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Children's Health Protection

References - America's Children and the Environment: A First View of Available Measures

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1 Committee of the Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly of the American Thoracic Society. 1996. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 153 (1):3-50.

2 Braun-Fahrlander, C., J. C. Vuille, F. H. Sennhauser, U. Neu, T. Kunzle, L. Grize, M. Gassner, C. Minder, C. Schindler, H. S. Varonier, and B. Wuthrich. 1997. Respiratory health and long-term exposure to air pollutants in Swiss schoolchildren. SCARPOL Team. Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptoms with Respect to Air Pollution, Climate, and Pollen. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 155 (3):1042-9.

3 Dockery, D. W., F. E. Speizer, D. O. Stram, J. H. Ware, J. D. Spengler, and B. G. Ferris, Jr. 1989. Effects of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children. American Review of Respiratory Disease 139 (3):587-94.

4 Holmen, A., J. Blomqvist, H. Frindberg, Y. Johnelius, N. E. Eriksson, K. A. Henricson, P. Herrstrom, and B. Hogstedt. 1997. Frequency of patients with acute asthma in relation to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, other pollutants of ambient air and meteorological observations. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 69 (5):317-22.

5 Kinney, P. L., G. D. Thurston, and M. Raizenne. 1996. The effects of ambient ozone on lung function in children: A reanalysis of six summer camp studies. Environmental Health Perspectives 104 (2):170-4.

6 Neas, L. M., D. W. Dockery, P. Koutrakis, D. J. Tollerud, and F. E. Speizer. 1995. The association of ambient air pollution with twice daily peak expiratory flow rate measurements in children. American Journal of Epidemiology 141 (2):111-22.

7 Romieu, I., F. Meneses, S. Ruiz, J. J. Sienra, J. Huerta, M. C. White, and R. A. Etzel. 1996. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children living in Mexico City. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 154 (2 Pt 1):300-7.

8 Schwartz, J., D. W. Dockery, L. M. Neas, D. Wypij, J. H. Ware, J. D. Spengler, P. Koutrakis, F. E. Speizer, and B. G. Ferris, Jr. 1994. Acute effects of summer air pollution on respiratory symptom reporting in children. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 150 (5 Pt 1):1234-42.

9 Studnicka, M., E. Hackl, J. Pischinger, C. Fangmeyer, N. Haschke, J. Kuhr, R. Urbanek, M. Neumann, and T. Frischer. 1997. Traffic-related NO2 and the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in seven year olds. European Respiratory Journal 10 (10):2275-8.

10 Dockery, D. W., C. A. Pope 3d, X. Xu, J. D. Spengler, J. H. Ware, M. E. Fay, B. G. Ferris Jr., and F. E. Speizer. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329 (24):1753-9.

11 Pope 3rd, C. A., M. J. Thun, M. M. Namboodiri, D. W. Dockery, J. S. Evans, F. E. Speizer, and C. W. Heath Jr. 1995. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 151 (3 Pt 1):669-74.

12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1998. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

13 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System. Available from http://www.epa.gov/iris/index.html.

14 Schettler, T., J. Stein, F. Reich, M. Valenti, and D. Wallinga. 2000. In Harm's Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development. Boston, MA: Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility.

15 May, M. 2000. Disturbing behavior: Neurotoxic effects in children. Environmental Health Perspectives 108 (6):A262-A267.

16 Woodruff, T.J., J. Caldwell, V.J. Cogliano, and D.A. Axelrad. 2000. Estimating cancer risk from outdoor concentrations of hazardous air pollutants in 1990. Environmental Research 82:194-206.

17 Ware, J.H., J.D. Spengler, L.M. Neas, J.M. Samet, G.R. Wagner, D. Coultas, H. Ozkaynak, and M. Schwab. 1993. Respiratory and irritant health effects of ambient volatile organic compounds. The Kanawha County Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 137 (12):1287-1301.

18 California Environmental Protection Agency. 1999. Hot Spots Unit Risk and Cancer Potency Values. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

19 California Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. All Chronic Reference Exposure Levels Adopted by OEHHA as of May 2000. California Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment.

20 Caldwell, J. C., T. J. Woodruff, R. Morello-Frosch, and D. A. Axelrad. 1998. Application of health information to hazardous air pollutants modeled in EPA's cumulative exposure project. Toxicology and Industrial Health 14 (3):429-454.

