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Children's Health Protection

Appendix A - America's Children and the Environment: A First View of Available Measures


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Data Tables


Table E1Percentage of children living in counties in which air quality standards were exceeded
 
1990-1995
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
Ozone
22.6%
25.1%
16.9%
21.0%
19.0%
27.7%
Particulate matter
8.0%
6.3%
9.6%
2.7%
2.3%
10.0%
Carbon monoxide
9.5%
8.5%
6.2%
5.1%
6.6%
5.0%
Lead
2.2%
6.0%
1.8%
2.1%
1.7%
1.8%
Sulfur dioxide
0.5%
2.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
Nitrogen dioxide
3.7%
3.7%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
Any Standard
28.0%
31.9%
20.9%
24.3%
23.6%
30.9%
 
1996-1998
1996
1997
1998
Ozone
16.4%
18.5%
20.7%
Particulate matter
1.5%
2.4%
2.0%
Carbon monoxide
5.7%
3.8%
4.3%
Lead
1.6%
1.4%
1.6%
Sulfur dioxide
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
Nitrogen dioxide
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
Any Standard
19.9%
21.9%
23.2%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Aerometric Information Retrieval System.


Table E2Percentage of children's days with good, moderate, or unhealthy air quality
1990-1994
Pollution Level19901991199219931994
Good58.8%58.9%62.6%61.9%60.1%
Moderate27.7%27.7%24.1%25.3%26.9%
Unhealthy4.0%3.9%3.5%3.0%3.0%
No Monitoring Data9.5%9.4%9.8%9.8%10.0%
 
1995-1998
Pollution Level1995199619971998
Good61.3%63.3%63.3%61.9%
Moderate25.5%24.6%24.5%27.1%
Unhealthy2.8%2.2%1.6%1.6%
No Monitoring Data10.3%10.0%10.6%9.4%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Aerometric Information Retrieval System.


Table E3Percentage of children living in counties where at least one hazardous air pollutant concentration was greater than a health benchmark in 1990
 
Benchmark
Cancer, one-in-a-Million
Cancer, 1-in-100,000
Cancer, 1-in-10,000
Other Health Effects
Percentage of Children
100.0%
100.0%
6.0%
95.0%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cumulative Exposure Project.


Table E4Percentage of homes with children under 7 where someone smokes regularly
 
199419961999
Percentage of Homes28.7%27.6%19.0%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Indoor Environments Division, Survey on Radon Awareness and Environmental Tobacco Issues.


Table E5Percentage of children living in areas served by public water systems that exceeded a drinking water standard or violated treatment requirements
 
Type of standard violated199319941995199619971998
Lead and copper9.6%7.0%5.9%5.2%5.0%4.8%
Microbial contaminants8.2%7.6%4.4%4.2%3.6%2.7%
All other contaminants2.3%2.2%2.2%2.0%1.5%0.9%
Treatment and filtration2.1%1.1%1.2%1.3%0.4%0.2%
All health-based violations18.6%13.8%12.9%11.6%10.2%8.3%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.


Table E6Percentage of children living in areas served by public water systems in which the nitrate/nitrite standard was exceeded
 
199319941995199619971998
Percentage of children0.2%0.1%0.3%0.2%0.4%0.2%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.


Table E7Percentage of children living in areas with major violations of drinking water monitoring and reporting requirements
 
199319941995199619971998
Lead and copper10.8%6.6%5.5%5.3%5.8%5.2%
Microbial contaminants2.9%2.5%2.0%1.6%2.0%1.7%
Chemical and radiation9.4%6.4%4.8%4.4%2.3%2.5%
Treatment and filtration1.2%0.4%0.3%0.4%0.2%0.3%
Any major violation21.4%14.5%11.6%10.7%10.0%9.6%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Safe Drinking Water Information System.


Table E8Percentage of fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, and processed foods with detectable pesticide residues
 
19941995199619971998
Food samples with a single pesticide detected25.2%24.7%23.0%26.9%26.3%
Food samples with multiple pesticides detected36.3%40.3%44.6%28.6%28.8%
All food samples with pesticide residues detected61.5%65.0%67.6%55.5%55.1%
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. Pesticide Data Program: Annual Summary (Calendar Years 1993-1998).


Table E9Percentage of children living in counties that had Superfund sites in 1990
 
199019921994199619982000
All Superfund sites55%56%58%57%57%58%
All Superfund sites that have not reached Construction Completion55%54%53%53%51%50%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund NPL Assessment Program (SNAP) Database.


Table E10Percentage of children living in counties that had Superfund sites in 1990
 
199019921994199619982000
All Superfund sites55%55%55%52%51%50%
All Superfund sites that have not reached Construction Completion55%53%49%46%42%40%
SOURCE: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund NPL Assessment Program (SNAP) Database.


Table B1Average concentration of lead in blood for children 5 and under
 
Blood lead levels in micrograms per deciliter
1976-1980
1988-1991
1992-1994
All
16.5
4.7
3.6
Above poverty level
15.5
4.0
2.9
Below poverty level
20.2
6.3
5.0
SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


Table B2Percentage of children ages 1-5 with concentrations of lead in blood greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter, 1992-1994
 
All
Black Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
White Non-Hispanic
All
4.4%
11.2%
5.2%
2.3%
Above poverty level
2.1%
5.6%
4.7%
1.1%
Below poverty level
8.9%
16.2%
4.7%
6.4%
SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


    Table D1
Percentage of children under 18 with asthma and chronic bronchitis
 
1990199119921993199419951996
    Percentage of children with asthma
5.8%6.2%6.3%7.2%6.9%7.5%6.2%
    Percentage of children with chronic bronchitis
5.3%5.3%5.4%5.9%5.5%5.4%5.7%
SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey.


Addendum to D1Estimated average percentage of children under 18 with asthma during the previous 12 months, by selected years
Characteristic
Race/Ethnicity1980-811985-861990-911995-1996
White, non-Hispanic3.6%5.1%6.0%6.5%
Black, non-Hispanic4.2%6.0%7.3%8.2%
HispanicNA3.2%5.1%7.6%
 
Age (years)
0-42.9%3.2%4.3%5.0%
5-104.9%5.5%6.3%7.4%
11-173.2%5.8%7.1%7.7%
 
Overall prevalence3.7%4.9%6.0%6.9%

NOTE: There are insufficient samples for each year by demographic group to include annual prevalence by age and race and ethnicity. We have provided prevalence estimates by two-year groupings for each of the age, race, and ethnicity categories covered in the National Health Interview Survey.
SOURCE: National Health Interview Survey, 1980-1986, presented in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Oct. 13, 2000. 49(40): 908-911.

Appendix A continued


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