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United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

Ackerman, Frank. 1994. “Advance Disposal Fees and Incentives for Waste Reduction.” New Partnerships: Economic Incentives for Environmental Management. Air and Waste Management Association.

Ackerman, Frank, Dmitri Cavander, John Stutz, and Brian Zukerman. 1995. Preliminary Analysis: The Costs and Benefits of Bottle Bills. U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Draft Report. Boston: Tellus Institute.

Acton, Joe. 1996. Personal communication. Environmental Protection Agency.

Alberini, Anna and David Austin. 1999a. Accidents Waiting to Happen: Liability Policy and Toxics Pollution Releases. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 99-29.

Alberini, Anna and David Austin. 1999b. “Strict Liability as a Deterrent in Toxic Waste Management: Empirical Evidence from Accident and Spill Data.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 38(1): 20-48.

Amendola, Gary. Memo citing conversation with Gary Amendola. (as cited in TBS report, p. 12).

American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. 1994-2000. Energy Efficiency Summer Studies.

American Farmland Trust. Center for Agriculture in the Environment.

Anderson, Robert. 1977. “Economic Incentives for the Recovery of Secondary Lead.” Resource Recovery and Conservation. 2: 193-209.

Anderson, Robert C., Mike Rusin, and Lisa Hoffman. 1990. The Use of Economic Incentive Mechanisms in Environmental Management. American Petroleum Institute. Research Paper No. 051. June. http://www.api.org/cat/.

Anderson, Robert and Mark Rockel. 1991. Economic Valuation of Wetlands. American Petroleum Institute. Discussion Paper No. 065. April. http://www.api.org/cat/.

Anderson, Robert. 1994. Federal Subsidies for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles. American Petroleum Institute. Discussion Paper No. 076. September. http://www.api.org/cat/.

Anderson, Robert and Andrew Lohof. 1997. The United States Experience With Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy. Environmental Law Institute. Washington, D.C. EE-0216A.

Anderson, Robert. 1999. Economic Savings from Using Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control. Environmental Law Institute. Washington, D.C. EE-0415.

Arner, Robert and Kimberly Davis. 1994. Northern Virginia Variable Rate Demonstration Project: “Pay as you throw” Interim Report. Northern Virginia Planning District Commission. 17 May.

Arnold, Frank. 1995. Economic Analysis of Environmental Policy and Regulation. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Arora, Seema and Timothy N. Cason. September 1995. Why Do Firms Overcomply with Environmental Regulations? Understanding Participation in EPA’s 33/50 Program. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 95-38.

Atkinson, Scott and D. Lewis. 1974. “A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Air Quality Control Strategies.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 1: 237-250.

Atkinson, Scott and Tom Tietenberg. 1991. “Market Failure in Incentive-Based Regulation: The Case of Emissions Trading.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 21: 17-32.

Barrett, Julia. 1996. Personal communication. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. May.

Barthold, Thomas A. 1994. “Issues in the Design of Environmental Excise Taxes.” Journal of Economic Perspectives. 8(1).

Baton Rouge Advocate. 1995. “DNR Sets New Rules for Wetlands Mitigation.” August 27.

Batteese, Robert. 1988. Returnable Pesticide Containers: Maine’s Deposit and Collection System. Maine Board of Pesticides Control. Unpublished speech. October.

Batteese, Robert. 1996. Personal communication. Maine Board of Pesticides Control.

Bauer, Scott and Marie Lynn Miranda. 1996. The Urban Performance of Unit Pricing: An Analysis of Variable Rates for Residential Garbage Collection in Urban Areas. Report prepared for Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. April. EE-0304.

Beverage World 1995-1996 Databank.

Blackman, Allen and Janice Mazurek. 1999. The Cost of Developing Site-Specific Environmental Regulation: Evidence from EPA’s Project XL. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 99-35.

Bohi, Douglas R. and Dallas Burtraw. 1997. SO2 Allowance Trading: How Experience and Expectations Measure Up. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 97-24.

Bonderud, Kendra and Ron Shanovich. 1995. Solid Waste Recycling and Waste Reduction. State of Wisconsin Legislative Fiscal Bureau. January.

Boroski, Rob. 1996. Personal communication. Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission.

Boyd, James, Alan Krupnik, and Janice Mazurek. 1998. Intel’s XL Permit: A Framework for Evaluation. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 98-11.

