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State - LocalityInitiative TypeLink Exit EPATitle & DescriptionDate
Arizona - GilbertComprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesChapter 7 - Environmental Planning Element, Goal 14 (PDF)


Cool Pavements Brochure
Gilbert General Plan - The "Environmental Planning Element" in the Gilbert, Arizona general plan lists mitigating heat islands as a core goal. Specific policies under the goal include: 1) developing criteria to evaluate development projects that contribute to the heat island effect and identify mitigation techniques; 2) seeking partnerships with other municipalities, educational institutions, utility companies, government entities, and other to promote heat island awareness among landowners, developers, engineers, and architects; 3) encouraging design concepts utilizing planned and engineered green space and urban forestry to maximize shading of paved areas and buildings; 4) promoting education and awareness of the public, designers and applicants for the development and use of materials and construction techniques to help mitigate the urban heat island effect; and 5) providing for a reduction of the stormwater retention requirements where a grading and drainage report demonstrates a reduced stormwater storage capacity results from the use of pervious pavements on a site. One step in implementing the plan involved the development of a brochure on the use of cool pavements to reduce the urban heat island effect.Active
Arizona - TucsonDemonstration ProjectCool Retrofit - Thomas O. Price Service CenterCity of Tucson's Administration Building - A demonstration project for the City of Tucson documented how a cool roof reduced temperatures inside and on the roof of the building and saved more than 400 million Btu annually in energy. A white elastomeric coating was installed over a 28,000-square foot (2,600 m2), unshaded metal roof on one of the city's administration buildings. Following the installation, energy savings were calculated at 50 to 65% of the building's cooling energy – an avoided energy cost of nearly $4,000 annually. In addition to measuring the effects of adding a cool roof, the project will also investigate cooler paving materials and more trees and vegetation in the parking lots surrounding the building.Completed
Arizona - TucsonUrban Forestry ProgramTrees for TucsonUrban Forestry Program - Trees for Tucson began in 1989 as a program of Tucson Clean & Beautiful to encourage and facilitate tree planting in the Tucson metropolitan area using desert-adapted trees. The program is providing multiple benefits to the city, including higher energy efficiency, reductions in carbon and air pollutant emissions, improved stormwater management, wildlife habitats, and soil conservation. Nearly 70,000 trees have been distributed through the program since 1993.Active
California - Chula VistaBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Demonstration ProjectClimate Change Working Group – Climate Action PlanningBuilding Code; Demonstration Project; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance - The City of Chula Vista has identified 11 climate adaptation strategies, three of which directly address urban heat islands: they include the installation of cooler paving products, cooler roofing materials, and the incorporation of more shade trees. The city is sponsoring a demonstration project that will evaluate multiple reflective pavement technologies and develop implementation options based on these results. It is also working to amend its green building standards code to require cool roofs on all new residential developments, as well as developing a policy to require all municipal improvement projects and private parking lot development projects to incorporate a certain percentage of shade trees based on the development size.Active
California - DavisTree and Landscape OrdinanceChapter 37 of the City of Davis Municipal CodeDavis Landscaping Ordinance - The City of Davis requires that 50% of the paved parking lot surface of any building shall be shaded with tree canopies within 15 years of acquisition of a building permit. Specific guidelines for the development of such canopy are outlined by the city. Only trees from the city's list may be used as parking lot shade trees unless otherwise approved by the city's arborist. It is recommended that the genera of trees be varied throughout the parking lot. Trees shall receive 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% shading credit based on their location relative to paved surfaces.Active
California - Los AngelesUrban Forestry ProgramMillion Trees LAMillion Trees LA - This cooperative effort between the City of Los Angeles, community groups, businesses, and individuals aims to plant and provide long-term stewardship of one million trees planted throughout Los Angeles. Residents interested in free trees can contact the program, which also provides tutorials and information on planting trees. Individuals and groups can also volunteer to help with community tree plantings.Active
California - MartinezBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape OrdinanceThe City of Martinez Climate Action PlanMartinez Climate Action Plan - Martinez Climate Action Plan – The City of Martinez is addressing the issue of urban heat islands in its climate action plan. The city aims to reduce the heat island effect through targeted upgrades of existing buildings and paved areas; adoption of new building standards, including the new cool roof standard contained in California’s Title 24 Energy Standards; tree planting; and new requirements for shading in new parking lots and other large paved areas.Active
California - Menlo ParkClimate Action PlanCity of Menlo Park Climate Change Action Plan (PDF)Plant Trees - In Menlo Park's Climate Action Plan, the city has set a goal to plant 100 new trees per year. Properly planted trees will reflect sunlight and shade buildings, mitigating the urban heat island effect. The city also has a Heritage Tree Program and Street Tree Reforestation Project and the city maintains an arborist to provide tree management.Active
