheet: Principles for Basel Convention Aim to Prevent Pollution, Reduce Risk, and Promote Recycling Issues recommendations to Congress for implementing the Basel ConventionPublication
 Description: This fact sheet presents recommendations to Congress for implementing the Basel Convention. The recommendations ask Congress to ban the export of nearly all hazardous wastes, municipal wastes, and municipal incinerator ash beyond North American borders, emphasize the principles of waste minimization to make the United States more self-sufficient in the management and disposal of its wastes, and foster appropriate recycling of low hazard materials (e.g., scrap paper, glass, textiles, and scrap metals) that trade like commodities and are needed as raw materials by not limiting transboundary movements of these materials. The fact sheet also lists parties to the Basel Convention as of February 22, 1994.
 
02/15/1994Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA Sets Degradability Standards for Plastic Ring CarriersPublication
 Description: This fact sheet announces EPA's promulgation of standards of photo degradability for plastic ring carrier devices, commonly used on beverage cans. The standards provide two options for testing ring carriers to demonstrate that they degrade and encourage development of biodegradable plastics.
 
02/09/1994ALTERNATE FINAL COVER DESIGNS FOR SUBTITLE D LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: A state with an approved Subtitle D program has the flexibility to consider site-specific factors when interpreting and applying the regulations. It is neither necessary nor expected that an approved state or tribe will seek EPA agreement or interpretation of specific Subtitle D requirements. 258 does not explicitly require the use of a synthetic membrane in the final cover if the unit has a synthetic membrane liner at the bottom of the unit.
 
02/03/1994RESPONSE TO REQUEST FOR INFORMATION ON ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY IN STATESMemo
 Description: Discusses the definition of base authorization. Whether the state or EPA enforces a rule depends on the state’s authorization status and whether the rule is HSWA or non-HSWA. A non-HSWA rule is not effective until a base-authorized state adopts it. HSWA rules are effective immediately in all states. EPA can enforce regulations that are part of an authorized state’s program, but EPA must enforce the state's standards, which may be more stringent than federal standards. Subtitle D permitting and enforcement is left to the states.
 
12/15/1993Environmental Fact Sheet: Financial Assurance Mechanisms Proposed for Landfill OperatorsPublication
 Description: Summarizes EPA's proposal providing local government owners and operators of municipal solid waste landfills additional flexibility in meeting federal financial assurance requirements.
 
11/18/1993TREATMENT OF AN INHERENTLY HAZARDOUS DEBRIS THAT EXHIBITS THE TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC FOR LEAD AND CADMIUMMemo
 Description: Debris can be treated using the alternative treatment standards or the waste specific land disposal restrictions (LDR) standards. Listed debris treated to the waste specific standard is still hazardous waste after treatment and must be disposed of in a Subtitle C unit. Characteristic debris, including inherently hazardous debris, may be disposed in a Subtitle D unit if no longer exhibits a characteristic.
 
11/17/1993REGULATORY STATUS AND MANAGEMENT OF LIQUIDS AND ABSORBENT MATERIALS CONTAINING LIQUIDSMemo
 Description: The liquids in landfills prohibition applies only to hazardous waste landfills. Sorbents that are used to clean up non-listed waste are hazardous only if they are characteristic. Liquids must be absorbed prior to placement in municipal solid waste landfills. Used oil is presumed to be recycled until it is sent for disposal. Sorbents containing used oil that will be burned for energy recovery are subject to Part 279. Sorbents that are defined as used oil that will not be burned for energy recovery are managed under Part 279 until they are disposed, even if they are characteristic.
 
11/15/1993Markets for CompostPublication
 Description: This document describes factors affecting the current supply and demand for compost and provides information on future market trends. It also discusses the role of composting in municipal solid waste management and the need for developing compost markets; reviews characteristics and benefits of compost and competing/complementary products and compost uses and markets; examines factors pertinent to developing compost markets, economic and noneconomic barriers to developing compost markets, and strategies to mitigate and overcome barriers to developing compost markets. The appendix provides examples of existing programs and markets.
 
11/15/1993Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria: Technical ManualPublication
 Description: This document was updated in April 1998 with a new introduction. Addresses general applicability of the Part 258 criteria, location restrictions, operating requirements, design standards, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, and closure and postclosure care for landfills. Includes the regulatory language, a general explanation of the regulations and who must comply with them, key technical issues that may need to be addressed to ensure compliance with a particular requirement, and information sources. Written for municipal solid waste landfill owners and operators.
 