Boyd, James. 1998. Searching for the Profit in Pollution Prevention: Case Studies in the Corporate Evaluation of Environmental Opportunities. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 98-30.

Brooks, Greg. 1996. 91 Express Lanes Transponder Distribution Ahead of Schedule: Transponders in Use on World’s First Fully Automated Toll Road Ahead of Forecasts by Four Months. Congestion Pricing Forum release. 19 March.

Brooks. 1996. Untitled. CPTC Earthlink Release.

Brown, Kelly M., Ronald Cummings, Janusz R. Mrozek, and Peter Terrebonne. Forthcoming. “Scrap Tire Disposal: Three Principles for Policy Choice.” The Natural Resources Journal.

Buist, Henry, Carolyn Fischer, John Michos, and Abebayehu Tegene. Undated. Purchase of Development Rights and the Economics of Easements. USDA Economic Research Service AER-718.

Burtraw, Dallas. 1995. Cost Savings Sans Allowance Trades? Evaluating the SO2 Emission Trading Program to Date. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 95-30.

Burtraw, Dallas. 1998. Cost Savings, Market Performance, and Economic Benefits of the U.S. Acid Rain Program.” Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper 98-28.

Button, Kenneth. 1994. “Road User Charging With Particular Reference to Urban Areas.” Applying Economic Instruments to Environmental Policies in OECD and Dynamic Non-Member Economies. OECD.

Cadmus Group. 1999. Characterization of Selected EPA Partnership Programs.

Cain, Charles. 1998. “Bottle deposit fraud costs Michigan millions that could be spent on environment.” The Detroit News. 31 August.

California. 1986. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986.

California Air Resources Board. Hot Spots (AB 2588) Program. Air Toxics.

California Attorney General’s Office. 1996. Proposition 65 Litigation. Unpublished document. Oakland. 1 May.

California Department of Toxic Substances. 1996. Hazardous Waste Fee Summary Effective January 1, 1996.

California EPA. 1996a. “305 State Businesses Win Awards for Reducing Waste.” 1996. CAL/EPA Report 5. No. 1/2. January/February.

California EPA. 1996b. State Waste Board Lowers Interest Rate on Recycling Loan. March.

California EPA. 2000. Office of Health Hazard Assessment. Chemicals Known To The State To Cause Cancer Or Reproductive Toxicity. 4 August.

California LAO. LAO Analysis of the 1995-96 Budget Bill, Resources, Part II.

California Pollution Control Financing Authority. Various informational brochures.

California Waste Reduction Awards Program. 1999 WRAP of the Year.

California Water Resources Control Board. Schedule of Fees for Bay Protection and Toxic Cleanup Program.

Cameron, Michael. 1991. Transportation Efficiency: Tackling Southern California’s Air Pollution and Congestion. Environmental Defense Fund and Regional Institute of Southern California. March.

Cantor Fitzgerald Environmental Brokerage Services. Documents on Emissions Trading. http://www.emissionstrading.com/.

Carlin, Alan. 1992. The United States Experience With Economic Incentives To Control Environmental Pollution. EPA Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation. July. EE-0216.

Carlson, Curtis, Dallas Burtraw, Maureen Cropper and Karen Palmer. 2000. Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What are the Gains form Trade? Resources for the Future. DP 98-44-rev.

Carraway, Candace. 1996. Personal communication. Environmental Protection Agency.

Cason, Timothy. 1995. “An Experimental Investigation of the Seller Incentives in the EPA’s Emission Trading Auction.” American Economic Review: 905-922.

Chance, Clifford. 1995. Economic and Fiscal Instruments and the Environment: the Example of ECO-taxes. Summer.

Charles River Associates. 1991. Policy Alternatives for Reducing Petroleum Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Boston.

Chemical Manufacturers Association. Documents on Responsible Care.

Clarke, Stephen F. 1992. “International Comparison of the Tax Treatment of Pollution-Control Investment.” U.S. Environmental Policy and Economic Growth: How Do We Fare? American Council for Capital Formation Center for Policy Research. March.

Coase, Ronald H. 1960. “The Problem of Social Cost.” Journal of Law and Economics. 3: 1-44.

Cody, Betsy A. 1996. Grazing Fees: An Overview. Congressional Research Service. December.

