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DISCLAIMER
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
FOREWORD
Show details for 1. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTION
Show details for 2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
Show details for 3. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INCENTIVE SYSTEMS3. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INCENTIVE SYSTEMS
Show details for 4. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES4. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES
Show details for 5. DEPOSIT-REFUND SYSTEMS5. DEPOSIT-REFUND SYSTEMS
Show details for 6. TRADING SYSTEMS6. TRADING SYSTEMS
Show details for 7. SUBSIDIES7. SUBSIDIES
Show details for 8. LIABILITY APPROACHES8. LIABILITY APPROACHES
Show details for 9. INFORMATION APPROACHES9. INFORMATION APPROACHES
Show details for 10. VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS10. VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS
Show details for 11. FOREIGN EXPERIENCES WITH INCENTIVE SYSTEMS11. FOREIGN EXPERIENCES WITH INCENTIVE SYSTEMS
12. CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY
FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3-1: INCREMENTAL DAMAGES AND COSTS OF CONTROLLING POLLUTION
FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3-2: CONTROL OPTIONS FOR A SOURCE
FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3-3: MARGINAL DAMAGES AND COSTS FOR TAX PER UNIT OF EMISSIONS APPROACH TO POLLUTION CONTROL
FIGURE 4. FIGURE 3-4: COSTS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR FIRMS UNDER EMISSIONS TAX AND COMMAND AND CONTROL APPROACHES
FIGURE 5. FIGURE 4-1: 1994 WATER CHARGE STRUCTURES
FIGURE 6. FIGURE 4-2: MONTHLY WATER AND WASTEWATER CHARGES
FIGURE 7. FIGURE 4-3: HOUSEHOLD WASTE LANDFILLING AND RECYCLING IN SAN JOSE
FIGURE 8. FIGURE 4-4: GRAZING FEES UNDER THE PUBLIC RANGELANDS IMPROVEMENT ACT
FIGURE 9. FIGURE 5-1: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF REFILLABLE BOTTLES
FIGURE 10. FIGURE 5-2: ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTOR COSTS OF MAINE DEPOSIT SCHEMES
FIGURE 11. FIGURE 5-3: BATTERY LEAD RECYCLING AND LEAD SCRAP PRICES IN THE U.S.
FIGURE 12. FIGURE 6-1: PHASE I SO2 EMISSION
FIGURE 13. FIGURE 7-1: WISCONSIN NEWSPAPER RECYCLING AND RECYCLED CONTENT REQUIREMENTS
FIGURE 14. FIGURE 7-2: STATE REVOLVING FUND INVESTMENT FY 1988-95
FIGURE 15. FIGURE 7-3: U.S. POPULATION SERVED BY MODERN SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES
FIGURE 16. FIGURE 9-1: MASSACHUSETTS TOXICS USE AND BYPRODUCTS
FIGURE 17. FIGURE 10-1: ENERGY SAVINGS IN SHOWCASE BUILDING
FIGURE 18. FIGURE 10-2: RELEASES AND TRANSFERS OF 33/50 PROGRAM CHEMICALS
FIGURE 19. FIGURE 11-1: ANNUAL CHARGE PAYMENTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE
FIGURE 20. FIGURE 11-2: POINT SOURCE EFFLUENT CHARGES IN GERMANY
FIGURE 21. FIGURE 11-3: EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE NETHERLANDS
FIGURE 22. FIGURE 11-4: EFFLUENT CHARGE REVENUES IN THE NETHERLANDS
FIGURE 23. FIGURE 11-5: FERTILIZER CHARGES AND USE IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 24. FIGURE 11-6: SALES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF DIESEL FUEL IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 25. FIGURE 11-7: SINGAPORE ANNUAL ROAD TAX
FIGURE 26. FIGURE 11-8: PRIVATE CARS ENTERING SINGAPORE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
FIGURE 27. FIGURE 11-9: MODES OF TRANSPORTATION IN SINGAPORE
FIGURE 28. FIGURE 11-10: ALUMINUM CAN RECYCLING RATES
FIGURE 29. FIGURE 11-11: CARS SOLD AND SCRAPPED IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 30. FIGURE 11-12: PET BOTTLE RECYCLING RATE IN TAIWAN
FIGURE 31. FIGURE 11-13: ELECTRIC POWER PRICES, 1988
TABLE 1. TABLE 3-1: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
TABLE 2. TABLE 3-2: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION
TABLE 3. TABLE 3-3: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO REDUCE SOLID WASTE
TABLE 4. TABLE 3-4: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FROM OTHER POLLUTION-RELATED ACTIONS
TABLE 5. TABLE 3-5: USES OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
TABLE 6. TABLE 4-1: OVERVIEW OF FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
TABLE 7. TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 8. TABLE 4-3: AIR EMISSIONS PERMIT FEES IN MAINE
TABLE 9. TABLE 4-4: EMISSION FEES IN SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
TABLE 10. TABLE 4-5: AIR TOXICS AND OZONE-DEPLETING CHEMICALS FEES IN SCAQMD
($ PER POUND)
TABLE 11. TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
TABLE 12. TABLE 4-7: CHANGES IN WASTE DISPOSAL IN RESPONSE TO VARIABLE RATE PRICING PROGRAMS
