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NCEE Working Papers by Subject


These research papers are distributed by their authors for purposes of information and discussion. The opinions and findings expressed in the Working Papers are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Environmental Protection Agency or of the National Center for Environmental Economics. Papers in the series are either authored by NCEE researchers or produced with funding from NCEE.

NCEE is committed to maintaining a high standard of quality in the Working Paper series. Therefore, a satisfactory peer review is required prior to publication in the series, though the standards for a satisfactory review are not as restrictive as those required for EPA publications or scholarly journals. Each paper must receive one favorable review prior to acceptance in the series. Please see Instructions for Authors and Instructions to Reviewers for a more detailed description of the review process and paper eligibility.

Working Papers posted in this section are organized by date, and are also available by subject area and authors. All working papers are available in PDF format.

Please contact Marrietta Haggins (haggins.marrietta@epa.gov), if you have any problems downloading papers or need Section 508 help.


Working Paper #Title (Author)Keywords
2014-05     Prevention, Cleanup, and Reuse Benefits from the Federal UST Program
(Robin R. Jenkins, Dennis Guignet, and Patrick J. Walsh)
     contaminated sites, contamination, land cleanup, land reuse, leaking underground storage tanks, LUST, qualitative benefits
2014-04     The Role of Scenario Uncertainty in Estimating the Benefits of Carbon Mitigation
(Alex L. Marten)
     social cost of carbon, integrated assessment, scenario uncertainty
2014-03     The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment: An Examination of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and its Impact on the Electric Power Sector
(Ann Ferris, Ronald J. Shadbegian, and Ann Wolverton)
     SO2 regulations, cap and trade, employment effects
2014-02     Heavy-Duty Trucks and the Energy Efficiency Paradox
(Heather Klemick, Elizabeth Kopits, Keith Sargent, and Ann Wolverton)
     energy efficiency paradox, technology investment decisions, heavy duty trucking
2014-01     To Sell Or Not To Sell: The Impacts of Pollution on Home Transactions
(Dennis Guignet)
     housing market, property transactions, discrete time duration model , hedonic analysis, leaking underground storage tanks, groundwater contamination
2013-06     Household Decision-Making and Valuation of Environmental Health Risks to Parents and their Children
(Wiktor Adamowicz, Mark Dickie, Shelby Gerking, Marcella Veronesi, and David Zinner)
     household decision-making, collective household model, non-cooperative household model, unitary household model, Pareto efficiency, environmental health risks to parents and children, willingness to pay, matched sample of mothers and fathers
2013-05     Impacts of Ethanol Policy on Corn Prices: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Recent Evidence
(Nicole Condon, Heather Klemick, and Ann Wolverton)
     ethanol, biofuels, Renewable Fuel Standard, food prices, food security, meta-analysis
2013-04     Ranking Distributions of Environmental Outcomes Across Population Groups
(Glenn Sheriff and Kelly B. Maguire)
     environmental justice, distributional analysis, inequality indexes, Lorenz curves, benefit-cost analysis
2013-03     Do EPA Regulations Affect Labor Demand? Evidence from the Pulp and Paper Industry
(Ronald J. Shadbegian, Wayne B. Gray, Chumbei Wang, and Merve Cebi)
     Cluster Rule, regulatory costs, multimedia regulation, employment effects
2013-02     Ecosystem damages in integrated assessment models of climate change
(Wesley R. Brooks and Stephen C. Newbold)
     climate change, ecosystem, biodiversity, integrated assessment model, structural benefit transfer
2013-01     Moving Forward with Incorporating "Catastrophic" Climate Change into Policy Analysis
(Elizabeth Kopits, Alex L. Marten, and Ann Wolverton)
     climate change, catastrophes, integrated assessment model
2012-07     Valuation of Human Health: An Integrated Model of Willingness to Pay for Mortality and Morbidity Risk Reductions
(Shelby Gerking, Mark Dickie, and Marcella Veronesi)
     willingness to pay, children, environmental hazards, health, integrated analysis, morbidity, mortality, value of statistical life, cancer, stated preference
2012-06     Do Environmental Regulations Disproportionately Affect Small Businesses? Evidence from the Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures Survey
(Randy A. Becker, Ronald J. Shadbegian, and Carl Pasurka)
     Environmental Regulation, costs, Business size, U. S.manufacturing
2012-05     Water Quality Index Aggregation and Cost Benefit Analysis
(Patrick J. Walsh and William Wheeler)
     water quality, valuation, cost-benefit analysis
2012-04     What is the Optimal Offsets Discount under a Second-Best Cap & Trade Policy?
