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State - LocalityInitiative TypeLink Exit EPATitle & DescriptionDate
Arizona - GilbertComprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesChapter 7 - Environmental Planning Element, Goal 14 (PDF)

Cool Pavements Brochure
Gilbert General Plan - The "Environmental Planning Element" in the Gilbert, Arizona general plan lists mitigating heat islands as a core goal. Specific policies under the goal include: 1) developing criteria to evaluate development projects that contribute to the heat island effect and identify mitigation techniques; 2) seeking partnerships with other municipalities, educational institutions, utility companies, government entities, and other to promote heat island awareness among landowners, developers, engineers, and architects; 3) encouraging design concepts utilizing planned and engineered green space and urban forestry to maximize shading of paved areas and buildings; 4) promoting education and awareness of the public, designers and applicants for the development and use of materials and construction techniques to help mitigate the urban heat island effect; and 5) providing for a reduction of the stormwater retention requirements where a grading and drainage report demonstrates a reduced stormwater storage capacity results from the use of pervious pavements on a site. One step in implementing the plan involved the development of a brochure on the use of cool pavements to reduce the urban heat island effect.Active
Arizona - PhoenixResearch; Outreach and Education ProgramASU SMARTArizona State University Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies Program - The Arizona State University Sustainable Materials and Renewable Technologies (SMART) Program is a trans-disciplinary group of researchers, industries and governmental agencies from around the globe working in partnership to develop the next generation of urban materials and advanced biological and solar technologies an effort to support urbanization in a more sustainable manner. SMART researchers are developing the next generation of urban materials that aid in the mitigation of the urban heat island, reduce energy demand for mechanical cooling, and incorporate feedstocks diverted from waste streams.Active
Arizona - TucsonDemonstration ProjectCool Retrofit - Thomas O. Price Service CenterCity of Tucson's Administration Building - A demonstration project for the City of Tucson documented how a cool roof reduced temperatures inside and on the roof of the building and saved more than 400 million Btu annually in energy. A white elastomeric coating was installed over a 28,000-square foot (2,600 m2), unshaded metal roof on one of the city's administration buildings. Following the installation, energy savings were calculated at 50 to 65% of the building's cooling energy – an avoided energy cost of nearly $4,000 annually. In addition to measuring the effects of adding a cool roof, the project will also investigate cooler paving materials and more trees and vegetation in the parking lots surrounding the building.Completed
California - BerkeleyClimate Action PlanCity of Berkeley Climate Action Plan (PDF)Cool Roofs - As part of the city's Climate Action Plan, Berkeley will consider requiring the installation of a cool roof anytime a commercial building is built or re-roofed. Cool roofs can achieve a solar reflectance of 70-80%, compared to 10-20% for a typical roof.Active
California - Chula VistaBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Demonstration ProjectClimate Change Working Group – Climate Action PlanningBuilding Code; Demonstration Project; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape Ordinance - The City of Chula Vista has identified 11 climate adaptation strategies, three of which directly address urban heat islands: they include the installation of cooler paving products, cooler roofing materials, and the incorporation of more shade trees. The city is sponsoring a demonstration project that will evaluate multiple reflective pavement technologies and develop implementation options based on these results. It is also working to amend its green building standards code to require cool roofs on all new residential developments, as well as developing a policy to require all municipal improvement projects and private parking lot development projects to incorporate a certain percentage of shade trees based on the development size.Active
California - MartinezBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and Standards; Tree and Landscape OrdinanceThe City of Martinez Climate Action PlanMartinez Climate Action Plan - Martinez Climate Action Plan – The City of Martinez is addressing the issue of urban heat islands in its climate action plan. The city aims to reduce the heat island effect through targeted upgrades of existing buildings and paved areas; adoption of new building standards, including the new cool roof standard contained in California’s Title 24 Energy Standards; tree planting; and new requirements for shading in new parking lots and other large paved areas.Active
California - SacramentoIncentiveRebates - Residential Cool RoofsCool Roof Rebate Program - The Sacramento Municipal Utility District offers rebates to residential customers who use cool roofing technologies. The utility offers a 20-cent-per-square-foot (0.09 m2) rebate to customers who own single-family, multi-family, or mobile homes with flat roofs and who install ENERGY STARŪ cool roof products. The rebate for sloped roofs is 10 cents per square foot. Under this program, a single family would earn a $300 rebate for incorporating a cool roof, and save an estimated $50 per year on their annual cooling bill.Active
