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Economic Incentives for Pollution Control: By Subject

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Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

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Hide details for Benefits and costs of environmental pollution controlBenefits and costs of environmental pollution control
3.1. BACKGROUND
FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3-1: INCREMENTAL DAMAGES AND COSTS OF CONTROLLING POLLUTION
FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3-2: CONTROL OPTIONS FOR A SOURCE
FIGURE 3. FIGURE 3-3: MARGINAL DAMAGES AND COSTS FOR TAX PER UNIT OF EMISSIONS APPROACH TO POLLUTION CONTROL
TABLE 49. TABLE 11-4: SWEDISH ESTIMATES OF THE NET BENEFIT OF THE NOX CHARGE
Hide details for Cash paymentsCash payments
7.6. NEW JERSEY INFORMATION AWARDS PROGRAM
7.7.3. Car Buyback Schemes
Hide details for ChargesCharges
3.3.1. Pollution Taxes, Fees, and Charges
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.5. PRODUCT CHARGES
4.5.1. Federal Product Charges
4.5.1.1. Superfund Taxes
4.5.1.2. Taxes on Fuel-Inefficient Automobiles
4.5.1.3. Ozone-depleting Chemicals
4.5.2. State Product Charges
4.5.2.1. Tire Charges
4.5.2.2. Fertilizer Charges
4.5.2.3. Rhode Island Hard-to-Dispose Material Tax
4.5.2.4. Florida ADF
4.5.2.5. North Carolina ADF
7.5.1. Advance Disposal Fee Systems
11.1. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.2. Air
11.1.2.1. Sweden's Nitrogen Oxide Charge
11.1.2.2. Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.3. Water
11.1.3.1. User fees
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.3.3. Effluent Charges in Germany
11.1.3.4. Effluent Charges in the Netherlands
11.1.3.5. Effluent Charges in France
11.1.3.6. Effluent Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.4. Noise
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.1. Charges on Agricultural Inputs
11.1.5.2. Energy/carbon Taxes
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.1.5.5. Singapore Road and Vehicle Taxation
FIGURE 5. FIGURE 4-1: 1994 WATER CHARGE STRUCTURES
FIGURE 6. FIGURE 4-2: MONTHLY WATER AND WASTEWATER CHARGES
FIGURE 19. FIGURE 11-1: ANNUAL CHARGE PAYMENTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE
FIGURE 20. FIGURE 11-2: POINT SOURCE EFFLUENT CHARGES IN GERMANY
FIGURE 21. FIGURE 11-3: EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE NETHERLANDS
FIGURE 22. FIGURE 11-4: EFFLUENT CHARGE REVENUES IN THE NETHERLANDS
FIGURE 23. FIGURE 11-5: FERTILIZER CHARGES AND USE IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 24. FIGURE 11-6: SALES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF DIESEL FUEL IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 26. FIGURE 11-8: PRIVATE CARS ENTERING SINGAPORE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
FIGURE 27. FIGURE 11-9: MODES OF TRANSPORTATION IN SINGAPORE
TABLE 5. TABLE 3-5: USES OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
TABLE 6. TABLE 4-1: OVERVIEW OF FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
TABLE 15. TABLE 4-10: PRODUCT CHARGES ON TIRES
TABLE 48. TABLE 11-3: CHARGES ON LANDFILL OPERATORS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
TABLE 49. TABLE 11-4: SWEDISH ESTIMATES OF THE NET BENEFIT OF THE NOX CHARGE
TABLE 50. TABLE 11-5: AIR POLLUTION CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 52. TABLE 11-7: DISCHARGE SCENARIOS FOR FIGURE 11-1
TABLE 53. TABLE 11-8: WATER EFFLUENT CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 54. TABLE 11-9: IMPACT OF SEWAGE CHARGES ON POLLUTION IN SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL
TABLE 55. TABLE 11-10: ADVANCE DISPOSAL FEES IN SOUTH KOREA
