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Economic Incentives for Pollution Control: By Geographic Area

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Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

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Hide details for AlabamaAlabama
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
TABLE 3-1: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
Hide details for AlaskaAlaska
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
Hide details for ArizonaArizona
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
TABLE 3-1: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 5-3: MANDATORY LEAD-ACID BATTERY DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 7-16: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION WATER SUBSIDIES
Hide details for ArkansasArkansas
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 5-3: MANDATORY LEAD-ACID BATTERY DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
Hide details for AustraliaAustralia
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.3. MARKETABLE PERMIT SYSTEMS
11.3.2. Water Pollution
11.3.3. Water Use Rights
11.4.3. Subsidies for Resource Conservation
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.6. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
11.10. CONCLUSIONS
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
Hide details for AustriaAustria
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.4.2. Subsidies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for BelgiumBelgium
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.4. Noise
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
FIGURE 11-1: ANNUAL CHARGE PAYMENTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-6: INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
TABLE 11-7: DISCHARGE SCENARIOS FOR FIGURE 11-1
TABLE 11-16: DIFFERENTIAL TAXATION OF LEADED GASOLINE
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for BergenBergen
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
Hide details for BrazilBrazil
11.1.3.6. Effluent Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.4.4. Environmentally Harmful Subsidies
FIGURE 11-13: ELECTRIC POWER PRICES, 1988
TABLE 11-9: IMPACT OF SEWAGE CHARGES ON POLLUTION IN SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL
Hide details for British ColumbiaBritish Columbia
11.4.2. Subsidies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions
Hide details for BulgariaBulgaria
TABLE 11-5: AIR POLLUTION CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
Hide details for CaliforniaCalifornia
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.2.3. Examples of State Effluent Fees: Louisiana, California, and Wisconsin
4.3.1. Permit Fees
4.3.1.2. Air Emission Permit Fees in the South Coast Air Quality Management District
4.3.1.3. California "Hot Spots" Fees
4.4.1. Variable Pricing Program
4.4.3. Hazardous Waste Taxes
4.6. ROAD USER FEES
5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
5.2.2. California Beverage Container Recycling Program
6.1.1.5. Evaluation of Emissions Trading Program
6.1.2. RECLAIM
6.1.11. Heavy Duty Truck Engine Emissions
7.2.4. Loans and Tax-exempt Bonds
7.5.2. Deposit Handling Fees
7.5.3. Recycling Loans and Grants
7.7.2. State Subsidies
7.7.3. Car Buyback Schemes
8.3. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
9.4. PROPOSITION 65
9.5. HOT SPOTS ACT
9.6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACTS
9.8. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AWARDS
FIGURE 4-3: HOUSEHOLD WASTE LANDFILLING AND RECYCLING IN SAN JOSE
TABLE 3-1: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
TABLE 3-2: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL WATER POLLUTION
TABLE 4-1: OVERVIEW OF FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 4-4: EMISSION FEES IN SOUTH COAST AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
TABLE 4-5: AIR TOXICS AND OZONE-DEPLETING CHEMICALS FEES IN SCAQMD
($ PER POUND)
TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
TABLE 4-8: HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FEES IN CALIFORNIA, FY 1996
TABLE 4-9: HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION FEES IN CALIFORNIA, CY 1996
TABLE 5-1: STATE BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 6-1: EMISSION TRADING ACTIVITY IN THE LOS ANGELES AREA
TABLE 6-2: RECLAIM TRADING CREDIT PRICES
TABLE 7-1: THE USE OF SUBSIDIES IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
TABLE 7-6: WETLAND RESERVE PROGRAM (WRP) FIRST ENROLLMENT (1992)
TABLE 7-9: STATUS OF PURCHASE OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS PROGRAMS AS OF APRIL 1996
TABLE 7-12: STATE LOAN FUNDS FOR RECYCLING BUSINESSES
TABLE 7-16: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION WATER SUBSIDIES
TABLE 8-1: LARGEST FEDERAL NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE SETTLEMENTS
TABLE 10-2: WAVE INVESTMENTS AND SAVINGS
Hide details for CanadaCanada
11.1.2. Air
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.3. MARKETABLE PERMIT SYSTEMS
11.3.1. Air Pollution
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
11.4.2. Subsidies to Reduce Vehicle Emissions
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.6. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for ChileChile
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
11.3. MARKETABLE PERMIT SYSTEMS
11.3.1. Air Pollution
11.3.3. Water Use Rights
Hide details for ChinaChina
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.2.2. Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.3.6. Effluent Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
Hide details for ColoradoColorado
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
TRADING SYSTEMS
6.1.14. Wood Stove and Fireplace Permit Trading
6.2.3.1. Dillon Reservoir
6.2.3.2. Cherry Creek
6.2.3.4. Other Point-Nonpoint Trading Proposals
TABLE 3-1: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES OF POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL AIR POLLUTION
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
