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TABLE 57. TABLE 11-12: ENERGY/CARBON TAXES

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Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

ENERGY/CARBON TAXES.(IN $ PER TON OF CO2 UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED)
Country
Year Adopted
Rate
Annual Revenue
Observations
Denmark
1992
$9-$18
    $560 million
    (1993)
    Gasoline, natural gas, and biofuels exempt. Aviation, shipping, and refinery gas exempt. 50% rebate for larger businesses.
Finland
1990
$8 + 21/
gjoule
    $314 million
    (1994)
    Industry raw materials and fuel for planes and certain vessels exempt.
    60/40 carbon/energy content.
Netherlands
1990
$16.4 + 91/giga-joule
    $850 million
    (1995)
    Full rate not phased in until 1998. 50/50 carbon/energy content.
Norway
1991
$15-$47
    $900 million
    (1994)
    Coal used in industry exempt.
Sweden
1991
$27-55
    $1.7 billion
    (FY93-4)
    Effective 7/1/96, industry pays 50% of full rate. Uses other than heating or motor fuels and fuel for ships, planes, train locomotives, and electricity generation exempt.
Sources: Muller, "Mitigating Climate Change," p. 17; OECD (1996), Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes, pp. 89-94; Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment.

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