11/01/1993Business Guide for Reducing Solid WastePublication
 Description: This document offers step-by-step instructions designed to assist medium and large businesses, governments, and other organizations in establishing a waste reduction program. It presents an overview on developing and implementing a waste reduction program and provides worksheets to help the waste reduction team conduct a waste assessment and devise a program tailored to its company's specific goals. Appendices include waste reduction ideas, regional EPA and state waste reduction program contacts, glossary, volume-to-weight conversion table, and a list of common recyclable materials.
 
10/01/1993EFFECTIVE DATE DELAYED FOR CERTAIN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLSQuestion & Answer
 Description: Discusses the delay of the effective dates of municipal solid waste landfill criteria for certain landfills. Explains that the financial assurance effective date was extended to April 9, 1995. The groundwater monitoring exemption for very small, arid, and remote landfills has been removed.
 
09/15/1993Reporting on Municipal Solid Waste: A Local IssuePublication
 Description: Presents background information to assist print and broadcast media in understanding municipal solid waste (MSW) issues. Examines the role of federal, state, and local governments in MSW management; options for solid waste management (source reduction, recycling, incineration, and landfilling); and regulations for solid waste landfills. Includes information sources, major laws affecting MSW management, MSW management state-by-state, and compounds and metals for groundwater detection monitoring.
 
03/15/1993Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Guide for Owners/OperatorsPublication
 Description: This document provides owners and operators of municipal solid waste landfills basic information on the Subtitle D regulations, examining these regulations and issues of location, operation, design, groundwater monitoring, corrective action, closure, and financial assurance.
 
03/05/1993U.S. WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR AUTOMOBILES AND AUTO SHREDDER RESIDUEMemo
 Description: Automobile shredder residue (ASR or fluff) and shredded appliances have the potential to exhibit characteristics, and may also contain PCBs above levels of regulatory concern. It is the generator's responsibility to determine whether ASR is hazardous waste before disposal. Provides the estimated ASR yearly generation. Most shredder residue is managed in solid waste (SW) landfills. Some states ban disposal of white goods (appliances) and autos from landfills or impose a consumer surcharge.
 
03/03/1993EPA’S MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM AND THE SBA’S POLLUTION CONTROL LOAN PROGRAMMemo
 Description: EPA‘s Municipal Solid Waste Assistance program (Subtitle D) provides limited funding and grants to help solve solid waste problems at the local, Regional, and national levels. Funding is restricted to nonprofit organizations. The Small Business Administration’s (SBA) Pollution Control Loans program may assist in building pollution control facilities.
 
11/01/1992MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL CRITERIAQuestion & Answer
 Description: If only one of three municipal solid waste landfill cells continues to receive waste after October 9, 1991, only that cell must comply with the cover requirements if it closes before October 9, 1993. If the cell continues to receive waste after October 9, 1993, it would need to comply with the Part 258 requirements. Each landfill cell is a separate unit.
 
10/15/1992Environmental Fact Sheet: Municipal Solid Waste Prevention in Federal AgenciesPublication
 Description: This fact sheet highlights waste prevention opportunities in federal agencies, explains the principles of waste prevention, and provides examples of successful federal programs.
 
10/01/1992MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERIZATIONQuestion & Answer
 Description: Discusses the general 1990 statistics about municipal solid waste generation and disposition in the U.S. (SEE ALSO: current Municipal Solid Waste in The United States Facts and Figures).
 
09/18/1992EXEMPTION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASH FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE REGULATIONMemo
 Description: Municipal waste combustion ash is exempt household hazardous waste pursuant to RCRA 3001(i) (SEE ALSO: RPC# 10/1/94-02; 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94; 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95 and RPC# 3/22/95-01).
 
09/04/1992STATUS OF FLUORESCENT LAMPS UNDER RCRAMemo
 Description: CESQG or household hazardous waste (HHW) fluorescent light bulbs may be land disposed in Subtitle D landfill regardless of characteristic properties. Land disposal restrictions (LDR) do not apply to D009 mercury-containing fluorescent light bulbs that pass the extraction procedure (EP) test (SUPERSEDED: see 63 FR 28556; 5/26/98). The bulbs are subject to LDR because they exhibit the EP toxicity characteristic and toxicity characteristic (TC), and could be considered debris per 268.45.
 
09/01/1992Reusable News (Fall 1992)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News discusses a substantial increase in municipal solid waste recovery rates and the announcement of the Federal Trade Commission's environmental marketing guidelines. It also focuses on vehicular recycling successes such as the Maine Turnpike's ticket reuse program and the waste reduction efforts of automobile manufacturers, and presents EPA's new outreach materials on leaf burning.
 