California - SacramentoAir Quality Requirement; Urban Forestry ProgramTrees and Air Quality


Strategic Tree Planting in Sacramento (PDF)
Urban Forests for Clean Air - In 2006, the Sacramento region secured a large Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program grant to support integration of urban forestry in its State Implementation Plan. The project, known as the Urban Forests for Clean Air demonstration project, involves the Sacramento Tree Foundation, the USDA Forest Service, the Sacramento Area Council of Governments and the Sacramento, El Dorado, and Placer and Feather River Air Districts. The project includes three phases: 1) initial estimates of the effects of the urban forest on air quality; 2) development of improved models to analyze these impacts; and 3) a final report on the findings. Under the first phase, the Forest Service's Center for Urban Forest Research estimated the impacts of trees on air quality using existing models and statistical analyses. That analysis predicted that one million additional trees could lower emissions of NOx by almost a quarter ton per day and particulate matter by over one ton per day. If trees that emit low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were chosen, ground-level ozone could also be reduced by 1.5 tons daily. The long-term goal for the project is to develop the technical support for a SIP revision that includes large-scale, urban tree planting as a ground-level ozone reduction control strategy for the Sacramento region.Active
California - SacramentoIncentive; Urban Forestry ProgramRebates - Shade TreesSacramento Shade - Since 1990, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has partnered with the Sacramento Tree Foundation to provide more than 350,000 free shade trees to residents in the Sacramento area. This program encourages residents to strategically plant vegetation around their homes to reduce energy consumption. Homes with an eastern, western, or southern exposure that heats up during the summer are eligible for this program. SMUD provides trees between four and seven feet tall (1.2–2.2 meters), as well as stakes, ties, fertilizer, tree delivery, and expert advice on tree selection and planting techniques free of charge. Homeowners must agree to plant and care for the trees.Active
California - SacramentoTree and Landscape OrdinanceSection 17.68.040 Tree Shading Requirements for Parking LotsSacramento Parking Lot Shading Ordinance - Since 1983, an ordinance in Sacramento's zoning code has required that enough trees be planted to shade 50% of new, or significantly altered, parking lots after 15 years of tree growth. A 2001 study found that the lots were only achieving about 25% shading because sometimes shade was double-counted, trees did not grow to their expected size under conditions of the lot, or trees were not adequately dispersed. Based on these findings, Sacramento modified its code in 2003 to improve coverage.Active
California - San DiegoClimate Action PlanExecutive Summary for the Climate Protection Action Plan (PDF)San Diego Climate Protection Action Plan - The City of San Diego identified several steps to help mitigate the urban heat island effect. These steps are included in the city's Climate Protection Action Plan and are as follows: develop and adopt an urban heat island mitigation policy; support the Community Forest Advisory Board and Community Forest Initiative, which includes planting 5,000 shade trees per year on public property for twenty years; develop a public tree protection policy; and annually review and revise existing policies that are related to tree planting, water reclamation, and open space preservation.Active
California - San JoseGreen Building Program and StandardsGreen Building PolicySan Jose Green Building Policy - The City of San Jose, California, includes landscape design for heat island mitigation as one of the goals of its Green Building Policy, adopted in 2001. The policy applies to planning, design, construction, management, renovation, operations, and demolition of facilities that are larger than 10,000 square feet and constructed, owned, managed, or financed by the city.Active
California - South Coast Air BasinUrban Forestry ProgramSCAQMD Projects

Complete List of Projects (PDF)
Support Urban Forest Management and Tree Planting - In 2006, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) funded a project led by the California Urban Forests Council to support urban forest management and tree planting. Expected benefits from the project include a mitigation of the urban heat island effect. The funds were awarded to SCAQMD from a settlement involving BP West Coast Products LLC for alleged violations at a refinery in Carson. A total of 18 projects, included the Urban Forest Management and Tree Planting project, were implemented by SCAQMD.Completed
California - StatewideGreen Building Program and StandardsCALGreen (PDF)California Green Building Standards Code - The 2010 California Green Building Standards Code, referred to as CALGreen, went into effect on January 1, 2011. The Code covers residential and commercial buildings, and provides 52 nonresidential mandatory measures and an additional 130 provisions for optional use. There are several voluntary measures that relate to heat island mitigation, including shading, cool pavement, and cool roof technologies.Active
California - StatewideIncentiveUrban Greening Grants ProgramUrban Greening Grants - This program provides financial assistance to urban greening plans and projects in California. Up to $20 million of funds were available in Fiscal Year 2011/12. For a plan or project to be selected, it must meet certain requirements and go through a competitive selection process.Active
California - StatewideOutreach and Education ProgramCalifornia Department of Public Health (PDF)

Climate Action for Health (PDF)