California - San Joaquin ValleyResearchProvidence Engineering StudyEvaluation of Innovative Ozone Mitigation Strategies - The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (APCD) awarded Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) funds to Providence Engineering to evaluate urban heat island mitigation for air quality impact. Providence Engineering used the Mitigation Impact Screening Tool developed by the U.S. EPA to simulate the atmospheric effects of citywide pavement and roofing albedo changes for San Francisco, Sacramento, and Fresno. Providence Engineering also calculated the cost-benefit of these urban-scale changes using cost data for various construction materials.Completed
California - StatewideBuilding CodeTitle 24, Part 6

2008 Updates
California Code of Regulations: California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Nonresidential Buildings - In response to electrical power shortages, the state of California added cool roofs as an energy efficiency option to its building energy code (Title 24) in 2001. The code defines a cool roof as having a minimum solar reflectance of 70% and minimum thermal emittance of 75%, unless it is concrete or clay tile, in which case it can have a minimum solar reflectance of 40%. This 40% rating incorporates new cool-colored residential products into the standard. In 2005, these cool roof provisions became mandatory requirements for all new non-residential construction and re-roofing projects that involve more than 2,000 square feet (180 m2) or 50% replacement. The code allows owners to meet these requirements in a variety of ways. The simplest approach is to apply a cool roof that meets the minimum requirements. Another alternative is to use products that do not fully meet the cool roof criteria and then offset those reduced performance levels by implementing other measures, such as insulation and window improvements, that exceed minimum requirements. The third, and most flexible option, is to use whatever methods are deemed practicable as long as the code's specific performance goal is reached; in this scenario, the building owner creates a model of all the characteristics that affect the energy consumption of the building to determine the mix of measures that will meet the code criteria. The California Energy Commission provides computer software for this compliance option. California began the process of updating Title 24 in late 2005, with final revised standards due in 2008. As part of this update, California is investigating extending cool roof requirements to the steep-sloped market.Active
California - StatewideGreen Building Program and StandardsCALGreen (PDF)California Green Building Standards Code - The 2010 California Green Building Standards Code, referred to as CALGreen, went into effect on January 1, 2011. The Code covers residential and commercial buildings, and provides 52 nonresidential mandatory measures and an additional 130 provisions for optional use. There are several voluntary measures that relate to heat island mitigation, including shading, cool pavement, and cool roof technologies.Active
California - StatewideOutreach and Education ProgramCalifornia Department of Public Health (PDF)

Climate Action for Health (PDF)
Integrating Public Health into Climate Action Planning - The California Department of Public Health has developed a guide to how health and climate change are related. The guide identifies strategies to reduce the urban heat island effect, a consequence of climate change. The strategies include developing well-vegetated urban parks, exploring the role of landscaping and green roofs, planting urban forests, and using light-colored building and pavement materials.Active
California - WindsorGreen Building Program and StandardsGreen Building OrdinanceGreen Building Ordinance - The Green Building Ordinance in Windsor, CA applies to all new residential and commercial construction projects as well as remodels that consist of at least 75% reconstruction of total building/residency. The ordinance states that buildings must follow “green building standards,” which include the use of certified sustainable wood products and energy-efficient construction designs, as well as the incorporation of shade trees and cool reflective or green roofs.Active
Florida - Cocoa BeachDemonstration ProjectProfile of Success (PDF)Our Savior's Elementary School - Our Savior's Elementary School in Cocoa Beach participated in a study conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center. The school applied a simple white acrylic coating to its 12,000-square foot roof. As a result, the reflectivity of the roof increased from 23% to 68%. Despite being an energy-efficient building, adding the roof coating reduced annual energy consumption by approximately 13,000 kWh and average electricity power demand to decline by 10%. Additionally, peak electric power demand fell by 35%. The roof coating saved the school approximately $850 per year and increased student and employee comfort.Completed