Congressional Budget Office. 1985. Hazardous Waste Management: Recent Changes and Policy Alternatives. Government Printing Office.

Congressional Research Service (CRS). 1994. Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation. March.

Congressional Research Service (CRS). 1996. Report for Congress Grazing Fees: An Overview. 96-450 ENR. 21 May.

Congressional Research Service (CRS). 1998. Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President’s FY1999 Budget. 98-193E.

Consumer Reports. various issues.

Container Recycling Institute. 1994. Beverage Container Reuse and Recycling in Europe: A Survey of Nine Countries. April.

Cook, Elizabeth. 1996. Making a Milestone in Ozone Protection. World Resources Institute. January.

Cooney, John F. et al. 1996. Criminal Enforcement of Environmental Laws. in Environmental Crimes Deskbook. Washington D.C.: Environmental Law Institute.

Council of Economic Advisors. 1996. Economic Report of the President.

Council on Environmental Quality. Regulations for Implementing NEPA.

Crandall, Robert W., H.K. Gruenspecht, T.E. Keeler, and L.B. Lave. 1986. Regulating the Automobile. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Criner, George K., Steven L. Jacobs, and Stephanie R. Peavey. 1991. An Economic and Waste Management Analysis of Maine’s Bottle Deposit Legislation. Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Miscellaneous Report 358. April.

Criner, George, Stephanie Seguino, Margarita Suarez, Jeff Young, Robert McKay, and Christopher Spruce. 1995. Solid Waste Management (SWM) Options: The Economics of Variable Cost and Conventional Pricing Systems in Maine. June.

Crocker, Thomas. 1966. “The Structuring of Air Pollution Control Systems” in: H. Wolozin ed. The Economics of Air Pollution. New York: W.W. Norton.

Crookshank, Steven. 1994. Air Emissions Banking and Trading: Analysis and Implications for Wetland Mitigation Banking. American Petroleum Institute. Discussion Paper No. 074.

Crookshank, Steven. 1995. Alternative Wetland Mitigation Programs. American Petroleum Institute. Discussion Paper No. 077. http://www.api.org/cat/.

Cropper, Maureen and Wallace Oates. 1992. “Environmental Economics: A Survey.” Journal of Economic Literature. 30: 675-740.

Dahl, T.E. 1990. Wetlands Losses in the United States, 1780’s to 1980’s. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.

DEN (Daily Environment News). various issues. published by the Bureau of National Affairs.

Dales, John. 1968. Pollution, Property and Prices. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

David, Martin, Wayland Eheart, Erhard Joeres, and Elizabeth David. 1977. Marketable Permits for the Control of Phosphorus Effluent in Lake Michigan. Social Science Research Institute Working Paper. University of Wisconsin.

Davies, Terry and Janice Mazurek. 1996. Industry Incentives for Environmental Improvement: Evaluation of U.S. Federal Initiatives. Washington D.C.: Global Environmental Management Initiative.

DOE (Department of Energy). 1996. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentives & Laws.

Dewees, Donald. 1983. Instrument Choice in Environmental Policy. Economic Inquiry. 9(2): 323-31.

Deyle, Robert and Stuart Bretschneider. 1990. Public Policy Impacts on the Generation and Disposal of Hazardous Waste in New York State. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 40: 462-468.

Dower, Roger C. 1995. The Right Economic Instrument for the Right Task: The Case of Pollution Fees and Information Programs. World Resources Institute. Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente. Draft report. July.

Dudek, Daniel and John Palmisano. 1988. “Emissions Trading: Why is This Thorough-bred Hobbled?” Columbia Journal of Environmental Law. 13:217-56.

Dudra, Paul. 1996. Personal communication. Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management.

Duhl, Joshua. 1993. Effluent Fees: Present Practice and Future Potential. American Petroleum Institute. Discussion Paper No. 075. December. http://www.api.org/cat/.

Eheart, Wayland, E. Downey Brill, Jr., and Randolph M. Lyon. 1983. “Transferable Discharge Permits for Control of BOD: An Overview.” In Erhard F. Joeres and Martin H. David, eds. Buying a Better Environment: Cost-Effective Regulation through Permit Trading. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Ellerman, A. Denny, Richard Schmensee, Paul Jaskow, Juan Pablo Montero and Elizabeth Bailey. 1997. Emissions Trading Under the U.S. Acid Rain Program: Evaluation of Compliance Costs and Allowance Market Performance. MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Ellerman, A. Denny, et al. 2000. Markets for Clean Air: The U.S. Acid Rain Program. Cambridge University Press.