Integrating Public Health into Climate Action Planning - The California Department of Public Health has developed a guide to how health and climate change are related. The guide identifies strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect, a consequence of climate change. The strategies include developing well-vegetated urban parks, exploring the role of landscaping and green roofs, planting urban forests, and using light-colored building and pavement materials.Active
California - StatewideOutreach and Education ProgramCalifornia Adaptation Planning Guide (PDF)PHSE 4: Develop an urban heat island reduction program that includes an urban forest program or plan - The California Emergency Management Agency and the California Natural Resources Agency have created a guide for local governments to address the consequences of climate change. The guide includes a Public Health, Socioeconomic, and Equity Impacts (PHSE) strategy to address the urban heat island effect. The strategy includes recommendations such as tree-planting and long-term maintenance through urban forest programs, and using cool roofs and pavements.Active
California - StatewideUrban Forestry Program; Demonstration ProjectCalifornia Urban and Community ForestryCalifornia Urban Forestry Program - This program is the lead for the development of sustainable urban and community forests in California. It provides information, education, and assistance to local governments, non-profits, private companies, and the general public that help to advance urban forestry initiatives. Through the program, the state plants an average of 10,000 to 20,000 trees a year. Local governments and non-profits can apply for grants from the program; eligible projects include non-traditional urban forestry initiatives such as green roofs. In Fiscal Year 2009/2010, the program funded a green roof project in San Diego.Active
California - VisaliaTree and Landscape OrdinanceCity of VisaliaStreet Tree Ordinance - Visalia requires trees along main roadways and medians and has tree planting requirements on residential and commercial development streets.Active
Colorado - DenverUrban Forestry ProgramThe Mile High MillionThe Mile High Million - Denver, Colorado aims to plant one million trees in the metro area by 2025. The initiative engages individuals, neighborhood associations, schools, nonprofits, and businesses through multiple tree-planting programs. For example, the U.S. Department of Energy-funded Trees for Energy Savings program will strategically plant 4,600 trees to shade homes and other structures to reduce energy use and lower energy bills for residents. Other programs include enlisting the help of partner organizations, educating students, and training community foresters. Other benefits of The Mile High Million include mitigation of the urban heat island effect, reduced stormwater runoff, and improved air quality.Active
District of Columbia - WashingtonComprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Air Quality RequirementPlan to Improve Air Quality in the Washington, DC-MD-VA Region (PDF)State Implementation Plan - The Washington D.C. region's State Implementation Plan includes a Regional Canopy Management Plan as a ground-level ozone reduction strategy. The plan involves working with local governments to establish goals for increasing tree canopy coverage and decreasing ground-level ozone pollution.Active
District of Columbia - WashingtonUrban Forestry ProgramDistrict Urban Forestry Program

D.C. Tree Planting Underway
Urban Forestry Program - From November 2012 to May 2013, the District of Columbia Department of Transportation's Urban Forestry Administration is planting 6,400 trees across D.C. as part of a $1.8 million program. Benefits include stormwater reduction, improved air quality, and lower temperatures. The District of Columbia Grove is part of The American Grove, a national online community created to engage and encourage citizens to plant trees, share stories and experiences, and protect the urban tree canopy.Active
Florida - Miami-Dade CountyTree and Landscape OrdinanceSee Chapter 18AMiami-Dade Landscaping Ordinance - In 1995, Miami-Dade County established landscaping ordinances for different classes of structures, which establish requirements for planted vegetation surrounding all buildings. For example, single-family residential units are required to have three trees (new construction only).Active
Florida - Miami-Dade CountyUrban Forestry Program; Tree and Landscape OrdinanceMillion TREES MiamiMillion TREES Miami (MTM) - MTM is a communitywide effort to plant one million trees by 2020. Miami-Dade County created the Street Tree Master Plan as a framework to design and implement street tree planting. This complements the city’s landscape and tree ordinances and will help reach the goal of 30% tree canopy cover in the city by 2020. The program will help mitigate the urban heat island effect in Miami and reduce the city’s energy consumption. Other co-benefits include reduced stormwater runoff and improved air quality.Active
Florida - OrlandoTree and Landscape OrdinanceSee Section 61.226 Street TreesCode of the City of Orlando - Orlando, Florida, specifies that trees must be planted along both sides of a street, with one tree every 50 to 100 feet (15-30 m). The selected trees must eventually be capable of reaching a minimum height of 40 feet (12 m) and a crown spread of 30 feet (9 m).Active
Georgia - AtlantaOutreach and Education ProgramCool CommunitiesCool Communities Program - Cool Communities is a nonprofit program in Atlanta aimed at improving urban environments and conserving energy by promoting the use of lighter, reflective roofing and paving materials as well as planting shade trees.Active
Georgia - ColumbusUrban Forestry ProgramColumbus Heat Island Mitigation ProgramSpiderweb Project - The Spiderweb project is the first initiative of the Columbus Heat Island Mitigation Program. The project will convert an area of urban surfaces into a pleasant environment composed of seasonal vegetation and trees that will benefit the city beyond heat island mitigation. These benefits include improvements to the quality of air and water in the area.Active