Florida - Port St. LucieDemonstration ProjectOxbow Eco-CenterOxbow Eco-center - The Oxbow Eco-Center is an environmental learning center that was constructed using green building technologies and is a model for sustainability. The building was and was painted with light-colored or reflective paints and built using recycled and recyclable materials. The floors were built from salvaged pine trees from the St. Johns River, and a cistern system was installed to catch rainwater to flush the toilets.Active
Florida - StatewideBuilding CodeChapter 13 Energy Efficiency (PDF)2007 Florida Building Code - Florida gives cool roofs credit in its building energy code. Buildings using a roof with 70% minimum solar reflectance and 75% minimum thermal emittance are eligible to reduce the amount of insulation needed to meet building efficiency standards, as long as a radiant barrier is not also installed in the roof plenum or attic space.Active
Florida - StatewideIncentiveFlorida Power and Light Energy Notes (PDF)Florida Power and Light Cool Roof Incentive (Commercial Program) - Florida Power and Light offers rebates of 10 to 25 cents per square foot to customers who insulate their roof with spray polyurethane foam (over air conditioned space) and another 15 cents per square foot if a cool coating is applied. Florida Power and Light estimates that cool coating can reduce cooling costs by 5 to 10%.Active
Florida - StatewideIncentiveResidential Building Envelope - Trade Ally Standards (PDF)Florida Building Code Cool Roof Credit (Residential Program) - Florida Power and Light offers customers a 10 cent per square foot rebate for reflective roofs (either metal or tile with 65% or 73% solar reflectance respectively). The program applies only to existing dwellings with whole house electric heating or air conditioning. This initiative is designed to encourage energy conservation.Active
Florida - TallahasseeIncentiveResidential Loan Handbook – City of Tallahassee Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program (PDF)The City of Tallahassee - The City of Tallahassee offers loan programs for residential home or commercial upgrades to more energy efficient practices. One of these upgrades is for the installation of a reflective roof. The programs offer $500 to $20,000 for these loans, depending on the residents’ needs. The terms of the loan are for 5 years at 5% annual interest and a 1% processing fee, with no penalty for early payoff. There are no income requirements; residents only need to have 12 months of account history.Active
Georgia - AtlantaOutreach and Education ProgramCool CommunitiesCool Communities Program - Cool Communities is a nonprofit program in Atlanta aimed at improving urban environments and conserving energy by promoting the use of lighter, reflective roofing and paving materials as well as planting shade trees.Active
Georgia - StatewideBuilding CodeSee Section 704 (PDF)Georgia Amendment to the 1995 CABO Model Energy Code with Georgia Supplements and Amendments - Georgia was the first state to add cool roofs to its energy code, in 1995. Georgia allows a reduced roof insulation level if a cool roof with a 75% minimum solar reflectance and 75% minimum thermal emittance is installed. Note that if the insulation level is reduced when a cool roof is used, there may be no net energy savings.Active
Illinois - ChicagoBuilding CodeChicago Energy Conservation CodeChicago Energy Conservation Code - Chicago's energy code contains a section on "Urban Heat Island Provisions", which sets out requirements for both solar reflectance and emissivity for low and medium sloped roofs. In January 2003, the City of Chicago amended its energy code to require roof installations on or prior to December 31, 2008, to meet a minimum solar reflectance of 0.25. The amendments apply to most air-conditioned buildings with low-sloped roofs. After December 31, 2008, contractors must use roofing products that meet or exceed the minimum criteria to qualify for an ENERGY STAR label.Active
Illinois - ChicagoIncentiveGreen Roof & Cool Roof Grants ProgramsChicago Roof Grants Programs - Chicago has established green and cool roof grant programs for residential and commercial buildings. In 2005, the first year of the green roof grants program, the city supported 20 green roof installation projects; in 2006, it helped fund 40. In the fall of 2007, the city announced that it was expanding the program to include cool roofs and expected to provide about 55 $6,000 grants.Completed
Illinois - ChicagoResearch; Demonstration Project; Building Code; Outreach and Education ProgramChicago Department of EnvironmentChicago Urban Heat Island Mitigation Program - The City of Chicago's Department of the Environment has been involved with reducing urban heat islands for several years. Some projects Chicago has conducted include constructing a porous pavement alley, revising the city's building code to require cool roofs, and launching a green roof program.Active
Kansas - Kansas CityUrban Forestry Program; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Outreach and Education Program; Air Quality Requirement Sustainable Skylines - Kansas Kansas City Sustainable Skylines Initiative - Sustainable Skylines is a locally-led, EPA-supported, public-private partnership to reduce air emissions and promote sustainability in urban environments. Greater Kansas City was chosen as one of the first pilot communities to implement the Sustainable Skylines program. Projects in Kansas City include: an idling-reduction campaign, water conservation and strategic landscaping projects, converting parking lots to parks, solar demonstration projects, a community forum, and a diesel engine retrofits partnership. Active