Environmental Law Institute. 1993a. Information Access Mechanisms: Collecting and Disseminating The Information Necessary for Environmental Protection. June.

Environmental Law Institute. 1993b. New State and Local Approaches to Environmental Protection. August.

Environmental Law Institute. 1993c. Wetland Mitigation Banking.

Environmental Law Institute. 1995. An Analysis of State Superfund Programs: 50-State Study, 1995 Update.

EPA. Clean Air Markets Program.

EPA. Monthly Average Price of Sulfur Dioxide Allowances. Clean Air Markets Program.

EPA. Brownfields Cleanup Revolving Loan Fund Pilots.

EPA. Effluent Trading in Watersheds Policy Statement.

EPA. Partner Success Stories. Energy Star Buildings.

EPA. Brownfields. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

EPA. Answers to Frequently Asked Questions. Brownfields. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

EPA. Total Maximum Daily Load Program. Office of Water.

EPA. The Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) Program. Office of Water.

EPA. Effluent Trading in Watersheds. Reinvention Activity Fact Sheets.

EPA. EPA’s Voluntary Programs: A Summary List Prepared by the 33/50 Program. Undated internet document (no longer on the web site).

EPA. Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency (WAVE).

EPA. 1980. Emissions Reductions Banking and Trading Update 2. Office of Air Noise and Radiation. Washington, D.C.

EPA. 1984. The Feasibility and Desirability of Alternative Tax Systems for Superfund: CERCLA Section 301(a)(1)(G) Study.

EPA. 1986. Emissions Trading Policy Statement; General Policies for Creation, Banking, and Use of Emission Reduction Credits; Final Policy Statement and Accompanying Technical Issues Document. 51 FR 43814-60. 4 December.

EPA. 1988. CFC Regulatory Impact Analysis. Vol. 2.

EPA. 1991. Economic Incentives: Options for Environmental Protection. Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. EE-0315. March.

EPA. 1992a. Guidelines for Oxygenated Credit Programs and Guidelines on Establishment of Control Periods. Section (m) of the Clean Air Act as Amended. 57 Federal Register 47853.

EPA. 1992b. Final Rule on Early Reduction of Hazardous Air Pollutants. 57 Federal Register 61970. 29 December.

EPA. 1993a. Status Report on the Use of Environmental Labels Worldwide. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. September.

EPA. 1993b. WasteWise: EPA’s Voluntary Program for Reducing Business Solid Waste. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. October.

EPA. 1994a. Determinants of Effectiveness for Environmental Certification and Labeling Programs. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. April.

EPA. 1994b. Landfill Methane Outreach Program. Office of Air and Radiation. April.

EPA. 1994c. Metal Recovery, Environmental Regulation and Hazardous Wastes. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. June.

EPA. 1994d. The Climate Is Right for Action: Voluntary Programs to Prevent Atmospheric Pollution. Office of Air and Radiation. August.

EPA. 1994e. Federal Disincentives: A Study of Federal Tax Subsidies and Other Programs Affecting Virgin Industries and Recycling. Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation. August.

EPA. 1994f. Introducing WAVE - Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency: Hotel Water Management for the 21st Century. Office of Water. September.

EPA. 1994g. Introducing.The Energy Star Buildings Program. Office of Air and Radiation. November.

EPA. 1994h. Update: Energy Star Showcase Buildings. Office of Air and Radiation. EPA 430-F-94-027. November.

EPA. 1995a. The Clean Water State Revolving Fund: Financing America’s Environmental Infrastructure--A Report of Progress. Office of Water. EPA 832-95-R-001. January.

EPA. 1995b. March “Opting Into the Acid Rain Program; Final Rule.” 60 FR 17100.

EPA. 1995c. Expanding Community Right-to-Know: Recent Changes in the Toxics Release Inventory. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. March.

EPA. 1995d. Enforcement and Compliance Assurance Accomplishments Report: FY 1994. Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. May.

EPA. 1995e. Green Lights Fourth Annual Report. Office of Air and Radiation. June.

EPA. 1995f. Summary Report to the President: The Presidential Regulatory Reform Initiative. 15 June. (Reprinted in Daily Environment News. 23 June 1995).