Hawaii - HonoluluTree and Landscape OrdinanceBill 43The Land Use Ordinance relating to the Chinatown Special District - Honolulu's Park Dedication Ordinance contains landscaping requirements within the urban redevelopment area of Chinatown. Small-scaled interior landscaped courtyards and interior pedestrian walkways are encouraged as well as interior pedestrian walkways. The ordinance states "Street trees should be provided, as needed, to complement adjoining development and minimize the intrusion of towers on Chinatown street scenes. Tree species, spacing and size shall be in accordance with the City's tree planting standards or as approved by the director."Active
Hawaii - HonoluluTree and Landscape OrdinanceSee Section 21-4.70 (PDF)Honolulu Parking Lot Shade Ordinance - The Honolulu Land Use Ordinance requires that parking lots within the city be landscaped or screened. Depending on the size of the parking lot, a tree canopy may also be required.Active
Illinois - ChicagoDemonstration Project; ProcurementGreen Alleys


Green Alleys Handbook (PDF)
Chicago Green Alleys - Chicago, after the success of a demonstration project using permeable pavement, began a Green Alley initiative to use permeable pavement any time it needs to re-pave an alley. Through 2009, more than 100 Green Alleys have been installed and ultimately, almost 2,000 miles of alleyways will be made permeable. The Green Alley Handbook notes that "if all the alleys had a light, reflective surface (high albedo) that reflected heat energy, [they would stay] cool on hot days and thereby reducing the "urban heat island effect." The handbook also mentions the heat island reduction benefits of shade trees and green roofs.Active
Illinois - ChicagoIncentiveChicago Sustainable Backyards Program

Cleaning the Urban Environment with ‘Sustainable Backyards’
Sustainable Backyards Program - The program provides rebates that reimburse citizens for up to 50 percent of the cost of installing trees, native plants, compost bins, and/or rain barrels. The program helps residents join the city in cooling heat islands, reducing stormwater pollution, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving air quality and public health.Active
Illinois - ChicagoResearch; Demonstration Project; Building Code; Outreach and Education ProgramChicago Department of EnvironmentChicago Urban Heat Island Mitigation Program - The City of Chicago's Department of the Environment has been involved with reducing urban heat islands for several years. Some projects Chicago has conducted include constructing a porous pavement alley, revising the city's building code to require cool roofs, and launching a green roof program.Active
Illinois - ChicagoTree and Landscape OrdinanceLandscape OrdinanceChicago Landscape Ordinance - Chicago has a landscape ordinance that requires planting trees or shrubs on parkways and landscaping parking lots, loading docks, and other vehicular use areas, both within the sites themselves and to screen their perimeter. The ordinance applies to most new building construction, as well as repairs, remodeling, and enlargements of a particular size and cost. The Bureau of Forestry, which maintains the standards, must inspect and approve all parkway vegetation prior to planting. The Chicago Department of Zoning reviews all building and zoning permit applications to ensure compliance with the ordinance.Active
Illinois - ChicagoUrban Forestry Program; Tree and Landscape OrdinanceLandscaped MediansChicago Landscaped Medians Program - Chicago has more than 65 miles of landscaped medians on arterial streets throughout the city. The Chicago Transportation Department plants trees and other vegetation in medians to reduce the urban heat island effect as well as to provide scenic landscaping.Active
Kansas - Kansas CityResearch; Demonstration Project; Outreach and Education ProgramParking Lots to ParksParking Lots to Parks Project - The Kansas City Sustainable Skylines Program developed the Parking Lots to Parks Project which works to curb the urban heat island effect and reduce stormwater runoff through sustainable parking lot design in Kansas City. The project provides tools to assist communities with sustainable parking lot planning and in developing design standards.Active
Kansas - Kansas CityUrban Forestry Program; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Outreach and Education Program; Air Quality Requirement Sustainable Skylines - Kansas Kansas City Sustainable Skylines Initiative - Sustainable Skylines is a locally-led, EPA-supported, public-private partnership to reduce air emissions and promote sustainability in urban environments. Greater Kansas City was chosen as one of the first pilot communities to implement the Sustainable Skylines program. Projects in Kansas City include: an idling-reduction campaign, water conservation and strategic landscaping projects, converting parking lots to parks, solar demonstration projects, a community forum, and a diesel engine retrofits partnership. Active
Kansas - LenexaDemonstration ProjectGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Applebee's Support Center (PDF)Applebee's Support Center - The Applebee's Support Center incorporated a series of stormwater treatment features into the site. These include terraced, vegetated swales in the parking lots followed by sediment basins, a surface sand filter and a wetland immediately downstream. This combination of features treats the pavement runoff near the source, allowing oils, salts and sediments to be cleansed through onsite natural systems.Completed