Massachusetts - BostonBuilding Standard / Energy Code; Green Building Program and StandardsBoston Implements Green Building Zoning CodeGreen Building Zoning Code - Boston is decreasing carbon emissions associated with energy use in privately owned and operated buildings by implementing a Green Building Zoning Code. The zoning code requires all major construction projects greater than 50,000 square feet to adhere to the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED certification standards. Two of the points for this certification can be obtained by using urban heat island reduction strategies, one point coming from cool or green roofs and the other from non-roof strategies.Active
New York - New York CityBuilding Standard / Energy CodeNYC CoolRoofsNYC CoolRoofs - In 2008 New York City put into place a building code that requires most new buildings to have 75% of the roof area covered with a reflective, white coating, or to be ENERGY STARŪ rated as highly reflective. Starting from January 2012, existing buildings that replace or renovate 50 percent or more are also required to add reflective materials to their rooftop. In addition, NYC °Cool Roofs address roofs on buildings that were built before the mandated codes took effect. To date 3,000 volunteers have coated 2.6 million sq ft of rooftops throughout the city. This program helps save money, preserve roof structure and cooling equipment, reduce energy use, reduce carbon emissions, and combat the urban heat island effect. Active
New York - The BronxResearch; Demonstration Project; Outreach and Education ProgramSustainable South Bronx: Green Jobs, Not JailsSustainable South Bronx - The non-profit group Sustainable South Bronx has developed several goals for the green roof/cool roof demonstration project on top of its office building in Hunts Point. These goals include gathering research on local impacts, establishing a resource for the community, educating New Yorkers on the benefits of green roofs, and advocating sustainable building practices. The demonstration project has become a springboard for developing a local green and cool roof installation company to provide employment opportunities in the South Bronx area. The group's business is called SmartRoofs and includes a job-training program for local residents.Active
Pennsylvania - PhiladelphiaBuilding CodesCity of Philadelphia Cool Roof Ordinance (PDF)City of Philadelphia Cool Roof Ordinance - In May 2010, the City of Philadelphia enacted legislation requiring all new construction in the city to use white roof coverings or those that are rated by ENERGY STAR as highly reflective. The law exempts certain projects, including vegetative roofs and those with rooftop photovoltaic and solar thermal equipment .Active
Pennsylvania - PhiladelphiaWeatherizationEnergy Coordinating AgencyPhiladelphia Cool Homes Program - The Energy Coordinating Agency (ECA) of Philadelphia, which administers the city's weatherization services, has applied cool roof coatings as part of its package of energy efficiency treatments. ECA commissioned a study that found the cool coatings and increased insulation eliminated 90% of the heat gain through the ceiling, reducing top-floor ceiling temperatures by an average of 4.7°F (2.6°C) and chest-height temperatures by 2.4°F (1.3°C). These reduced temperatures lowered air conditioning loads by about one-third in a typical rowhouse.Active
South Carolina - SpartanburgOutreach and Education Program; Demonstration ProjectGoodall Environmental Studies CenterWofford College Cool Roof - The Goodall Environmental Studies Center at Wofford College incorporates a reflective cool roof that mitigates the heat island effect, and is the first academic building in South Carolina to receive the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED Platinum certification. The building will use 32% less energy annually than average buildings of the same size and type.Completed
Tennessee - ChattanoogaOutreach and Education Program; Demonstration ProjectGreen InitiativesGirls Preparatory School Green and Cool Roofs - These roofs are part of a series of green initiatives at the Girls Preparatory School. The green roof cost the school an extra $30,000 that is in part offset by a projected 30% savings in annual energy costs. Additional energy savings come from a white roof installed on the school’s library.Completed
Texas - AustinGreen Building Program and Standards; Resolution; Comprehensive Plan and Design GuidelinesCity of Austin - Heat Island Mitigation Resolution

Austin Climate Protection Plan
Austin Heat Island Mitigation - In May 2001, the Austin City Council adopted a heat island mitigation resolution that committed the city manager to review recommendations for a variety of activities to diminish the city's heat island. In September of that year, the City Council awarded $1 million towards implementing the recommendations, which ranged from developing a cool roof strategy to increasing enforcement of the city's tree-saving ordinance. Austin's Climate Protection Plan incorporates heat island reduction through its green building and energy efficiency elements.Active
Texas - AustinGreen Building Program and StandardsAustin Energy Green Building

The Pedernales Lofts Case Study