(Heather Klemick)
     offsets, additionality, leakage, baseline, cap and trade, second-best theory
2012-03     Carbon Pricing with Output-Based Subsidies: Impacts on U.S. Industries over Multiple Time Frames
(Liwayway Adkins, Richard Garbaccio, Mun Ho, Eric Moore, and Richard Morgenstern)
     carbon price, competitiveness, input-output analysis, computable general equilibrium models, output-based allocations, carbon leakage
2012-02     A Multi-Method, Spatial Approach for Explaining the Appearance and Passage of Open Space Referenda
(Martin D. Heintzelman, Patrick J. Walsh, and Dustin J. Grzeskowiak)
     environmental referenda, open space, survival model, Spatial econometrics, bayesian probit
2012-01     What Do Property Values Really Tell Us? A Hedonic Study of Underground Storage Tanks
(Dennis Guignet)
     hedonic analysis, housing prices, leaking underground storage tanks, LUST, contaminated sites, groundwater contamination, remediation benefits
2011-07     Do Regulators Overestimate the Costs of Regulation?
(David Simpson)
     benefit-cost analysis, cost estimation, ex ante, ex post, innovation, iterated expectations
2011-06     Welfare Impacts of Ocean Acidification: An Integrated Assessment Model of the US Mollusk Fishery
(Christopher C. Moore)
     ocean acidification, integrated assessment model, demand system estimation
2011-05     Offset markets for nutrient and sediment discharges in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed: Policy tradeoffs and potential steps forward
(Andrew Manale, Cynthia Morgan, Glenn Sheriff, and David Simpson)
     water quality trading, offsets, transaction costs, adverse selection, leakage, additionality, monitoring, Chesapeake Bay, nutrients
2011-04     CERCLA's Overlooked Cleanup Program: Emergency Response and Removal
(Robin R. Jenkins, Heather Klemick, Elizabeth Kopits, and Alex L. Marten)
     hazardous waste sites, land revitalization, Superfund emergency response and removal
2011-03     Valuing Health Risk Changes Using a Life-Cycle Consumption Framework
(Stephen C. Newbold)
     VSL, life-cycle model, benefit-cost analysis, social welfare analysis, QALY, health-wealth tradeoff
2011-02     Quantifying the Distribution of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis
(Kelly B. Maguire and Glenn Sheriff)
     environmental justice, regulatory impact analysis, distributional analysis, equity, inequality indes
2011-01     Estimating the Social Cost of Non-CO2 GHG Emissions: Methane and Nitrous Oxide
(Alex L. Marten and Stephen C. Newbold)
     social cost of carbon, global warming potential, integrated assessment
2010-12     How Many Times Could You Replicate Polyface Farm? A Schematic Model of Ecosystem Services in Agriculture
(David Simpson)
     Ecosystem services, conventional agriculture, Perfect substitures, Purchased inputs, Subsidies
2010-11     Poverty Status and IQ Gains from Revising the Dust Lead Hazard Standards: A Method for Evaluating Environmental Justice Implications?
(Matthew LaPenta)
     environmental justice, lead, children
2010-10     Environmental Justice: Do Poor and Minority Populations Face More Hazards?