21 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters: Third Report to Congress. Washington, DC.

22 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Mercury Study Report to Congress, Volumes I to VII. Washington DC: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

23 National Research Council. 2000. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. Washington DC: National Academy Press.

24 Diez, U., T. Kroessner, M. Rehwagen, M. Richter, H. Wetzig, R. Schulz, M. Borte, G. Metzner, P. Krumbiegel, and O. Herbarth. 2000. Effects of indoor painting and smoking on airway symptoms in atopy risk children in the first year of life: results of the Leipzig Allergy High-Risk Children Study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 203:23-8.

25 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, DC.

26 Benninger, M.S. 1999. The impact of cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke on nasal and sinus disease: a review of the literature. American Journal of Rhinology 13:435-8.

27 Dybing E. and T. Sanner. 1999. Passive smoking, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood infections. Human and Experimental Toxicology 18:202-5.

28 Cook D.G. and D.P. Strachan. 1999. Health effects of passive smoking: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research. Thorax 54:357-66.

29 Wahlgren D.R., M.F. Hovell, E.O. Meltzer, and S.B. Meltzer. 2000. Involuntary smoking and asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 6:31-6.

30 Lindfors A., M. van Hage-Hamsten, H. Rietz, M. Wickman, and S.L. Nordvall. 1999. Influence of interaction of environmental risk factors and sensitization in young asthmatic children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 104:755-62.

31 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. Data Reliability Analysis of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System/Federal Version (SDWIS/FED). Washington DC: EPA Office of Water.

32 Zahm, S.H., and S.S. Devesa. 1995. Childhood cancer: overview of incidence trends and environmental carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Suppl. 6):177-184.

33 Goldman, L.R. 1995. Children-unique and vulnerable: Environmental risks facing children and recommendations for response. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (Suppl. 6):13-18.

34 National Research Council. 1993. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

35 Agricultural Marketing Service. 1993-1998. Pesticide Data Program: Annual Summary (Calendar Years 1993-1998): U.S. Department of Agriculture.

36 Adapted from a draft indicator proposed by Florida State University under a cooperative agreement with U.S. EPA.

37 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning: Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials. Atlanta.

38 Mielke, H.W., and P.L. Reagan. 1998. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (Suppl. 1):217-229.

39 Hu, H. 1998. Bone lead as a new biologic marker of lead dose: Recent findings and implications for public health. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (Suppl. 4):961-7.

40 Lanphear, B.P., K.D. Dietrich, P. Auinger, and C. Cox. 2000. Subclinical lead toxicity in U.S. children and adolescents. Public Health Reports (in press).

41 Institute of Medicine. 2000. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

42 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants. Research Triangle Park, NC.

43U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter. Research Triangle Park, NC.

44 Thurston, G. D., K. Ito, P. L. Kinney, and M. Lippmann. 1992. A multi-year study of air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in three New York State metropolitan areas: results for 1988 and 1989 summers. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2 (4):429-50.

45 Hall, M.J., and J.R. Popovic. 2000. 1998 Summary: National Hospital Discharge Survey. Advance data from vital and health statistics. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics.

46 American Thoracic Society. 1996. Health effects of air pollution. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 153:3-50.

47 Reis, L.A.G., M.A. Smith, J.G. Gurney, M. Linet, T. Tamra, J.L. Young, and G.R. Bunin. 1999. Cancer Incidence and Survival among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program.

48 Colt, J.S., and A. Blair. 1998. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 (Suppl 3):909-925.

49 Boice, Jr., J.D., and R.W. Miller. 1999. Childhood and adult cancer after intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation. Teratology 59 (227-233).

50 Doll, R., and R. Wakeford. 1997. Risk of childhood cancer from fetal irradiation. British Journal of Radiology 70:130-139.

51 Zahm, S.H. 1999. Childhood leukemia and pesticides. Epidemiology 10:473-475.

52 Zahm, S.H., and M.H. Ward. 1998. Pesticides and childhood cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 106(Suppl. 3):893-908.

53 Buckley, J.D., L.L. Robison, R. Swotinsky, D.H. Garabrant, M. LeBeau, P. Manchester, M.E. Nesbit, L. Odom, J.M. Peters, and W.G. Woods. 1989. Occupational exposures of parents of children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: A report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. Cancer Research 49 (4030-4037).

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