The Pedernales Lofts - The Pedernales Lofts is the first multi-family development in Austin to receive five stars on the Green Building Multi-Family Rating. The rating system allows for one point if a heat island reduction strategy is used. The Pedernales Lofts used reflective roofing and pervious pavements, and was built on a former industrial brownfield. It also received S.M.A.R.T. Housing fee waivers – S.M.A.R.T. Housing rules ensure homes are Safe, Mixed-income, Accessible, Reasonably priced, and Transit-oriented. Only one star on the Green Building Multi-Family Rating system is needed to receive the S.M.A.R.T. housing fee waiver.Completed
Texas - AustinIncentiveBuilding Envelope RebatesAustin Energy Efficiency Rebates - Austin Energy offers 30-cent-per-square-foot rebates for cool roof retrofits. Customers must use cool roof products that have a minimum reflectivity of 75%.Active
Texas - DallasGreen Building Program and StandardsSee Item #3 (PDF)Dallas Green Building Program Ordinance - The City of Dallas passed this ordinance to establish a green building program. The program will consist of two phases; the first phase focusing on energy efficiency, water conservation and reduction of the heat island effect through cool roofs, and phase two will expand phase one to implement a comprehensive green building standard for all new construction. For new proposed commercial projects affecting less than 50,000 square feet of floor area, the requirements include energy efficiency, water conservation, cool roof requirements for low-slope roofs, and an outdoor lighting restriction.Active
Texas - DallasUrban Forestry Program; Green Building Program and Standards; Demonstration Project; Tree and Landscape Ordinance; Resolution; Zoning Code; Building Code; Outreach and Education Program; Comprehensive Plan and Design Guidelines; Incentive; Air Quality Requirement Sustainable Skylines - Dallas

Urban Heat Island Project
Dallas Sustainable Skylines Initiative - The Sustainable Skylines initiative is a three-year partnership between the City of Dallas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTOG) to promote sustainability within the City via voluntary programs which emphasize air quality improvements. The initiative has identified the following categories of potential projects to initially perform together: green buildings project, creating a greenhouse gas strategy, green taxis project, off-road equipment replacements and retrofits, renewable energy/energy efficiency outreach program, and an urban heat island project. The goal of the urban heat island project is to develop and implement an urban heat island program for the City of Dallas that will both decrease heated surfaces and increase permeability of surfaces in the Central City and other areas of Dallas.Active
Texas - FriscoGreen Building Program and StandardsGreen Building Program

See Chapter 18, Article IV, Division 3
City of Frisco Green Building Program - Frisco, Texas requires cool roofs in its commercial green building program. In late 2006, the City Council approved requirements for most new commercial construction to install ENERGY STAR labeled cool roof products.Active
Texas - HoustonBuilding CodeSee Section Cool Roofs (PDF)City of Houston Commercial Energy Conservation Code - The City of Houston created this energy conservation code to provide requirements for the design and construction of new buildings. Cool roof requirements are included for new buildings. The code requires low slope roofs up to 2:12 to be covered with a surface that has a minimum solar reflectance of 0.70 and a minimum thermal emittance of 0.75.Active
Texas - HoustonResearch; Outreach and Education Program; Demonstration Project; Air Quality RequirementHouston Urban Heat Island EffectCool Houston! - Cool Houston! is a program led by the Houston Advanced Research Center and is designed to reduce urban temperatures through use of cool technologies – reflective and green roofing, paving with light colored or porous materials, and a greatly expanded forest canopy.Active
Utah - Salt Lake CityOutreach and Education ProgramKool KidsUtah Kool Kids Program - The Utah State Energy Program, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and the National Energy Foundation worked together to create the Utah Kool Kids program to teach elementary and secondary age students about urban heat islands, their impacts on energy and air quality, and heat island reduction strategies. The program gives teachers lesson plans, overheads, test questions, experiments, and research tools to engage students.Active
Virginia - AlexandriaDemonstration ProjectProfile of Success (PDF)Jefferson Houston Elementary School - The Jefferson Houston Elementary School replaced its conventional, dark roof with a cool roof which increased the roof's reflectivity from less than 20% to 78%. The cost of the reflective roof was comparable to alternate materials considered. The school also increased its insulation level from R-10 to R-20. Energy costs were reduced to $90,000 a year from $120,000 a year.Completed
Virginia - ArlingtonGreen Building Program and StandardsEnvironmental Services: Green BuildingArlington County Green Buildings - Arlington, Virginia bases its municipal green building requirements on the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating System, which includes cool roof and green roof options.Active

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