07/15/1992Environmental Fact Sheet: Mercury in the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) StreamPublication
 Description: This fact sheet describes EPA's examination of the major sources of mercury in the MSW stream, such as batteries and paint residues. EPA predicts a dramatic decrease in mercury discards in the next several years due to source reduction and recycling efforts.
 
06/01/1992Reusable News (Summer 1992)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News highlights examples of successful municipal solid waste educational efforts, such as the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point's waste management program, EPA curriculum tools, and EPA's joint outreach with the U.S. Postal Service to promote recycling. It also introduces the new feature ""Taking Action,"" which profiles individual citizens' efforts to reduce, reuse, and recycle.
 
04/15/1992Characterization of Products Containing Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste in the United States, 1970 to 2000: Executive SummaryPublication
 Description: This summary identifies the products in municipal solid waste that may contain mercury and quantifies its presence in these products.
 
03/15/1992Environmental Fact Sheet: Final Cover Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste LandfillsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses a rulemaking that announces cover requirements for municipal solid waste landfills receiving waste after October 9, 1993. The rule also notifies landfills that stop receiving waste between October 9, 1991, and October 9, 1993, to comply with the federal requirements for the final cover.
 
01/01/1992Reusable News (Winter 1992)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News announces EPA's options to standardize recycling marketing claims in the cover story. It also includes articles about President Bush's executive order that requires federal agency recycling, Illinois communities that serve as source reduction models, and unique solutions to municipal solid waste problems on the Alaskan Tundra.
 
11/08/1991SUBTITLE D AND PULP AND PAPER MILL SULDGEMemo
 Description: No additional regulations are warranted under Subtitle D for landfills and surface impoundments receiving unlisted, dioxin-containing sludge from chlorine and chlorine derivative bleached pulp and paper mills.
 
10/15/1991Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA to Develop Guidance on the Use of the Terms "Recycled" and "Recyclable" in Product Labeling and AdvertisingPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses an effort by EPA to provide help on specific environmental marketing terms to educate consumers and advise marketers. The terms addressed are related to recycling solid waste materials, and the aim is to increase the use of recycled materials.
 
09/15/1991Environmental Fact Sheet: Municipal Landfill Regulations Mean Safer Disposal of Solid WastePublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses a rulemaking that establishes comprehensive, protective standards for managing the nation's solid waste burden. The rule specifies location provisions and design, operating, and closure requirements for landfills. In addition, the rule offers incentives for increasing source reduction and recycling nationwide.
 
09/15/1991Environmental Fact Sheet: Small Communities and the Municipal Landfill RegulationsPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the stablishment of comprehensive, protective standards for the disposal of municipal solid waste at approximately 6,000 landfills and the effort to reduce the impacts of these regulations on small communities.
 
06/21/1991POSITION PAPER ON SPENT ABSORBENT MATERIALSMemo
 Description: CESQGs may dispose of hazardous waste in a sanitary or municipal solid waste landfill as long as the landfill is permitted, licensed, or registered by the state to manage municipal or industrial solid waste (SEE ALSO: 261.5(g)(3)). An absorbent and waste mixture containing a free liquid phase with a flash point less than 140 F is D001. A sorbent and waste mixture with no free liquid is D001 only if it qualifies as an ignitable solid. DOT hazard classes do not correspond directly to RCRA characteristics. The deliberate mixing of hazardous waste and absorbents to render waste nonhazardous may be treatment subject to permitting (SEE ALSO: 264.1(g)(10)) and 268.3). If an absorbent is mixed with waste that is listed solely for exhibiting a characteristic, the mixture is not hazardous waste if it does not exhibit the characteristic (SEE ALSO: 66 FR 27266; 5/16/01). A mixture of absorbent and used oil is subject to Part 266, Subpart E (SUPERSEDED: See Part 279) if destined for energy recovery.
 
05/01/1991REGULATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION (MWC) ASHQuestion & Answer
 Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a two-year exemption for characteristic combustion ash from municipal waste incinerators. The two-year moratorium covered fly and/or bottom ash from both energy recovery and municipal incinerators (SUPERSEDED: October 1, 1994, MRQ, “Status of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) Ash”; 59 FR 29372; June 7, 1994; 60 FR 6666; February 3, 1995, and RPC# 3/22/95-01).
 