TABLE 7-9: STATUS OF PURCHASE OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS PROGRAMS AS OF APRIL 1996
TABLE 7-12: STATE LOAN FUNDS FOR RECYCLING BUSINESSES
TABLE 7-16: U.S. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION WATER SUBSIDIES
Hide details for Colorado River BasinColorado River Basin
TABLE 7-3: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION SUBSIDY PROGRAMS
Hide details for Colorado SpringsColorado Springs
TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
Hide details for ConnecticutConnecticut
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
7.7.2. State Subsidies
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 5-1: STATE BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 5-3: MANDATORY LEAD-ACID BATTERY DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 7-9: STATUS OF PURCHASE OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS PROGRAMS AS OF APRIL 1996
Hide details for Costa RicaCosta Rica
11.8. DEBT-FOR-NATURE SWAPS AND JOINT IMPLEMENTATION
Hide details for Czech RepublicCzech Republic
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.2.2. Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.1.3.1. User fees
11.1.3.6. Effluent Charges in Less Industrialized Countries
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
TABLE 11-3: CHARGES ON LANDFILL OPERATORS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC
TABLE 11-5: AIR POLLUTION CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 11-8: WATER EFFLUENT CHARGES IN EASTERN EUROPE
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
Hide details for DelawareDelaware
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
6.1.1.5. Evaluation of Emissions Trading Program
6.1.3.2. Delaware
7.3.2. Tax Incentives and Loans
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 5-1: STATE BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEMS
TABLE 7-9: STATUS OF PURCHASE OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS PROGRAMS AS OF APRIL 1996
Hide details for DenmarkDenmark
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.3.1. User fees
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.1. Charges on Agricultural Inputs
11.1.5.2. Energy/carbon Taxes
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.4.3. Subsidies for Resource Conservation
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
11.10. CONCLUSIONS
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-6: INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
TABLE 11-12: ENERGY/CARBON TAXES
TABLE 11-13: 1994 ENERGY TAXES IN DENMARK
TABLE 11-16: DIFFERENTIAL TAXATION OF LEADED GASOLINE
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for District of ColumbiaDistrict of Columbia
4.4.2. Landfill Taxes
6.1.5. OTC/OTAG Regional NOx Reduction Program
7.5.5. Preferential Procurement of Recycled Products
7.7.2. State Subsidies
Hide details for EstoniaEstonia
11.1.1. Waste
Hide details for EuropeEurope
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Hide details for FinlandFinland
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.1. Charges on Agricultural Inputs
11.1.5.2. Energy/carbon Taxes
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.2. DEPOSIT-REFUND MECHANISMS
11.4. SUBSIDIES
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
11.10. CONCLUSIONS
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-12: ENERGY/CARBON TAXES
TABLE 11-18: BEVERAGE CONTAINER DEPOSITS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for FloridaFlorida
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.5.2.4. Florida ADF
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
6.2.3.4. Other Point-Nonpoint Trading Proposals
6.3.2.5. Palm Beach County, Florida
7.4.9. State Initiatives
7.5.5. Preferential Procurement of Recycled Products
7.10.2. Agriculture
TABLE 4-2: STATE EFFLUENT FEES AS OF DECEMBER 1993
TABLE 7-12: STATE LOAN FUNDS FOR RECYCLING BUSINESSES
Hide details for FranceFrance
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.2. Air
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.3.5. Effluent Charges in France
11.1.4. Noise
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.4. SUBSIDIES
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
11.10. CONCLUSIONS
FIGURE 11-1: ANNUAL CHARGE PAYMENTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-6: INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT CHARGES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION
TABLE 11-7: DISCHARGE SCENARIOS FOR FIGURE 11-1
TABLE 11-16: DIFFERENTIAL TAXATION OF LEADED GASOLINE
TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for GermanyGermany
11.1.1. Waste
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.3.3. Effluent Charges in Germany
11.1.4. Noise
11.1.5. Charges on Environmentally Damaging Products and Activities
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
11.1.5.4. Road User Fees
11.3. MARKETABLE PERMIT SYSTEMS
11.3.1. Air Pollution
11.4. SUBSIDIES
11.4.1. Subsidies for Environmentally Friendly Agriculture and Land Management
11.5. PRODUCT LABELING
11.9. TREND OF INCREASING USE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
FIGURE 11-1: ANNUAL CHARGE PAYMENTS FOR HYPOTHETICAL INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGE
FIGURE 11-2: POINT SOURCE EFFLUENT CHARGES IN GERMANY
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
TABLE 11-7: DISCHARGE SCENARIOS FOR FIGURE 11-1
TABLE 11-16: DIFFERENTIAL TAXATION OF LEADED GASOLINE
TABLE 11-20: ENVIRONMENTAL LABELS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES
TABLE 11-22: SHARE OF ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES IN TOTAL TAX REVENUES IN OECD COUNTRIES
Hide details for Grand RapidsGrand Rapids
4.4.1. Variable Pricing Program
TABLE 4-6: VARIABLE RATE STRUCTURES IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES
Hide details for GreeceGreece
11.1.3.1. User fees
11.1.3.2. Effluent Charges
11.1.5.3. Preferential Taxation of Environmentally Friendly
Products
TABLE 11-1: NOTEWORTHY INCENTIVE MECHANISMS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES


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