Kansas - OlatheDemonstration ProjectGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Oregon Trail Park Renovation (PDF)Oregon Trail Park Renovation - The Oregon Trail Park features a pervious concrete parking lot utilizing pervious concrete and gravel below the pavement. The pervious concrete allows the drainage to filter down into the pavement, slowing down, cooling and filtering the water before discharging the stormwater into a nearby pond. The pond has been renovated into an extended wet-detention basin to provide stormwater cleansing to the adjacent 36 acres.Completed
Kentucky - LouisvilleUrban Forestry ProgramCommunity of TreesCommunity of Trees - In spring 2007, the Louisville Mayor’s Office and Metro Parks organized a consortium of agencies and organizations to develop a comprehensive approach to trees in the community. The consortium’s goals include establishing regulatory oversight of tree planting and maintenance, gathering information related to current tree canopy, creating a master tree planting and maintenance plan, and conducting an outreach campaign to educate residents on the value of urban forestry.Active
Louisiana - Baton RougeTree and Landscape OrdinanceChapter 18 Landscape and Trees (PDF)Baton Rouge Landscape and Trees Ordinance - In 2007, the City of Baton Rouge strengthened its landscape ordinance, which requires tree planting on all new developments, excluding single-family residences. The ordinance requires two shade trees for every 5,000 square feet of site, and one shade tree per 600 square feet of street frontage. Parking lot requirements include one shade tree per 15 parking spaces for a lot with one to 25 spaces; one shade tree per 12 parking spaces for a lot with 25 to 100 spaces; and one shade tree per 10 parking spaces for a lot over 100 spaces. For example, a 10,000-square-foot site with 600 square feet of storefront and 150 parking spaces would require 20 shade trees (i.e., four for the square footage of the site, one for the store frontage, and 15 for the parking lot).Active
Louisiana - Baton RougeUrban Forestry ProgramNeighborWoodsNeighborWoods - NeighborWoods is a program initiated by Baton Rouge Green, a non-profit urban forestry program in Baton Rouge that provides shade trees for roadway medians, parks, and schools. Each year Baton Rouge Green selects four environmentally underserved neighborhoods throughout the city in which to initiate urban tree planting. The organization provides information and technical assistance to local citizens to help them implement tree planting and maintenance programs in their neighborhoods.Active
Maryland - AnnapolisIncentive; Urban Forestry Program; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Outreach and Education ProgramSee Chapter 17.14Annapolis Energy Efficiency Resolution - In October 2006, Annapolis, Maryland adopted a comprehensive energy efficiency resolution that included general goals and specific long-term targets for adopting a range of energy efficiency measures. One recommendation was to increase tree shading so that the city could sequester carbon dioxide, reduce the urban heat island effect, and lower ozone levels. In 2007, the city adopted a new tree protection ordinance as one step to protecting existing shade trees. This resolution also proposed green building goals, including adopting green building standards for public buildings, investigating incentives for green building construction, and developing an outreach and education program for the building community and government staff. The resolution also proposes increasing the urban forest canopy to 50% of the city’s land area by 2036.Active
Maryland - AnnapolisTree and Landscape OrdinanceSee Chapter 17.09Annapolis Ordinance on Trees in Development Areas - Annapolis, Maryland has explicitly recognized the environmental value of trees and acted to protect them during construction. The "Tree Protection Ordinance" requires a survey of trees on a proposed development site and fences or other means to mark and protect designated trees during construction. The ordinance also prohibits certain activities, such as trenching or grading, within the dripline of trees unless specific precautions are followed.Active
Maryland - BaltimoreIncentive; Urban Forestry ProgramThe Growing Home Campaign


A Stewardship Success Story (PDF)
Baltimore's Growing Home Campaign - Since 2006, Baltimore County's Growing Home Campaign has provided $10 coupons to homeowners toward the purchase of most trees at local nurseries. Each coupon represents $5 of public funds and $5 of retail funds. In order to validate their coupon, homeowners provide information including tree type and location planted, allowing the county to integrate the data with future tree canopy studies. The county began the program as an innovative way to increase tree canopy cover as part of its larger "Green Renaissance" forest conservation and sustainability plan. In the first two months of the program, 1,700 trees were planted.Active
Maryland - MontgomeryIncentiveMontgomery RainScapes ProgramMontgomery RainScapes Rewards Rebate Program - The program offers financial incentives to property owners who implement measures to reduce stormwater pollution. There are nine measures that individuals can apply for, five of which have a heat island mitigation focus: rain gardens, increased urban tree canopy, incorporation of permeable pavers, pavement removal, and green roof installation.Active
Maryland - StatewideUrban Forestry Program; Outreach and Education Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Air Quality RequirementSee Section 6.3 Voluntary and Innovative Measures (PDF)Maryland's State Implementation Plan - Maryland's State Implementation Plan includes a regional forest canopy program that aims to reduce the heat island effect. The program involves assistance and outreach to encourage tree plantings through the coordination of various state and local agencies. This program would be housed within the Department of Natural Resources and would be charged with management of a tree planting database and promoting outreach efforts to landowners and stakeholder groups.Active