01/15/1991Environmental Fact Sheet: SWICH: EPA's National Solid Waste Information ClearinghousePublication
 Description: Describes basic functions of Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH), whose mission is to serve as a central source for municipal solid waste information. Includes information on SWICH library system and access to Electronic Bulletin Board.
 
05/09/1990INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSAL IN PROXIMITY TO WETLANDSMemo
 Description: Historical discussion on location restrictions for municipal solid waste landfills, and EPA’s intent to evaluate industrial waste landfills, characterize wetlands, and develop location standards for hazardous waste management facilities.
 
04/06/1990RETORTED OIL SHALE AND COAL FLY ASHMemo
 Description: Discusses the determination that coal combustion waste streams generally do not exhibit hazardous characteristics. No federal regulations specific to oil shale, but EPA is in the process of developing Subtitle D guidance known as Strawman.
 
03/29/1990MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASHMemo
 Description: Municipal combustion ash exhibiting a characteristic of hazardous waste would be subject to Subtitle C regulation. Ash generated by energy recovery facilities are not specifically exempt from Subtitle C regulation (SEE ALSO: 3/22/95-01; 59 FR 29372; June 7, 1994, 60 FR 6666; February 3, 1995 and 10/1/94-02).
 
03/15/1990Characterization of Municipal Waste Combustion Ash, Ash Extracts, and Leachates; Executive SummaryPublication
 Description: This document summarizes the Characterization of Municipal Waste Combustion Ash, Ash Extracts, and Leachates (EPA530-SW-90-029A) study.
 
03/15/1990Environmental Fact Sheet: Report Analyzes Municipal Waste Combustion Ash, Ash Extracts, and LeachatesPublication
 Description: This fact sheet announces EPA's report which characterizes municipal waste combustion ash, laboratory extracts of the ash, and leachates from ash disposal facilities.
 
03/01/1990Reusable News (Spring 1990)Publication
 Description: This issue of Reusable News describes school recycling programs in the cover story. It also includes articles on how Congress sees a bumper crop of municipal solid waste management bills, loans help small businesses curb pollution, a look at plastic waste, how to build your own compost pile, and junk your junk mail.
 
02/16/1990EXPORTATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE TO CENTRAL AMERICAMemo
 Description: EPA has no authority to control the export of municipal solid waste. The export of hazardous waste is regulated. New requirements for municipal solid waste exports are predicted as result of Basel Convention and pending legislation (SEE ALSO: 61 FR 16290; 4/12/96 and 57 FR 20602; 5/13/92).
 
01/01/1990Reusable News (Winter 1990)Publication
 Description: This issue is the premiere edition of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Program newsletter, Reusable News. Quarterly editions report on EPA's and others' efforts to safely and effectively manage garbage. This issue includes articles about information and exchange planning, EPA headquarters established in-house recycling program, and Philadelphia's recycling program.
 
09/14/1989STATUS OF SOLID WASTE EXPORT GATHERINGMemo
 Description: Discussion of EPA estimates of quantities of solid waste exported for disposal or recycling.
 
02/01/1989Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action (Final Report of the Municipal Waste Task Force)Publication
 Description: This document offers a number of concrete suggestions for action by not only EPA, but also government at all levels, industry, and private citizens. This Agenda cannot be accomplished by government acting alone. Its accomplishment is contingent on a strong partnership among government, industry and the public. It calls for a "systems" approach to managing municipal solid waste; that is, the complementary use of source reduction, recycling, combustion, and landfills to comprehensively manage municipal solid waste.
 
01/17/1989RESPONSE FROM THE OFFICE OF SOLID WASTE TO THE COAST GUARD REGARDING THEIR QUESTIONS ON MEDICAL WASTEMemo
 Description: Medical waste is a solid waste and is subject to Subtitle D regulation, or if hazardous, to Subtitle C. EPA is developing a medical waste program pursuant to the Medical Waste Tracking Act. Medical waste also covered by the CWA, Ocean Dumping Act, and MARPOL (for plastics) (SEE ALSO: 60 FR 33912; 6/29/95).
 
05/02/1988SPENT PICKLE LIQUOR CORROSIVITYMemo
 Description: Spent pickle liquor generated by a steel fabricator is not K062 since the facility is not in SIC codes 331 or 332. Nonlisted spent pickle liquor is corrosive if it corrodes 1020 steel at a rate of >0.25 inches/year. Nonlisted sludge from a pickling tank is D002 if pH of the sludge is < 2. The 264.314 liquids in landfills ban does not apply to nonhazardous waste disposal facilities.
 