(Wayne B. Gray, Ronald J. Shadbegian, and Ann Wolverton)
     environmental justice, regulatory activity, enforcement, political, poor, minority
2010-09     Preliminary Stated-Preference Research on the Impact of LUST Sites on Property Values: Focus Group Results
(Anna Alberini and Dennis Guignet)
     leaking underground storage tanks, groundwater, remediation benefits, stated preference, focus groups
2010-08     Regulatory Impact Analyses of Environmental Justice Effects
(Spencer Banzhaf)
     benefit-cost analysis, environmental justice, disperse pollutants
2010-07     The "Social Cost of Carbon" Made Simple
(Steve Newbold, Charles Griffiths, Christopher C. Moore, Ann Wolverton, and Elizabeth Kopits)
     climate change, social cost of carbon, integrated assessment model
2010-06     An Options Based Bioeconomic Model for Biological and Chemical Control of Invasive Species
(Alex L. Marten and Christopher C. Moore)
     invasive species, real options, integrated pest managment, biological control
2010-05     Location Decisions of U.S. Polluting Plants: Theory, Empirical Evidence, and Consequences
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Ann Wolverton)
     plant location decisions, environmental policy, inter-jurisdictional competition, environmental justice
2010-04     Allocating Land for an Ecosystem Service: A Simple Model of Nutrient Retention with an Application to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed
(David Simpson)
     Reactive nitrogen, diamonds and water paradox, Ecosystem services, constrained optimization, Land use regulation, corner solution
2010-03     Optimal Border Policies for Invasive Species under Asymmetric Information
(Linda Fernandez and Glenn Sheriff)
     asymmetric information, inspection, international trade , invasive species
2010-02     The Spatial Extent of Water Quality Benefits in Urban Housing Markets
(Patrick Walsh, J. Walter Milon, and David Scrogin)
     hedonic pricing, water quality, pollution abatement, proximity, amenity value
2010-01     A Hedonic Analysis of the Impact of LUST Sites on House Prices in Frederick, Baltimore, and Baltimore City Counties
(Jeffrey Zabel and Dennis Guignet)
     hedonic model, LUST, groundwater contamination, Remediation benefits
2009-06     Asthma Medication Use and Air Pollution in California: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
(Charles Griffiths, Nathalie B. Simon, and Tracey J. Woodruff)
     asthma, air pollution
2009-05     Simple Mechanisms for Managing Complex Aquifers
(Stergios Athanassoglou, Glenn Sheriff, Tobias Siegfried, and Woonghee Tim Huh)
     groundwater, differential games, imperfect monitoring
2009-04     Evaluating the Consumer Response to Fuel Economy: A Review of the Literature
(Gloria Helfand and Ann Wolverton)
     consumer behavior, vehicle purchase decision
2009-03     The Role of Demographic and Cost-Related Factors in Determining Where Plants Locate - A Tale of Two Texas Cities
(Ann Wolverton)
     Plant location, environmental justice
2009-02     Spatial Patterns in Regulatory Enforcement: Local Tests of Environmental Justice
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Wayne B. Gray)
     environmental justice, regulatory activity, enforcement, political, poor, minority
2009-01     State Hazardous and Solid Waste Taxes: Understanding Their Variability
(Kelly B. Maguire and Robin R. Jenkins)
     hazardous waste, municipal solid waste, state waste taxes, environmental justice
2008-12     Evaluating Voluntary Programs with Spillovers: The Case of Coal Combustion Products Partnership
(Ian Lange)
     voluntary environmental measures, coal fly ash, spillovers
2008-11     Preventing Biological Invasions: Doing Something vs. Doing Nothing
(David Simpson)
     invasive species, nonconvexity, cost-benefit analysis, laissez-faire
2008-10     The Green Industry: An Examination of Environmental Products Manufacturing
(Randy A. Becker and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     green industry, environmental products, employment, wages, exports, productivity, growth
2008-09     Determining the Extent of Market and Extent of Resource for Stated Preference Survey Design Using Mapping Methods
(Shalini P. Vajjhala, Anna Mische John, and David A. Evans)