EPA. 1995g. Open Market Trading Rule for Ozone Smog Precursors. 60 FR 39668. 3 August.

EPA. 1995h. Pollution Prevention Incentives for States: Grant Summaries 1989-1995. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. September.

EPA. 1995i Expansion of Toxic Release Inventory, TRI Phase 3. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. (Reprinted in Daily Environment News. 10 October 1995).

EPA. 1995j. Human Health Benefits From Sulfate Reductions Under Title IV Of The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Office of Air and Radiation. November.

EPA. 1996a. Partnerships in Preventing Pollution: A Catalogue of the Agency’s Partnership Programs. Office of the Administrator. Spring.

EPA. 1996b. Consumer Labeling Initiative Phase II Report. March.

EPA. 1996c. 1994 Toxics Release Inventory: Public Data Release. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. June.

EPA. 1996d. Project XL: Final Project Agreement for the Intel Corporation Ocotillo (Chandler) Site.

EPA. 1997a. Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines. State Commitments to National Low Emission Vehicle Program. 16 December.

EPA. 1997b. Community Water System Survey, Volume I: Overview. Office of Water. EPA 815-R-97-001a.

EPA. 1998a. “Economic Analysis of the Proposed Rule to Modify Reporting of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic Chemicals Under EPCRA Section 313.” Economic and Policy Analysis Branch, Economics, Exposure and Technology Division, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

EPA. 1998b. A Catalog of the Agency’s Partnership Programs. EPA 100-B-97-003.

EPA. 1999a. Cumulative U.S. Clean Water SRF Investment. Office of Water. 15 October.

EPA. 1999b. Findings of Significant Contribution and Rulemaking on Section 126 Petitions for Purposes of Reducing Interstate Ozone Transport. 63 Federal Register 57356. 17 December.

EPA. 1999c. Report to Congress Regarding EPA’s Climate Change Activities. p. 35.

EPA. 1999d. Aiming for Excellence.

EPA. 1999e. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1999.

EPA. 2000a. Innovations in Environmental Management. Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation.

EPA. 2000b. Control of Air Pollution from New Motor Vehicles: Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements; Final Rule. 65 FR 28 6697-6746. 10 Feb.

EPA. 2000c. Report to Congress Regarding EPA’s Climate Change Activities. 24 February.

EPA. 2000d. TRI 1998 Data Release. May.

EPA. 2000e. Power to Make A Difference: Energy Star and Other Partnerships: 1999. Climate Protection Division. EPA 430-R-00-006. July.

Environment Reporter. various issues.

Ernst & Young. 1994 National Water & Wastewater Rate Survey.

Executive Office of the President. 1993. Environmental Quality: The Twenty-Fourth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 11821. 1974. “Inflation Impact Statements.” 39 FR 41501.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 11949. 1976. “Economic Impact Statements.” 42 FR 1017.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 12044. 1978. “Improving Government Regulations.” 43 FR 12261.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 12291. 1981. “Federal Regulation.” 46 FR 13193.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 12548. 1986. “Grazing Fees.” 51 FR 5985. 14 February.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 12866. 1993. “Regulatory Planning and Review.” 58 FR 51735.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 13101. 1998. “Greening the Government through Waste Prevention, Recycling, and Federal Acquisition.” 63 FR 49643.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 13123. 1999. “Greening the Government through Efficient Energy Management.” 64 FR 30851.

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 13134. 1999. “Developing and Promoting Biobased Products and Energy.” 64 FR 44639

Executive Office of the President, Executive Order 13148. 2000. “Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management.” 65 FR 24595

Faeth, Paul. 2000. Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading’s Potential to Cost-Effectively Improve Water Quality. Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute.

Federal Highway Administration. 1996a. BUYLINE: Congestion Pricing Updates. Spring.

Federal Highway Administration. 1996b. Congestion Pricing Notes. Spring.

Federal Trade Commission. 1994. FTC Updates Energy-Usage Disclosures for Home Appliances. News release. 24 May.

Ferguson, Amanda. 1996. Personal communication. Environmental Protection Agency.

Fertilizer Institute. Unpublished list of state fertilizer taxes.

Field, Barry C. 1994. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. New York: McGraw Hill.

Financial Times. various issues.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1995. Waste Tires in Florida: State of the State. October.