02/22/1988LETTER TO STATE ENVIRONMENTAL COMMISSIONERS: SUBTITLE D STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANSMemo
 Description: RCRA 4005(c)(1) requires states to develop and implement permit programs for facilities that manage hazardous waste from CESQGs and households. EPA requests states to review and update municipal solid waste (MSW) management plans.
 
09/01/1987SUBTITLE D PROGRAMS ON INDIAN LANDSQuestion & Answer
 Description: State Subtitle D standards do not apply to Indian lands. Tribes are subject to federal guidelines in Part 257 (SUPERSEDED: See current Part 258).
 
08/21/1987LISTING MUNICIPAL LANDFILLS ON THE NPLMemo
 Description: Nothing precludes a closed municipal solid waste landfill from being placed on CERCLA NPL even if EPA cannot document that the landfill received hazardous waste in the past.
 
06/12/1987CLEAN CLOSURE AND DISPOSAL OF AN INCINERATORMemo
 Description: There are three disposal options for incinerators: clean closure and leave on site, clean closure and ship to a Subtitle D facility, and ship to a Subtitle C facility.
 
04/08/1987MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION, DISPOSAL OF RESIDUAL ASHMemo
 Description: Discusses regulatory alternatives for the management of characteristically hazardous municipal waste combustor (MWC) ash (SEE ALSO: RPC# 10/1/94-02; 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94; 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95; RPC# 3/22/95-01).
 
03/01/1987SUBTITLE D SURVEYQuestion & Answer
 Description: EPA can use RCRA 3007 to obtain information from Subtitle D facilities that are using the statutory definition of hazardous waste in 1004(5).
 
01/01/1987The Solid Waste Disposal Act as Amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)Publication
 Description: Includes Senate Committee print (99-215) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (Public Law 98-616), Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 (Public Law 99-339), and Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1987 (Public Law 99-499).
 
07/16/1986MINING WASTE REGULATED UNDER SUBTITLE D RATHER THAN SUBTITLE CMemo
 Description: The regulation of mining waste under Subtitle C is not warranted. EPA planned to develop Subtitle D criteria for mining wastes excluded under the Bevill exemption for mining and mineral processing wastes (SEE ALSO: current 261.4(b)(7)).
 
06/27/1986MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATOR ASH MANAGEMENTMemo
 Description: Municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash may exhibit a hazardous waste characteristic and, therefore, be subject to Subtitle C. Residues that do not exhibit a characteristic may be disposed of in a Subtitle D landfill (SEE ALSO: RPC# 3/22/95-01, 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94, 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95 and RPC# 10/1/94-02).
 
05/27/1986RESIDUES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITIES; MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION RESIDUES-ASH AND SLUDGEMemo
 Description: Municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash may exhibit the toxicity characteristic. Hazardous ash disposed in landfills is subject to all hazardous standards. EPA has authority under CAA and RCRA to control dust. RCRA is the primary authority for groundwater protection at active landfills (SEE ALSO: RPC# 10/1/94-02; 59 FR 29372; 6/7/94; 60 FR 6666; 2/3/95; RPC# 3/22/95-01).
 
05/01/1986TREATMENT WITHOUT A PERMITQuestion & Answer
 Description: Dilution is treatment, but the treatment in an accumulation tank or container under section 262.34 does not require a permit (SEE ALSO: 268.3, 268.7(a)(4)). A characteristic waste treated so it no longer exhibits a characteristic can be disposed of in a Subtitle D landfill (SEE ALSO: 268.9).
 
04/08/1986AWARD OF PERMITS FOR NEW HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES, PROCESSMemo
 Description: An overview of state authorization. Under RCRA, political subdivisions of states (e.g., counties and municipalities) are authorized to impose requirements that are more stringent than EPA’s. States and localities may impose more stringent requirements than the Federal EPA, but courts may not allow States to restrict the movement of hazardous wastes, and EPA will not authorize state programs that impose such a ban. When complying with both the EPA and state rules is impossible, Federal rules prevail.
 
03/06/1986GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM LANDFILLSMemo
 Description: the EPA has authority under RCRA sections 3004(n) and 4004(a), and CAA to regulate gaseous emissions for hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills (refer to CAA regulations for additional information).
 