     stated preference, cognitive mapping, Extent of market, Extent of resource, definition of commodity
2008-08     Effects of Socio-Economic and Input-Related Factors on Polluting Plants' Location Decisions
(Ann Wolverton)
     environmental justice, firm location
2008-07     Valuing Forest Protection Programs to Maximize Economic Benefit
(Christopher C. Moore and Thomas P. Holmes)
     invasive species, hemlock woolly adelgid, ecosystem valuation, forest preservation
2008-06     Climate Response Uncertainty and the Unexpected Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions
(Adam Daigneault and Steve Newbold)
     climate change, climate sensitivity, uncertainty, catastrophe
2008-05     Forest Fallow Ecosystem Services: Evidence from the Eastern Amazon
(Heather Klemick)
     Forests, Farms, Fallow, Ecosystem services, Land use, Spatial econometrics, Externalities, Brazil
2008-04     Technology Diffusion and Environmental Regulation: The Adoption of Scrubbers by Coal-Fired Power Plants
(Elaine Frey)
     technology diffusion, environmental regulation, electric generating industry
2008-03     Estimating Welfare Effects from Supply Shocks with Dynamic Factor Demand Models
(Adam Daigneault and Brent Sohngen)
     dynamic adjustment, environmental regulation, price elasticity, regional timber markets, structural change, stumpage demand, timber supply
2008-02     Technology, International Trade, and Pollution from U.S. Manufacturing
(Arik Levinson)
     pollution havens, trade and environment, pollution intensity
2008-01     Redesign of the 2005 Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditure Survey
(Michael Gallaher, Cynthia Morgan, and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     survey design, survey evaluation, environmental costs, manufacturing, engineering estimates
2007-11     State Dependence and Long Term Site Capital in a Random Utility Model of Recreation Demand
(D. Matthew Massey and George R. Parsons)
     site capital, state dependence, beach recreation, travel cost
2007-10     Environmental Policy Induced Input Substitution? The Case of Coking and Steam Coal
(Ian Lange)
     1990 Clean Air Act, coke, Input substitution
2007-09     Diving Demand for Large Ship Artificial Reefs
(Ash Morgan, Matt Massey, and William Huth)
     Artificial reefs, Diving, Bundled public good, Recreation demand, Non-market valuation
2007-08     Issues and Challenges in Measuring Environmental Expenditures by U.S. Manufacturing: The Redevelopment of the PACE Survey
(Randy A. Becker and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     survey design, survey evaluation, sampling, environmental costs, manufacturing
2007-07     New Research Suggests That Emissions Reductions May Be a Risky and Very Expensive Way to Avoid Dangerous Global Climate Changes
(Alan Carlin)
     global climate change control, Global warming control, implementation
2007-06     Evaluating the Effectiveness of EPA Voluntary Programs: An Examination of the Strategic Goals Program for Metal Finishers
(Keith Brouhle, Charles Griffiths, and Ann Wolverton)
     voluntary programs, air emissions, Program effectiveness
2007-05     Environmental Challenges Associated With Corn Ethanol Production
(Clay Ogg)
     biofuel, ethanol, greenhouse gas, deforestation, energy conservation
2007-04     If Geoengineering Is The Best First Step Towards Global Climate Change Control, How Could It Best Be Implemented?
(Alan Carlin)
     Global warming control, global climate change control, implementation, organizational analysis
2007-03     The Impact of Imperfect Information
on the Transactions of Contaminated Properties
(Jeffrey Zabel)
     land cleanup, Reuse, brownfields, asymmetric information, market for lemons
2007-02     Moving Beyond Cleanup: Identifying the Crucibles of Environmental Gentrification
(Spencer Banzhaf and Eleanor McCormick)
     land cleanup, Reuse, brownfields, gentrification
2007-01     Employment Effects of Brownfield Redevelopment
What Do We Know from the Literature?
(Marie Howland)
     land cleanup, Reuse, brownfields, employment effects
2006-04     Global Climate Control: Is There a Better Strategy Than Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions?