TABLE 13. TABLE 4-8: HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FEES IN CALIFORNIA, FY 1996
TABLE 14. TABLE 4-9: HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION FEES IN CALIFORNIA, CY 1996
TABLE 15. TABLE 4-10: PRODUCT CHARGES ON TIRES
TABLE 16. TABLE 5-1: STATE BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 17. TABLE 5-2: ESTIMATED COLLECTION AMOUNTS AND COSTS OF CURBSIDE AND DEPOSIT PROGRAMS IN MAINE COMMUNITY OF 25,000 INHABITANT S
TABLE 18. TABLE 5-3: MANDATORY LEAD-ACID BATTERY DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 19. TABLE 6-1: EMISSION TRADING ACTIVITY IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA
TABLE 20. TABLE 6-2: RECLAIM TRADING CREDIT PRICES
TABLE 21. TABLE 6-3: ESTIMATED AND AVERAGE REALIZED ALLOWANCE PRICES
TABLE 22. TABLE 6-4: EXAMPLE OF EMISSION BENEFITS OF EARLY REDUCTION PROGRAM
TABLE 23. TABLE 6-5: PROJECTED COST SAVINGS FROM EFFLUENT BUBBLE (IN THOUSANDS OF 1978 DOLLARS)
TABLE 24. TABLE 7-1: THE USE OF SUBSIDIES IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
TABLE 25. TABLE 7-2: POINTS AWARDED AND SUBTRACTED UNDER LOUISIANA SCORECARD SYSTEM
TABLE 26. TABLE 7-3: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION SUBSIDY PROGRAMS
TABLE 27. TABLE 7-4: CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM ACREAGE AND RENTAL PAYMENTS FOR FIRST 12 ENROLLMENTS
TABLE 28. TABLE 7-5: PROJECTED SOCIAL BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CONSRVATION RESERVE PROGRAM (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
TABLE 29. TABLE 7-6: WETLAND RESERVE PROGRAM (WRP) FIRST ENROLLMENT (1992)
TABLE 30. TABLE 7-7: BENEFITS AND COSTS OF CONSERVATION COMPLIANCE
TABLE 31. TABLE 7-8: IMPACTS OF CONSERVATION PROGRAMS ON EROSION AND CHEMICAL USE, FISCAL YEARS 1988-93
TABLE 32. TABLE 7-9: STATUS OF PURCHASE OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS PROGRAMS AS OF APRIL 1996
TABLE 33. TABLE 7-10: SUBSIDIES FOR USED TIRE MANAGEMENT
TABLE 34. TABLE 7-11: WISCONSIN RECYCLING FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
TABLE 35. TABLE 7-12: STATE LOAN FUNDS FOR RECYCLING BUSINESSES
TABLE 36. TABLE 7-13: ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE SUBSIDIES
TABLE 37. TABLE 7-14: ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE PROCUREMENT REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 38. TABLE 7-15: ANNUAL ALTERNATIVE FUEL AND ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE SUBSIDIES IN THE OZONE TRANSPORT REGION
TABLE 39. TABLE 7-16: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION WATER SUBSIDIES
TABLE 40. TABLE 8-1: LARGEST FEDERAL NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE SETTLEMENTS
TABLE 41. TABLE 9-1: TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI) RELEASES BY INDUSTRY
TABLE 42. TABLE 9-2: TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI) WASTE TRANSFERS
TABLE 43. TABLE 9-3: CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LABELING SCHEMES
TABLE 44. TABLE 10-1: EPA VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS
TABLE 45. TABLE 10-2: WAVE INVESTMENTS AND SAVINGS
TABLE 46. TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 47. TABLE 11-2: WASTE DISPOSAL BAG PRICES IN SEOUL METROPOLITAN AREA
TABLE 48. TABLE 11-3: CHARGES ON LANDFILL OPERATORS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
TABLE 49. TABLE 11-4: SWEDISH ESTIMATES OF THE NET BENEFIT OF THE NOX CHARGE
TABLE 50. TABLE 11-5: AIR POLLUTION CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 51. TABLE 11-6: INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
TABLE 52. TABLE 11-7: DISCHARGE SCENARIOS FOR FIGURE 11-1
TABLE 53. TABLE 11-8: WATER EFFLUENT CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 54. TABLE 11-9: IMPACT OF SEWAGE CHARGES ON POLLUTION IN SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL
TABLE 55. TABLE 11-10: ADVANCE DISPOSAL FEES IN SOUTH KOREA
TABLE 56. TABLE 11-11: FERTILIZER CHARGES IN SWEDEN
TABLE 57. TABLE 11-12: ENERGY/CARBON TAXES
TABLE 58. TABLE 11-13: 1994 ENERGY TAXES IN DENMARK
TABLE 59. TABLE 11-14: CARBON/ENERGY TAXES IN THE NETHERLANDS
TABLE 60. TABLE 11-15: CARBON/ENERGY TAXES APPLIED TO FUELS IN THE NETHERLANDS
TABLE 61. TABLE 11-16: DIFFERENTIAL TAXATION OF LEADED GASOLINE
TABLE 62. TABLE 11-17: 1992 CLASSIFICATION OF DIESEL FUELS AND TAX REBATES IN SWEDEN
TABLE 63. TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 64. TABLE 11-19: DEPOSITS IN SOUTH KOREA
TABLE 65. TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 66. TABLE 11-21: KOREAN ECO-MARK PRODUCT CRITERIA
TABLE 67. TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES


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