TABLE 56. TABLE 11-11: FERTILIZER CHARGES IN SWEDEN
Hide details for Command and controlCommand and control
1.2. DEFINITIONS
3.2. COMMAND AND CONTROL
11.1.5.6. Other Measures to Curb Congestion
FIGURE 4. FIGURE 3-4: COSTS FOR EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR FIRMS UNDER EMISSIONS TAX AND COMMAND AND CONTROL APPROACHES
Hide details for Deposit-refundDeposit-refund
3.3.4. Deposit-Refund Systems
5.1. INTRODUCTION
5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
5.2.1. Maine Bottle Bill
5.2.2. California Beverage Container Recycling Program
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
5.4. MAINE PESTICIDE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEM
5.5. OTHER PRODUCTS
5.6. VOLUNTARY DEPOSIT SCHEMES
5.7. PERFORMANCE BONDS
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
FIGURE 9. FIGURE 5-1: U.S. MARKET SHARE OF REFILLABLE BOTTLES
FIGURE 10. FIGURE 5-2: ESTIMATED DISTRIBUTOR COSTS OF MAINE DEPOSIT SCHEMES
FIGURE 11. FIGURE 5-3: BATTERY LEAD RECYCLING AND LEAD SCRAP PRICES IN THE U.S.
FIGURE 28. FIGURE 11-10: ALUMINUM CAN RECYCLING RATES
FIGURE 29. FIGURE 11-11: CARS SOLD AND SCRAPPED IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 30. FIGURE 11-12: PET BOTTLE RECYCLING RATE IN TAIWAN
TABLE 5. TABLE 3-5: USES OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
TABLE 16. TABLE 5-1: STATE BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 17. TABLE 5-2: ESTIMATED COLLECTION AMOUNTS AND COSTS OF CURBSIDE AND DEPOSIT PROGRAMS IN MAINE COMMUNITY OF 25,000 INHABITANT S
TABLE 18. TABLE 5-3: MANDATORY LEAD-ACID BATTERY DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 63. TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 64. TABLE 11-19: DEPOSITS IN SOUTH KOREA
Hide details for Economic incentives in generalEconomic incentives in general
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. DEFINITIONS
1.3. ORGANIZATION OF REPORT
1.4. SCOPE OF REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
2.1.2. Economic Report of the President
2.1.3. Council on Sustainable Development
2.1.4. Vice-Presidential National Performance Review
2.1.5. Executive Order 12866 and Related OMB Guidance
2.2.1. Economic Incentives: Options for Environmental Protection
2.2.2. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
2.2.3. The Project 88 Report
2.2.4. Executive Order 12291 and EPA Guidelines for Performing Regulatory Impact Analysis
2.3. CONCLUSIONS
3.1. BACKGROUND
3.3. INCENTIVE-BASED MECHANISMS
3.4. RELATIVE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
3.5. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
3.6. IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
3.7. FINDING THE RIGHT INSTRUMENT FOR THE PROBLEM
11. FOREIGN EXPERIENCES WITH INCENTIVE SYSTEMS
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
11.10. CONCLUSIONS
12. CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY
TABLE 46. TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
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7.5.1. Advance Disposal Fee Systems
TABLE 55. TABLE 11-10: ADVANCE DISPOSAL FEES IN SOUTH KOREA
Hide details for Emission averagingEmission averaging
6.1.11. Heavy Duty Truck Engine Emissions
6.1.12.2. Petroleum Industry NESHAPS
6.1.12.3. Hazardous Organic Chemical NESHAP
6.1.13. Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE)
Hide details for Emission tradingEmission trading
6. TRADING SYSTEMS
6.1.1.1. Offset Program
6.1.1.2. Bubble Program
6.1.1.3. Banking
6.1.1.4. Netting
6.1.1.5. Evaluation of Emissions Trading Program
6.1.2. RECLAIM
6.1.3.1. Illinois
6.1.3.2. Delaware
6.1.3.3. Massachusetts
6.1.3.4. Michigan
6.1.3.5. New Jersey
6.1.3.6. Texas
6.1.3.7. Wisconsin
