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The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Pollution Control: By Table of Contents

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The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
LIST OF ACRONYMS
Hide details for 1. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
1.3. ORGANIZATION OF REPORT
Hide details for 2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
Hide details for 2.1.  REPORTS AND STRATEGIES2.1. REPORTS AND STRATEGIES
2.1.1. Project 88 Report
2.1.2. Report of the EPA Economic Incentives Task Force
2.1.3. President’s Council on Sustainable Development
2.1.4. Economic Report of the President
Hide details for 2.2.  EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND INITIATIVES2.2. EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND INITIATIVES
2.2.1. Executive Order 12291
2.2.2. Executive Order 12866
2.2.3. Climate Change Initiative
2.2.4. Greening the Government
2.2.5. National Performance Review
2.2.6. Reinventing Environmental Regulations
2.2.7. National Environmental Technology Strategy
Hide details for 2.3.  RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY INITIATIVES2.3. RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY INITIATIVES
2.3.1. Performance Track Approach at EPA
2.3.2. EPA Air and Water Policy Initiatives
2.3.3. EPA Research Activities
2.3.4. Promotion of Economic Instruments Abroad
2.4. LEGISLATION: CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990
Hide details for 3. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INCENTIVE SYSTEMS3. THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF INCENTIVE SYSTEMS
3.1. INTRODUCTION
3.2. TRADITIONAL REGULATORY APPROACHES
Hide details for 3.3.  INCENTIVE-BASED MECHANISMS3.3. INCENTIVE-BASED MECHANISMS
3.3.1. Pollution Charges, Fees, and Taxes
3.3.2. Deposit-Refund Systems
3.3.3. Marketable Permit Systems
3.3.4. Subsidies for Reducing Pollution or Improving the Environment
3.3.5. Liability for Harm Caused by Pollution
3.3.6. Information Disclosure
3.4. RELATIVE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
3.5. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
3.6. IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
3.7. FINDING THE RIGHT INSTRUMENT FOR THE PROBLEM
Hide details for 4. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES4. FEES, CHARGES, AND TAXES
4.1. INTRODUCTION
Hide details for 4.2.  WATER FEES4.2. WATER FEES
4.2.1. Indirect Discharge and User Fees
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.2.3. Some State Effluent Permitting Fees
4.2.4. Stormwater Runoff Fees
Hide details for 4.3.  AIR EMISSION FEES4.3. AIR EMISSION FEES
Hide details for 4.3.1.  Permit Fees4.3.1. Permit Fees
4.3.1.1. Air Emission Permit Fees in Maine
4.3.1.2. Emission Permit Fees for South Coast Air Quality Management District
4.3.1.3. California "Hot Spots" Fees
4.3.2. Ozone Non-Attainment Area Fees
Hide details for 4.4.  WASTE FEES4.4. WASTE FEES
4.4.1. Variable Pricing Programs
4.4.2. Landfill Taxes
4.4.3. Hazardous Waste Taxes
Hide details for 4.5.  PRODUCT CHARGES4.5. PRODUCT CHARGES
Hide details for 4.5.1.  Federal Product Charges4.5.1. Federal Product Charges
4.5.1.1. Superfund Taxes
4.5.1.2. Taxes on Fuel-Inefficient Automobiles
4.5.1.3. Ozone-depleting Chemicals
Hide details for 4.5.2.  State Product Charges4.5.2. State Product Charges
4.5.2.1. Tire Charges
4.5.2.2. Fertilizer Charges
4.5.2.3. Rhode Island Hard-to-Dispose Material Tax
4.5.2.5. North Carolina ADF
4.5.2.6. Texas Clean Fuel Incentive Surcharge
4.6. ROAD USER FEES
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
4.8. GRAZING FEES
4.9. MINNESOTA CONTAMINATION TAX
Hide details for 5. DEPOSIT-REFUND SYSTEMS5. DEPOSIT-REFUND SYSTEMS
5.1. INTRODUCTION
Hide details for 5.2.  BEVERAGE CONTAINERS5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
5.2.1. Maine Bottle Deposit System
5.2.2. California Beverage Container Recycling Program
5.2.3. Summary of Beverage Deposit/Refund Systems
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
5.4. MAINE PESTICIDE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEM
5.5. OTHER PRODUCTS
5.6. VOLUNTARY DEPOSIT SCHEMES
5.7. PERFORMANCE BONDS
Hide details for 6. TRADING SYSTEMS6. TRADING SYSTEMS