07/10/1985REVISED DEFINITION OF SOLID WASTE PURSUANT TO HSWAMemo
 Description: Carbon regeneration facilities storing carbon before recycling need a permit for storage if they are an incinerator. If they are not an incinerator, they are exempt (may be BIF). Drum recyclers handling empty containers do not need a storage permit. The storage of non-empty containers would require at least a permit for hazardous waste storage. Spent activated charcoal or carbon is usually a spent material. If for pollution control, it would be a sludge. Carbon is hazardous waste (HW) if it contains a listed waste (contained-in policy) or exhibits a characteristic(SEE ALSO: 66 FR 27266; 5/16/01). Carbon is unlikely to exhibit a characteristic. Generators storing HW spent activated carbon are subject to accumulation time regulations. A closed municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) suspected of holding HW is subject to corrective action if the facility requires a permit or interim status and is subject to CERCLA.
 
01/22/1985NONHAZARDOUS LIQUID WASTEWATERS AND SLUDGES IN SANITARY LF UNDER RCRA AND HSWA, DISPOSAL OFMemo
 Description: There are no federal regulatory provisions on the disposal of bulk or containerized nonhazardous liquid wastes in a nonhazardous solid waste landfill or a municipal solid waste waste landfill (MSWLF). Disposal of nonhazardous liquid waste in hazardous waste landfills is prohibited (SUPERSEDED: see 56 FR 50978; 10/9/91).
 
01/11/1985LANDFILL GAS CONDENSATE, REGULATION OFMemo
 Description: Landfill gas condensate from a landfill containing listed wastes is listed. Condensate from municipal waste or characteristic waste is hazardous only if it is characteristic. Condensate from household waste only is exempt. The household hazardous waste (HHW) exclusion applies to household hazardous waste being collected, treated, disposed, and its resulting residues.
 
10/21/1983LEACHATE FROM A MUNICIPAL LANDFILL, REGULATION OFMemo
 Description: Leachate from municipal landfills must be handled as hazardous if it is characteristic. The landfill is the generator of the waste. Nonhazardous leachate can be recycled into the landfill. Hazardous leachate must go to a TSDF or POTW unless the landfill is an exempt small quantity generator (SUPERSEDED: for landfill leachate recirculation, see 258.28) (SEE ALSO: 261.31 (F039 listing), 261.5, 262.34).
 
Show details for Native American - TribesNative American - Tribes
Show details for Native Americans - TribesNative Americans - Tribes
Show details for Natural GasNatural Gas
Show details for Nonhazardous WasteNonhazardous Waste
Show details for OilOil
Show details for Oil FiltersOil Filters
Show details for P-wastesP-wastes
Show details for PCBsPCBs
Show details for Permits and PermittingPermits and Permitting
Show details for PetitionsPetitions
Show details for Petroleum Refining WastesPetroleum Refining Wastes
Show details for Polychorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)Polychorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
Show details for Post-closure (hazardous waste)Post-closure (hazardous waste)
Show details for ProcurementProcurement
Show details for Public ParticipationPublic Participation
Show details for Radioactive Mixed WasteRadioactive Mixed Waste
Show details for Reactive WastesReactive Wastes
Show details for RecyclingRecycling
Show details for Reducing WasteReducing Waste
Show details for Siting (waste facilities)Siting (waste facilities)
Show details for Small Quantity Generators (SQG)Small Quantity Generators (SQG)
Show details for Solid WasteSolid Waste
Show details for SolventsSolvents
Show details for Source ReductionSource Reduction
Show details for Special WastesSpecial Wastes
Show details for State Programs (RCRA)State Programs (RCRA)
Show details for StorageStorage
Show details for Surface ImpoundmentsSurface Impoundments
Show details for TanksTanks
Show details for Test MethodsTest Methods
Show details for Toxicity CharacteristicToxicity Characteristic
Show details for TransportersTransporters
Show details for TreatmentTreatment
Show details for TSDFsTSDFs
Show details for U-wastesU-wastes
Show details for Underground Storage Tanks (UST)Underground Storage Tanks (UST)
Show details for Universal WasteUniversal Waste
Show details for Used OilUsed Oil
Show details for VariancesVariances
Show details for Waste Determinations for Combusted Non-Hazardous Secondary MaterialsWaste Determinations for Combusted Non-Hazardous Secondary Materials
Show details for Waste MinimizationWaste Minimization
Show details for Waste PilesWaste Piles
Show details for Waste ReductionWaste Reduction
Show details for Wood Preserving WastesWood Preserving Wastes
Show details for (Not Categorized)(Not Categorized)
For more information on commonly used environmental terms please visit the Terms of the Environment EPA Home Page

 

 
Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us