(Alan Carlin)
     Global warming control, global climate change control, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis
2006-03     Measuring the Social Benefits of EPA Land Cleanup and Reuse Programs
(Robin R. Jenkins, Elizabeth Kopits, and David Simpson)
     hazardous waste sites, land revitalization, brownfields
2006-02     A Note on Trasande et al., “Public Health and Economic Consequences of Methylmercury Toxicity to the Developing Brain”
(Charles Griffiths, Al McGartland, and Maggie Miller)
     Mercury, Methylmercury, Dose-response, IQ, Fish consumption, CAMR, Benefits
2006-01     Policy Innovation Impacts on Scrubber Electricity Usage
(Ian Lange and Allen Bellas)
     market-based regulation, electricity deregulation, scrubbers
2005-09     Benefits and Costs from Sulfur Dioxide Trading: A Distributional Analysis
(Cynthia Morgan, Ronald J. Shadbegian, and Wayne B. Gray)
     air quality, Clean Air Act Amendments, environmental justice, Benefits, costs, Trading
2005-08     Improving Willingness to Pay Estimates for Quality Improvements Throught Joint Estimation with Quality Perceptions
(John C. Whitehead)
     willingness to pay, quality perceptions, endogeneity
2005-07     Water Quality Trading in the United States
(Cynthia Morgan and Ann Wolverton)
     water quality, market-based trading, offset initiatives
2005-06      Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Trade and Domestic Distortions in the United States
(Jared Creason, Michael Fisher, Isabelle Morin, and and Susan F. Stone)
     Trade, environmental impacts, general equilibrium
2005-05     Assessing Multi-Dimensional Performance: Environmental and Economic Outcomes
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Wayne B. Gray)
     environmental performance, labor productivity, emissions, enforcement, technology
2005-04     A Technology Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Solid-State Lighting for General Illumination
(Amanda Slocum)
     solid-state lighting, LED's, energy-efficiency, technology assessment
2005-03     The Effects of Water Quality on Coastal Recreation Flounder Fishing
(Matt Massey, Steve Newbold, and Brad Gentner)
     bioeconomic model, dissolved oxygen, Recreation demand, Recreational fishing, Summer flounder, water quality
2005-02     The Economic Impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species: A Review of the Literature
(Sabrina J. Lovell and Susan F. Stone)
     costs, literature, aquatic invasive species
2005-01     Robustness of VSL Values from Contingent Valuation Surveys
(Anna Alberini)
     contingent valuation, VSL, WTP, risk reductions, robustness, outliers, endogeneity
2004-09     PACE Survey: Background, Applications, and Data Quality Issues
(Martin T. Ross, Michael P. Gallaher, Brian C. Murray, Wanda W. Throneburg, and Arik Levinson)
     pollution abatement, survey design, costs, expenditures
2004-08     A Change of PACE: Comparing the 1994 and 1999 Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures Surveys
(Randy A. Becker and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     pollution abatement, survey data, environmental costs, manufacturing
2004-07     When and Why Do Plants Comply? Paper Mills in the 1980s
(Wayne B. Gray and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     compliance, air pollution regulation, enforcement, inspections
2004-06     Overview of Existing Studies on Community Impacts of Land Reuse
(Kris Wernstedt)
     land reuse, community impacts, hazardous substances
2004-05     The Use of Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Policymaking in the U.S.
(Keith Brouhle, Charles Griffiths, and Ann Wolverton)
     market incentives, pollution control options, voluntary programs
2004-04     Benefit Transfer Functions for Avoided Morbidity:
A Preference Calibration Approach
(George L. Van Houtven, Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, and V. Kerry Smith)
     benefit transfer, health valuation, preference calibration
2004-03     Characterization of Reuse Activities at Contaminated Sites
(Angela Vitulli, Charlotte Dougherty, and Kimberly Bosworth)
     contaminated sites, site reuse, Superfund, brownfields, RCRA, underground storage tanks
2004-02     Focus on Babies: Evidence on Parental Attitudes Towards Pesticide Risks
(Kelly B. Maguire, Nicole Owens, and Nathalie B. Simon)
     risk perceptions, children's health, health valuation, organic foods
2004-01     Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions:
Does Latency Matter?