Flowers, John. 1996a. Memorandum on WAVE program to Michelle Price of the EPA. 25 April.

Flowers, John. 1996b. Personal communication. EPA.

Fortney, Catherine S. 1996. Personal communication. Bay Area Air Quality Management District.

Foster, Vivien and Robert Hahn. 1995. “Designing More Efficient Markets: Lessons from Los Angeles Smog Control.” The Journal of Law and Economics. 38: 19-31.

Franklin, Pat. 1996. Personal communication. Container Recycling Institute. April.

Freedgood, Julia. 1991. “PDR programs take root in the Northeast.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 46(5).

Freeman III, A. Myrick. 1990. “Water Pollution Policy.” Public Policies for Environmental Protection. Portney, Paul, ed. Resources for the Future.

Frisvold, George B. and Peter Condon. 1994. “Biodiversity Conservation and Biotechnology Development Agreements.” Contemporary Economic Policy. 7.

Fullerton, Don and Thomas C. Kinnaman. 1995. “Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 29(1).

Fullerton, Don. 1995. Why Have Separate Environmental Taxes? National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 5380.

GAO. (General Accounting Office) 1990. Solid Waste: Trade-offs Involved in Beverage Container Deposit Legislation. November.

GAO. 1994a. Toxic Substances: EPA Needs More Reliable Source Reduction Data and Progress Measures. GAO/RCED-94-93. September.

GAO. 1994b. Electric Vehicles: Likely Consequences of U.S. and Other Nations’ Programs and Policies. GAO/PEMD-95-7. December.

GAO. 1995a. Solid Waste: State and Federal Efforts to Manage Nonhazardous Waste. GAO/RCED-95-3. February.

GAO. 1995b. Conservation Reserve Program: Alternatives Are Available for Managing Environmentally Sensitive Cropland. GAO/RCED-95-42. February.

GAO. 1995c. Agricultural Conservation: Status of Programs That Provide Financial Incentives. GAO/RCED-95-169. April.

GAO. 1995d. Animal Agriculture: Information on Waste Management and Water Quality Issues. GAO/RCED-95-200BR. June.

GAO. 1996a. Water Pollution: Differences Among the States in Issuing Permits Limiting the Discharge of Pollutants. GAO 96-42. January

GAO. 1996b. An Integrated Approach Could Reduce Pollution and Increase Regulatory Efficiency. GAO/RCED-96-41.

GAO. 1996c. Clean Water Act: Use of State Revolving Funds Varies. GAO/T-RCED-96-140. April.

GAO. 1997a. Superfund: State Voluntary Programs Provide Incentives to Encourage Cleanups. GAO/RCED-97-66.

GAO. 1997b. Environmental Protection: Challenges Facing EPA’s Efforts to Reinvent Environmental Regulation. RCED-97-155.

GAO. 1999. Climate Change: Observations on the April 1999 Report on Climate Change Programs. GAO/T-RCED-99-1999.

Gibbons, Diana C. 1986. The Economic Value of Water. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Girasole, Rich. 1996. Personal communication. Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management.

Goldhammer, Earl, Jerry O. Allen, Mark G. Ancel, Mark A. Engel, Duane T. Phillips, and Raymond P. Reichert. 1995. State Tax Treatment of Pollution Control Equipment -- A Survey and Commentary. American Bar Association State and Local Taxes Subcommittee. August.

Goldstone, James. 1996. California Pollution Control Financing Authority. Personal communication.

Goulder, Lawrence H., Ian W. H. Parry, Roberton C. Williams III, and Dallas Burtraw. 1998. The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting. Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper No. 98-22.

Green, David L. 1990. “CAFE or PRICE?: An Analysis of the Effects of Federal Fuel Economy Regulations and Gasoline Price on New Car MPG, 1978-90.” The Energy Journal. 11(3): 37-57.

Green Scissors Campaign of Citizens United to Terminate Subsidies (CUT). 1995. Sacred Cows: Grazing Fees -- Fair Market Value. January.

Green Seal. Various documents and web site.

Greening, Lorna A., Alan H. Sanstad, and James E. Hanson. 1997. “Effects of Appliance Standards on Product Price and Attributes: An Hedonic Pricing Model.” Journal of Regulatory Economics. 11: 181-194.