Maryland - Takoma ParkTree and Landscape OrdinanceOrdinance No. 2003-40 (PDF)Takoma Park Trees and Vegetation Ordinance - The Takoma Park Ordinance provides protection to the urban forest. Tree impact assessments are required for paving activities, and permits are required to construct or develop land when trees would be affected.Active
Massachusetts - BostonBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and StandardsBoston Implements Green Building Zoning CodeGreen Building Zoning Code - Boston is decreasing carbon emissions associated with energy use in privately owned and operated buildings by implementing a Green Building Zoning Code. The zoning code requires all major construction projects greater than 50,000 square feet to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED certification standards. Two of the points for this certification can be obtained by using urban heat island reduction strategies, one point coming from cool or green roofs and the other from non-roof strategies.Active
Missouri - Kansas CityDemonstration ProjectGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center (PDF)Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center - Bioswale landscaping is used in the Anita B. Gorman Conservation Discovery Center parking lot in order to remove pollutants from street and parking lot runoff and lessen the need for year-round maintenance. Curb breaks allow water to enter the bioswales. The project provides reduction of stormwater impacts on the community and nearby Brush Creek.Completed
Missouri - Kansas CityDemonstration ProjectGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Jackson County Courthouse (PDF)Jackson County Courthouse - The Jackson County Courthouse parking lot employs a variety of stormwater runoff reduction techniques, including the installation of bioswales. The new design reroutes roof drains from the terrace roof and new shelter underground to the bioswales. Flat curbs were also used, which allow water to flow from the perimeter of the lot into planting zones, reducing runoff.Completed
Missouri - Kansas CityDemonstration ProjectGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Vehicle Impound Facility (Kansas City, Mo.) (PDF)Vehicle Impound Facility - Pervious pavement could not be used for this project because of the high percentage of chemical sediment contamination that is released from impounded vehicles. As an alternative, a large bioswale was added to the facility to infiltrate the stormwater runoff. Median landscaping and plantings around the building were also added to curb the heat island effect.Completed
Missouri - Kansas CityTree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Zoning CodeGreen Parking Lots Case Studies - Green Parking Ordinance (PDF)Green Parking Ordinance - Kansas City, Missouri's proposed parking ordinance contains several innovative planning techniques aimed at reducing the amount of parking and properly filtrating stormwater from parking lots. The ordinance allows for less parking where appropriate and increases shared parking options, especially in downtown areas or along transit stops. The ordinance also sets landscaping requirements for parking lots and provides options for pervious pavements to enhance stormwater management.Active
New Jersey - ElizabethUrban Forestry Program; Outreach and Education ProgramGroundwork ElizabethGroundwork Elizabeth - Groundwork Elizabeth, a nonprofit group in Elizabeth, New Jersey, works to involve neighborhood residents in community revitalization projects, including tree planting at local schools and parks. The organization was instrumental in getting the city of Elizabeth involved in New Jersey's Cool Cities Initiative, which aims to plant trees primarily in the large cities of New Jersey with low tree coverage.Active
New Mexico - AlbuquerqueResearch; Urban Forestry ProgramUrban Forest Initiative Albuquerque, New Mexico (PDF)Albuquerque Urban Forest Improvement Initiative - The City of Albuquerque, New Mexico's Urban Forest Improvement Initiative combines multiple efforts to tap the benefits of urban trees. In addition to pledging to plant 2,000 trees per year, the city has hired an urban forester to design and manage municipal trees and commissioned the USDA Forest Service Center for Urban Forest Research to develop a Municipal Forest Resource Analysis. Completed in August 2006, the analysis found that Albuquerque received a benefit of $1.31 for each dollar invested in city trees.Active
New York - Bronx, NYCResearch; Demonstration ProjectEfforts to Improve Air Quality in the Bronx Move Ahead (2009 Press Release)Greening the Bronx - The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and New York City worked with horticulture students to undertake a borough-wide tree planting program. NYSERDA led research and the first half of the planting demonstration to identify species and sight selection that would maximize the ability to decrease electricity needs in the borough.Completed
New York - Saratoga SpringsUrban Forestry ProgramThe Urban Forestry Project

Tree Plan for Saratoga Springs Taking Root
Urban Forest Project - Sustainable Saratoga, a non-profit organization, has been partnering with the City of Saratoga Springs to organize a volunteer effort to inventory the city’s street and park trees. The inventory will be used to develop an Urban Forest Master Plan, which will guide development and cultivation of the city’s street trees. Active
Pennsylvania - StatewideUrban Forestry ProgramTreeVitalizeTreeVitalize - The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources oversees a project called TreeVitalize, which brings together county and local governments, foundations, trade associations, and private industry to restore tree cover in the southeastern part of the state. TreeVitalize aims to plant more than 20,000 trees in approximately 40 neighborhoods in Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia counties. The program targets neighborhoods in older cities, boroughs, and townships where tree cover is below 25%.Active