(Anna Alberini, Maureen Cropper, Alan Krupnick, and Nathalie B. Simon)
     value of statistical life, mortality risks, benefit-cost analysis
2003-08     Comparing exposure metrics in the relationship between PM2.5 and birth weight in California
(Jennifer D. Parker, Katherine Heck, Kenneth C. Schoendorf, Louise Saulnier, Rupa Basu, and Tracey J. Woodruff)
     air pollution, birth outcomes, birth weight, fine particulate matter, metrics, PM2.5
2003-07     The Pace of PACE at the Environmental Protection Agency
(Rich Iovanna, Kelly Maguire, and Al McGartland)
     pollution abatement, Pollution costs
2003-06     On the Measurement of Job Risk in Hedonic Wage Models
(Dan A. Black and Thomas K. Kniesner)
     hedonic wage equation, price of risk, implicit value of life, measurement error
2003-05     Pollution Abatement Expenditures and Plant-Level Productivity: A Production Function Approach
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Wayne B. Gray)
     Environmental Regulation, Pollution Abatement Costs, Productivity, Technology
2003-04     The Two-Part Instrument in a Second-Best World
(Ann Wolverton and Don Fullerton)
     two-part instrument, second-best theory, optimal tax, distortionary taxation, market-based instrument, environmental externality
2003-03     What Determines Environmental Performance at Paper Mills?
The Roles of Abatement Spending, Regulation, and Efficiency
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Wayne B. Gray)
     Environmental Performance, Pollution Abatement Capital Stock, Air Pollution Emissions, Productive Efficiency
2003-02     Self Protection and Averting Behavior, Values of Statistical Lives, and Benefit Cost Analysis of Environmental Policy
(Glenn C. Blomquist)
     averting behavior, value of statistical life
2003-01     Market-Based Policies for Pollution Control in Latin America
(Sarah West and Ann Wolverton)
     pollution control options, market incentives, Latin America
2002-10     Benefits Transfer of Children’s Health Values
(Marla Markowski)
     children, benefit transfer
2002-09     Valuing Indirect Effects From Environmental Hazards
On A Child’s Life Chances
(Jason Shogren)
     Indirect effects, valuation, children
2002-08     On Techniques to Value the Impact of
Environmental Hazards on Children's Health
(Mark D. Agee and Thomas D. Crocker)
     children, valuation, methodology
2002-07     Existing Literature and Recommended Strategies for Valuation of Children's Health Effects
(Jim Neumann and Harriet Greenwood)
     children, valuation, health effects, benefit transfer
2002-06     Data Requirements for Valuation of Children’s Health Effects and
Alternatives to Valuation
(Kimberly M. Thompson)
     children, risk assessment, valuation
2002-05     ‘Optimal’ Pollution Abatement – Whose Benefits Matter, and How Much?
(Wayne B. Gray and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     environmental justice, Environmental Regulation, Pollution Abatement Benefits, Transboundary Pollution
2002-04     Host Community Compensation and Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
(Cynthia Morgan, Kelly B. Maguire, and Robin R. Jenkins)
     host compensation, landfills, environmental justice
2002-03     Willingness to pay to Reduce a Child’s Pesticide Exposure:
Evidence from the Baby Food Market
(Kelly B. Maguire, Nicole Owens, and Nathalie B. Simon)
     organic foods, hedonic model, willingness to pay, children
2002-02     When Do Firms Shift Production Across State to Avoid Environmental Regulation?
(Ronald J. Shadbegian and Wayne B. Gray)
     Environmental Regulation, state regulatory stringency, Procution allocation, compliance
2002-01     The Future of Municipal Water Resources in the
Willamette River Basin: A Basin-Level Analysis
(David Dole and Ernie Niemi)
     water resources, sustainable development, modeling
2001-04     Plant Vintage, Technology, and Environmental Regulation
(Wayne B. Gray and Ronald J. Shadbegian)
     Environmental Regulation, Productivity, Integrated Mills, Plant Vintage, Pollution Abatement Costs
2001-03     Measuring the Impact of Regulations on Small Firms
(David Dole)
     economic impact analysis; regulatory economics; small business economics; Regulatory Flexibility Act; Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act.
2001-02     Estimating Individual Discount Rates in Denmark: A Field Experiment
(Glenn W. Harrison, Morten I. Lau, and Melonie B. Williams)
     Discount Rates, Time Preference, experimental economics censored dependent variable
2001-01     Measurement Issues and Validity Tests for Using Attitude Indicators in Contingent Valuation Research
(Elizabeth McClelland)
     Factor analysis, attitudinal questions, mean willingness-to-pay.




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