Grocery Manufacturers of America. 1995. GMA Praises Florida Legislature for Killing Two-Cent ‘Container’ Tax. Internet press release. 12 May.

Guerrero, Peter F. 1995. Status of Natural Resource Damage Claims. Testimony (for GAO) Before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Hazardous Materials, Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives. 20 June.

Hahn, Robert and Gordon Hester. 1989. “Where Did All the Markets GO? An Analysis of EPA’s Emissions Trading Program.” Yale Journal on Regulation. 16: 109-153.

Hahn, Robert and Roger Noll. 1982. “Designing a Market for Tradable Emissions Permits.” Reform of Environmental Regulation: 132-133.

Hahn, Robert. 1989. “Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor’s Orders.” Economic Perspectives. 3: 95-114.

Hahn, Robert. 1995. “Choosing Among Fuels and Technologies for Cleaning Up the Air.” Journal of Policy Analysis: 533-551.

Hahn, Robert. 2000. “The Impact of Economics on Environmental Policy.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 39(2): 375-399.

Hamilton, James. 1995. “Pollution as News: Media and Stock Market Reactions to the Toxics Release Inventory Data.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 28: 98-113.

Hamilton, Randy. 1996. Personal communication. Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. June.

Harris, Jeffrey P. and Nancy Casey-McCabe. Undated. Energy-Efficient Product Labeling: Market Impacts on Buyers and Sellers. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Division.

Harrison, David. 1983. “The Regulation of Aircraft Noise.” Incentives for Environmental Protection. Thomas Schelling, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hausker, Karl. 1992. "The Politics and Economics of Auction Design in the Market for Sulfur Dioxide Pollution." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 11(4): 553-72.

Haycock, N.E., T. Burt, W.E. Goulding, and G.Pinay (Eds). 1993. Buffer zones: their processes and potential in water protection. ISBN 0953005100

Helfand, Gloria E. 1994. “The Role of Information as an Incentive for Environmental Control.” New Partnerships: Economic Incentives for Environmental Management. Air and Waste Management Association.

Hendricksen, Toni. 1996. Personal communication. New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety. May.

Henriques, Irene and Perry Sadorski. 1996. “The Determinants of an Environmentally Responsible Firm.” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 30(3).

Hewitt, Julie A. and W. Michael Hanemann. 1995. “A Discrete/Continuous Choice Approach to Residential Water Demand under Block Rate Pricing.” Land Economics. 71(2): 173-192.

Hewitt, Julie A. 2000. “An Investigation into the Reasons Why Water Utilities Choose Particular Residential Rate Structures.” in The Political Economy of Water Pricing Reforms. Ariel Dinar, ed. Oxford University Press.

Hickle, Garth. 2000. “Whose Responsibility?” Environmental Forum. 17(4).

Hoag, Dana and Jennie Hughes-Popp. 1997. “Theory and Practice of Pollution Credit Trading.” Review of Agricultural Economics. 19(2).

Hodge, Ian. 1995. Environmental Economics. St. Francis Press. New York.

Hoerner, J. Andrew. 1995. “Life and Taxes.” The Amicus Journal.

Hoerner, J. Andrew. 1998. Harnessing the Tax Code for Environmental Protection: A Survey of State Initiatives. World Resources Institute.

Huslin, Anita. 2000. “MD Seeks to Convert Farmland Into Wetland.” The Washington Post. 11 August.

ICF Resources. 1989. Economic Analysis of Title V of the Administration’s Proposed Clean Air Act Amendments.

ICF Resources. 1989. Economic, Environmental, and Coal Market Impacts of SO2 Emissions Trading under Alternative Acid Rain Control Proposals. Prepared for the Regulatory Innovations Staff, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA.

Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety. Radon Program Strives to Increase Public Awareness.

Illinois EPA. 1995. Design for VOC Emissions Trading System.

Innovations in American Government. 1999. Toxics Use Reduction Program. Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Interagency Environment Technologies Office. 1995. National Environmental Technology Strategy. Washington, D.C. 18 March. (available through etstrategy@gnet.org).

Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Technologies. 2000. Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

International Energy Agency (IEA). 1995. Energy Prices and Taxes. 3rd Quarter.

Investor Responsibility Research Center. 1993 Corporate Environmental Profiles Directory: Executive Summary and Appendices. 1. http://www.irrc.org/

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