6.1.4. NESCAUM/MARAMA Demonstration Project
6.1.5. OTC/OTAG Regional NOx Reduction Program
6.1.6. Open Market Trading
6.1.7. Acid Rain Allowance Trading
6.1.14. Wood Stove and Fireplace Permit Trading
6.1.15. Grass Burning Permit Trading
6.2.3.4. Other Point-Nonpoint Trading Proposals
11.3. MARKETABLE PERMIT SYSTEMS
11.3.1. Air Pollution
11.3.2. Water Pollution
FIGURE 12. FIGURE 6-1: PHASE I SO2 EMISSION
TABLE 19. TABLE 6-1: EMISSION TRADING ACTIVITY IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA
TABLE 20. TABLE 6-2: RECLAIM TRADING CREDIT PRICES
TABLE 21. TABLE 6-3: ESTIMATED AND AVERAGE REALIZED ALLOWANCE PRICES
TABLE 23. TABLE 6-5: PROJECTED COST SAVINGS FROM EFFLUENT BUBBLE (IN THOUSANDS OF 1978 DOLLARS)
Hide details for FeesFees
3.3.1. Pollution Taxes, Fees, and Charges
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.2.1. Indirect Discharge and User Fees
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.2.3. Examples of State Effluent Fees: Louisiana, California, and Wisconsin
4.2.4. Stormwater Runoff Fees
4.3. AIR FEES
4.3.1. Permit Fees
4.3.1.1. Air Emission Permit Fees in Maine
4.3.1.2. Air Emission Permit Fees in the South Coast Air Quality Management District
4.3.1.3. California "Hot Spots" Fees
4.3.2. Ozone Non-Attainment Area Fees
4.4. WASTE FEES
4.4.1. Variable Pricing Program
4.6. ROAD USER FEES
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
4.8. GRAZING FEES
11.1. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.2. Air
11.1.2.1. Sweden's Nitrogen Oxide Charge
11.1.2.2. Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.3. Water
11.1.3.1. User fees
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.3.3. Effluent Charges in Germany
11.1.3.4. Effluent Charges in the Netherlands
11.1.3.5. Effluent Charges in France
11.1.3.6. Effluent Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.4. Noise
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.1. Charges on Agricultural Inputs
11.1.5.2. Energy/carbon Taxes
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.1.5.5. Singapore Road and Vehicle Taxation
FIGURE 8. FIGURE 4-4: GRAZING FEES UNDER THE PUBLIC RANGELANDS IMPROVEMENT ACT
FIGURE 26. FIGURE 11-8: PRIVATE CARS ENTERING SINGAPORE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
FIGURE 27. FIGURE 11-9: MODES OF TRANSPORTATION IN SINGAPORE
TABLE 5. TABLE 3-5: USES OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
TABLE 6. TABLE 4-1: OVERVIEW OF FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
TABLE 7. TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 8. TABLE 4-3: AIR EMISSIONS PERMIT FEES IN MAINE
TABLE 9. TABLE 4-4: EMISSION FEES IN SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
TABLE 10. TABLE 4-5: AIR TOXICS AND OZONE-DEPLETING CHEMICALS FEES IN SCAQMD
($ PER POUND)
TABLE 11. TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
TABLE 12. TABLE 4-7: CHANGES IN WASTE DISPOSAL IN RESPONSE TO VARIABLE RATE PRICING PROGRAMS
Hide details for GrantsGrants
3.3.2. Subsidies
7.1. INTRODUCTION
7.3.1. EPA Pilot Project Grants
7.4. FARMING AND LAND PRESERVATION
7.5.3. Recycling Loans and Grants
7.9. MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION
11.4. SUBSIDIES
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
11.4.3. Subsidies for Resource Conservation
FIGURE 14. FIGURE 7-2: STATE REVOLVING FUND INVESTMENT FY 1988-95
FIGURE 15. FIGURE 7-3: U.S. POPULATION SERVED BY MODERN SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES
TABLE 24. TABLE 7-1: THE USE OF SUBSIDIES IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Hide details for Information programsInformation programs
3.3.5. Information Programs
9.1. INTRODUCTION
9.8. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AWARDS