Tennessee - KnoxvilleUrban Forestry Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesTable of ContentsKnoxville Street Tree Master Plan - Knoxville Master Street Tree Plan surveys the existing tree cover in Knoxville and Knox County and develops strategies to preserve and increase the urban canopy. Knoxville has established guiding principles, designated preferred species of trees, and evaluated and implemented opportunities to plant throughout the city.Active
Texas - AustinGreen Building Program and Standards; Resolution; Comprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesCity of Austin - Heat Island Mitigation Resolution


Austin Climate Protection Plan
Austin Heat Island Mitigation - In May 2001, the Austin City Council adopted a heat island mitigation resolution that committed the city manager to review recommendations for a variety of activities to diminish the city's heat island. In September of that year, the City Council awarded $1 million towards implementing the recommendations, which ranged from developing a cool roof strategy to increasing enforcement of the city's tree-saving ordinance. Austin's Climate Protection Plan incorporates heat island reduction through its green building and energy efficiency elements.Active
Texas - AustinUrban Forestry ProgramTreeFolksTreeFolks - Started in 1989, TreeFolks directs many programs that help to grow the urban forests of Central Texas. One program in particular, NeighborWoods, began delivering free street trees in 2004 with a goal of reducing heat islands. NeighborWoods evaluates neighborhoods during summer and fall and marks areas that are available for tree planting. Residents who commit to planting and watering the tree for two years can reserve their tree on the website or by mail. The trees are delivered, with planting and watering instructions, between October and March. The program reduces the urban heat island effect by shading paved streets, and it helps residents increase their property values while decreasing their energy bills.Active
Texas - DallasUrban Forestry Program; Green Building Program and Standards; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Zoning Code; Building Code; Outreach and Education Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Incentive; Air Quality Requirement Sustainable Skylines - Dallas

Urban Heat Island Project
Dallas Sustainable Skylines Initiative - The Sustainable Skylines initiative is a three-year partnership between the City of Dallas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTOG) to promote sustainability within the City via voluntary programs which emphasize air quality improvements. The initiative has identified the following categories of potential projects to initially perform together: green buildings project, creating a greenhouse gas strategy, green taxis project, off-road equipment replacements and retrofits, renewable energy/energy efficiency outreach program, and an urban heat island project. The goal of the urban heat island project is to develop and implement an urban heat island program for the City of Dallas that will both decrease heated surfaces and increase permeability of surfaces in the Central City and other areas of Dallas.Active
Texas - DallasUrban Forestry ProgramAdopt-a-MedianAdopt-a-Median Tree Planting Program - Overseen by the Urban Forest Advisory Committee and the Dallas Streets Department, this program aims to encourage more tree plantings in street medians to reduce the urban heat island effect. Adopt-a-Median allows groups to adopt medians and take responsibility of their tree planting and maintenance. Groups can either self-fund tree plantings, or by complying with city regulations obtain funding from the Street Department’s MOWmentum fund, or the city’s Reforestation Fund.Active
Texas - HoustonIncentiveDowntown Houston Development Assistance (PDF)


Vertical Gardens Grant Initiative (PDF)
Vertical Gardens Matching Grant Initiative - The Houston Downtown Management District (HDMD) Vertical Gardens Matching Grant initiative first gave grants in 2007 to encourage plantings that cover walls. The grants also support exceptional landscaping that adds significant evapotranspiration and shade for blank walls, parking garages, and sidewalks. The program goals include improving overall aesthetics, pedestrian comfort, air quality, and reducing the heat island effect. Grants cannot exceed half of the total project cost or $20,000, and contributions can be in kind. Tenants, property owners, and registered non-profits can all apply.Active
Texas - HoustonResearch; Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project; Air Quality RequirementHouston Urban Heat Island EffectCool Houston! - Cool Houston! is a program led by the Houston Advanced Research Center and is designed to reduce urban temperatures through use of cool technologies – reflective and green roofing, paving with light colored or porous materials, and a greatly expanded forest canopy.Active
Texas - San AntonioTree and Landscape OrdinanceSan Antonio Ordinance (PDF)San Antonio Tree Preservation Ordinance - San Antonio, Texas requires different levels of tree protection based on tree class or location. The ordinance classifies significant trees, heritage trees, and trees within the 100-year floodplain. For example, heritage trees (defined, for most species, as trees 24 inches [60 cm] or greater in diameter at breast height), must be preserved. The ordinance, however, generally counts total tree diameter-inches at a site, not individual trees, and gives flexibility in preservation: up to 90% of the tree-diameter-inches can be considered preserved if the developer plants an equal or greater number of tree-diameter-inches elsewhere. Developers can also fulfill the preservation requirement by contributing to the city's tree fund.Active
