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Heat Island Effect

Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines

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State - LocalityInitiative TypeLink Exit EPADescriptionDate
Arizona - GilbertCool Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool PavementsChapter 7 - Environmental Planning Element, Goal 14 (PDF)


Cool Pavements Brochure
Gilbert General Plan - The "Environmental Planning Element" in the Gilbert, Arizona general plan lists mitigating heat islands as a core goal. Specific policies under the goal include: 1) developing criteria to evaluate development projects that contribute to the heat island effect and identify mitigation techniques; 2) seeking partnerships with other municipalities, educational institutions, utility companies, government entities, and other to promote heat island awareness among landowners, developers, engineers, and architects; 3) encouraging design concepts utilizing planned and engineered green space and urban forestry to maximize shading of paved areas and buildings; 4) promoting education and awareness of the public, designers and applicants for the development and use of materials and construction techniques to help mitigate the urban heat island effect; and 5) providing for a reduction of the stormwater retention requirements where a grading and drainage report demonstrates a reduced stormwater storage capacity results from the use of pervious pavements on a site. One step in implementing the plan involved the development of a brochure on the use of cool pavements to reduce the urban heat island effect.Active
District of Columbia - WashingtonTrees and VegetationPlan to Improve Air Quality in the Washington, DC-MD-VA Region (PDF)State Implementation Plan - The Washington D.C. region's State Implementation Plan includes a Regional Canopy Management Plan as a ground-level ozone reduction strategy. The plan involves working with local governments to establish goals for increasing tree canopy coverage and decreasing ground-level ozone pollution.Active
Illinois - EvanstonCool PavementsDesign Guidelines for Planned Developments (PDF) City of Evanston Design Guidelines for Planned Developments - The City of Evanston, Illinois, includes permeable pavements in its assessment of green buildings.Active
Maryland - StatewideTrees and VegetationSee Section 6.3 Voluntary and Innovative Measures (PDF)Maryland's State Implementation Plan - Maryland's State Implementation Plan includes a regional forest canopy program that aims to reduce the heat island effect. The program involves assistance and outreach to encourage tree plantings through the coordination of various state and local agencies. This program would be housed within the Department of Natural Resources and would be charged with management of a tree planting database and promoting outreach efforts to landowners and stakeholder groups.Active
Oregon - PortlandGreen RoofsSection C Project Design (PDF)Central City Fundamental Design Guidelines - The City of Portland, Oregon is encouraging on the use of green roofs in the city center district, primarily for their aesthetic and stormwater management benefits. Design guidelines call for integrating vegetated roofs into central city projects.Active
Tennessee - KnoxvilleTrees and VegetationTable of ContentsKnoxville Street Tree Master Plan - Knoxville Master Street Tree Plan surveys the existing tree cover in Knoxville and Knox County and develops strategies to preserve and increase the urban canopy. Knoxville has established guiding principles, designated preferred species of trees, and evaluated and implemented opportunities to plant throughout the city.Active
Texas - AustinCool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool PavementsCity of Austin - Heat Island Mitigation Resolution


Austin Climate Protection Plan
Austin Heat Island Mitigation - In May 2001, the Austin City Council adopted a heat island mitigation resolution that committed the city manager to review recommendations for a variety of activities to diminish the city's heat island. In September of that year, the City Council awarded $1 million towards implementing the recommendations, which ranged from developing a cool roof strategy to increasing enforcement of the city's tree-saving ordinance. Austin's Climate Protection Plan incorporates heat island reduction through its green building and energy efficiency elements.Active
Texas - DallasCool Roofs; Green Roofs; Trees and Vegetation; Cool Pavements Sustainable Skylines - Dallas

Urban Heat Island Project
Dallas Sustainable Skylines Initiative - The Sustainable Skylines initiative is a three-year partnership between the City of Dallas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTOG) to promote sustainability within the City via voluntary programs which emphasize air quality improvements. The initiative has identified the following categories of potential projects to initially perform together: green buildings project, creating a greenhouse gas strategy, green taxis project, off-road equipment replacements and retrofits, renewable energy/energy efficiency outreach program, and an urban heat island project. The goal of the urban heat island project is to develop and implement an urban heat island program for the City of Dallas that will both decrease heated surfaces and increase permeability of surfaces in the Central City and other areas of Dallas.Active
Utah - HighlandTrees and VegetationGeneral Plan Update 2008, Chapter 7: Community DesignHighland City General Plan - The Town of Highland, Utah, created a master plan for a 50-acre (200,000 m2) overlay zone to be privately developed as a town center. The city design guidelines for the zone recommended several heat island mitigation elements, including reflective roofing, reflective parking lot surfaces, and landscaping. Those guidelines were then adopted into the zoning requirements for the town center.Active
Virginia - Fairfax CountyTrees and VegetationFairfax County Tree Action Plan (PDF)Tree Action Plan - In June 2007, Fairfax County, Virginia set a precedent by selecting an urban forestry canopy goal of 45%. The county developed this target after it determined that current tree management efforts would lead to a decrease in canopy size from 41% to 37% over the next 30 years. To combat this loss, the county has proposed increasing the average number of trees planted from 21,000 to 84,000, justifying the expense of additional trees by citing the multiple benefits they provide.Active

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