Hide details for LabelingLabeling
9.7. LABELING SCHEMES
9.7.1. Federal Trade Commission Guidelines for Environmental Marketing Claims
9.7.2. Green Seal and Other Seals of Approval
9.7.3. Single-Attribute Seals of Approval
9.7.4. Report Cards and Information Disclosure
9.7.5. Energy-Efficiency Labeling
9.7.6. Hazard Labels
TABLE 43. TABLE 9-3: CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LABELING SCHEMES
TABLE 44. TABLE 10-1: EPA VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS
Hide details for LiabilityLiability
3.3.6. Liability for Health and Environmental Harm
8. LIABILITY APPROACHES
8.1. LIABILITY FOR CLEANUP COSTS
8.2. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO NATURAL RESOURCES
8.3. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
8.3.1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
8.3.2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
8.3.3. Clean Water Act (CWA)
8.3.4. Clean Air Act (CAA)
8.4. TORT LIABILITY
TABLE 5. TABLE 3-5: USES OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
TABLE 40. TABLE 8-1: LARGEST FEDERAL NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE SETTLEMENTS
Hide details for LoansLoans
3.3.2. Subsidies
7.1. INTRODUCTION
7.2.4. Loans and Tax-exempt Bonds
7.3.2. Tax Incentives and Loans
7.4. FARMING AND LAND PRESERVATION
7.5.3. Recycling Loans and Grants
7.9. MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION
11.4. SUBSIDIES
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
FIGURE 14. FIGURE 7-2: STATE REVOLVING FUND INVESTMENT FY 1988-95
FIGURE 15. FIGURE 7-3: U.S. POPULATION SERVED BY MODERN SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES
TABLE 24. TABLE 7-1: THE USE OF SUBSIDIES IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Hide details for Mitigation bankingMitigation banking
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
6.3.1. Wetland Mitigation Banking
Hide details for Procurement mandateProcurement mandate
7.1. INTRODUCTION
7.5.5. Preferential Procurement of Recycled Products
7.5.6. Recycled Content Policies
7.7.1. Federal Subsidies
7.7.2. State Subsidies
FIGURE 13. FIGURE 7-1: WISCONSIN NEWSPAPER RECYCLING AND RECYCLED CONTENT REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 24. TABLE 7-1: THE USE OF SUBSIDIES IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Hide details for Product chargesProduct charges
4.5. PRODUCT CHARGES
4.5.1. Federal Product Charges
4.5.1.1. Superfund Taxes
4.5.1.2. Taxes on Fuel-Inefficient Automobiles
4.5.1.3. Ozone-depleting Chemicals
4.5.2. State Product Charges
4.5.2.1. Tire Charges
4.5.2.2. Fertilizer Charges
4.5.2.3. Rhode Island Hard-to-Dispose Material Tax
4.5.2.4. Florida ADF
4.5.2.5. North Carolina ADF
7.5.1. Advance Disposal Fee Systems
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.1. Charges on Agricultural Inputs
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
FIGURE 23. FIGURE 11-5: FERTILIZER CHARGES AND USE IN SWEDEN
FIGURE 24. FIGURE 11-6: SALES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF DIESEL FUEL IN SWEDEN
TABLE 15. TABLE 4-10: PRODUCT CHARGES ON TIRES
TABLE 55. TABLE 11-10: ADVANCE DISPOSAL FEES IN SOUTH KOREA
Hide details for Reporting requirementsReporting requirements
3.3.5. Information Programs
9.1. INTRODUCTION
9.2. EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA)
9.2.1. Trends in Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Data
9.2.2. Incentive Effect of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
9.3. STATE EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA) PROGRAMS
9.3.1. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
9.3.2. New Jersey Reporting Requirements


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