Texas - StatewideUrban Forestry ProgramTrees for TexasTrees for Texas - The Texas Trees Foundation created a program called Trees for Texas, which is focused on tree plantings throughout the state. The Foundation partnered with a private corporation to provide initial funding for the program. Working with neighborhood groups, schools, churches, other non-profit organizations and municipalities, the Foundation provides and/or plants trees on public property throughout the North Central Texas region. Since its inception, the Foundation has completed hundreds of tree planting projects, resulting in the planting of over 139,000 trees.Active
Texas - TaylorTree and Landscape OrdinanceClick on Ordinances, and then Landscape OrdinanceLandscape Ordinance for Taylor, Texas - The City of Taylor requires that all outdoor parking areas having spaces for more than twenty vehicles have landscaping within the perimeter of the parking area equal in area to not less than 5% of the total paved area. Further, no parking space is to be located more than seventy feet from a portion of the required landscaping, and one tree of at least two inch caliper in size will be provided within the perimeter of the parking area for each two hundred fifty square feet of landscaping required.Active
Utah - HighlandComprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesGeneral Plan Update 2008, Chapter 7: Community DesignHighland City General Plan - The Town of Highland, Utah, created a master plan for a 50-acre (200,000 m2) overlay zone to be privately developed as a town center. The city design guidelines for the zone recommended several heat island mitigation elements, including reflective roofing, reflective parking lot surfaces, and landscaping. Those guidelines were then adopted into the zoning requirements for the town center.Active
Utah - Salt Lake CityOutreach and Education ProgramKool KidsUtah Kool Kids Program - The Utah State Energy Program, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the National Energy Foundation worked together to create the Utah Kool Kids program to teach elementary and secondary age students about urban heat islands, their impacts on energy and air quality, and heat island reduction strategies. The program gives teachers lesson plans, overheads, test questions, experiments, and research tools to engage students.Active
Utah - Salt Lake CityTree and Landscape OrdinanceSee Chapter 21A.48.070Salt Lake City Parking Lot Shade Tree Ordinance - Salt Lake City stipulates, via ordinance, that all hard-surfaced parking lots or hard-surfaced vehicle sales or lease lots, for passenger cars and light trucks, with 15 or more parking spaces, must provide landscaping amounting to not less than 5% of the interior of the lot. The ordinance specifies the number of shrubs and trees per foot of front, corner, interior, and rear side yards required for compliance.Active
Utah - StatewideUrban Forestry Program; Outreach and Education ProgramStatewide Urban & Community Forestry ProgramTreeUtah - TreeUtah has launched a comprehensive initiative, the MetroGreening Program, that uses advertising, outreach, and educational workshops to promote proper planting and maintenance of trees to reduce heating and cooling costs, diminish the heat island effect, and achieve other benefits in Utah's most densely-populated regions.Active
Virginia - Fairfax CountyComprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesFairfax County Tree Action Plan (PDF)Tree Action Plan - In June 2007, Fairfax County, Virginia set a precedent by selecting an urban forestry canopy goal of 45%. The county developed this target after it determined that current tree management efforts would lead to a decrease in canopy size from 41% to 37% over the next 30 years. To combat this loss, the county has proposed increasing the average number of trees planted from 21,000 to 84,000, justifying the expense of additional trees by citing the multiple benefits they provide.Active
Washington - SeattleTree and Landscape OrdinanceStreet Tree Planting ProceduresSeattle Street Tree Planting - Seattle requires a street use permit before landscaping in a planting strip in a public right-of-way. For street trees, the strip must be at least 5 feet (1.5 m) wide, unless specific approval from the city's arborist is received. Five feet is generally recommended as the minimum width for planting most trees. A guide is available to help property owners select and install trees in accordance with the city's requirements.Active
Washington - SeattleUrban Forestry Program; IncentiveSeattle reLeafSeattle Urban Forestry Initiative - Since 1996, Seattle's Neighborhood Matching Fund program has provided more than 17,200 trees to more than 600 neighborhood groups for Seattle's streets and parks, and the city has established the Emerald City Task Force, which advises the city on incentives and policies to encourage private property owners – residential and commercial – to improve their land by preserving existing trees and planting new ones. Active
Washington - SeattleZoning CodeDepartment of Planning and Development - Green FactorSeattle Green Factor - Seattle has adopted minimum landscape requirements, known as the Seattle Green Factor, for new developments in commercial areas in the city. This program requires that, as of late January 2007, certain new developments in neighborhood business districts must provide for vegetative cover on the equivalent of 30% of the applicable property. The regulations apply to developments with more than four dwelling units, more than 4,000 square feet (370 m2) of commercial uses, or more than 20 new parking spaces. Developers can use a menu of strategies, including planting new trees, preserving trees, and installing green roofs and green walls to meet this target. The regulations are part of the city's Commercial Code and encourage planting of layers of vegetation and larger trees in areas visible to the public. The rules also include bonuses for harvesting rain water and choosing plants that need less water. The city has developed a worksheet to help applicants calculate a "score" that indicates whether various mixes of landscaping measures meet the requirements, which will allow developers to try different combinations of features.Active

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