6.1. TRADING IN CLEAN AIR ACT PROGRAMS: AN OVERVIEW
Hide details for 6.2.  FOUNDATIONS OF AIR EMISSION TRADING6.2. FOUNDATIONS OF AIR EMISSION TRADING
6.2.1. Offset Program
6.2.2. Bubble Policy
6.2.3. Banking
6.2.4. Netting
6.2.5. Evaluation of Early Emission Trading Activities
Hide details for 6.3.  ACID RAIN ALLOWANCE TRADING6.3. ACID RAIN ALLOWANCE TRADING
6.3.1. Allowances
6.3.2. Monitoring and Compliance
6.3.3. Allowance Auction
6.3.4. Transaction Costs
6.3.5. Results
Hide details for 6.4.  NOx REGIONAL OZONE PROGRAMS6.4. NOx REGIONAL OZONE PROGRAMS
6.4.1. OTC NOx Budget Program
6.4.2. NOx Budget Trading Program
6.5. CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) PRODUCTION ALLOWANCE TRADING
6.6. LEAD CREDIT TRADING
6.7. GASOLINE CONSTITUENTS
6.8. TIER 2 EMISSION STANDARDS
6.9. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK ENGINE EMISSION AVERAGING
6.10. CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY (CAFE) STANDARDS
Hide details for 6.11.  HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT (HAP) EARLY REDUCTION6.11. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT (HAP) EARLY REDUCTION
6.11.1. The Petroleum Industry NESHAP
6.11.2. Hazardous Organic Chemical NESHAP
6.12. REGIONAL CLEAN AIR INCENTIVES MARKET (RECLAIM)
Hide details for 6.13.  OTHER STATE PROGRAMS6.13. OTHER STATE PROGRAMS
6.13.1. Illinois Emission Reduction Market System
6.13.2. Michigan Emissions Trading Program
6.13.3. New Jersey Emission Trading Program
6.13.4. Texas Emissions Trading Program
6.13.5. Pennsylvania Emission Reduction Credit System
6.13.6. Wood Stove and Fireplace Permit Trading (Colorado)
6.13.7. Grass-Burning Permit Trading (Washington)
Hide details for 6.14.  EFFLUENT TRADING6.14. EFFLUENT TRADING
6.14.1. Effluent Bubble
6.14.2. Effluent Trading: Point-to-Point
Hide details for 6.14.3.  Effluent Trading: Point-to-Non-point Sources6.14.3. Effluent Trading: Point-to-Non-point Sources
6.14.3.1. Dillon Reservoir
6.14.3.2. Cherry Creek Reservoir
6.14.3.3. Tar Pamlico Basin
6.14.3.4. Other Effluent Trading Initiatives
6.14.4. Future Prospects for Effluent Trading
6.15. WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING
6.16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
Hide details for 7. SUBSIDIES7. SUBSIDIES
7.1. INTRODUCTION
Hide details for 7.2.  POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL7.2. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
7.2.1. Tax Benefits
7.2.2. Louisiana Environmental Scorecard
7.2.3. Supplemental Environmental Projects
7.2.4. Loans and Tax Exempt Bonds
Hide details for 7.3.  BROWNFIELDS PROGRAMS7.3. BROWNFIELDS PROGRAMS
7.3.1. EPA Pilot Project Grants
7.3.2. Tax Incentives and Loans
Hide details for 7.4.  FARMING AND LAND PRESERVATION7.4. FARMING AND LAND PRESERVATION
7.4.1. Conservation Reserve Program
7.4.2. Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
7.4.3. Wetlands Reserve Program
7.4.4. Compliance Provisions
7.4.5. Highly Erodible Land Conservation Compliance and "Sodbuster"
7.4.6. Swampbuster Program
7.4.7. Subsidy Programs Created under 1996 Farm Bill
7.4.8. Impacts of Conservation Programs
7.4.9. State Initiatives
7.4.10. Purchase of Development Rights
Hide details for 7.5.  CONSUMER PRODUCT WASTE MANAGEMENT7.5. CONSUMER PRODUCT WASTE MANAGEMENT
7.5.1. Advance Disposal Fee Systems
7.5.2. Deposit Handling Fees
7.5.3. Recycling Loans and Grants
7.5.4. Tax Incentives
7.5.5. Preferential Procurement of Recycled Products
7.5.6. Recycled Content Policies
7.6. NEW JERSEY'S INFORMATION AWARDS PROGRAM
Hide details for 7.7.  ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND LOW-EMITTING VEHICLES7.7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND LOW-EMITTING VEHICLES
7.7.1. Federal Subsidies
7.7.2. State Subsidies
7.7.3. Car Buyback Schemes
7.8. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CONSERVATION
7.9. MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION
7.10. ACCELERATED REVIEW OF NEW PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS
Hide details for 7.11.  SUBSIDIES THAT MAY HARM THE ENVIRONMENT7.11. SUBSIDIES THAT MAY HARM THE ENVIRONMENT
7.11.1. Subsidies for Timber, Minerals, and Water Extraction
7.11.2. Agriculture
7.11.3. Mortgage Interest Tax Deduction
Hide details for 8. LIABILITY APPROACHES8. LIABILITY APPROACHES
8.1. INTRODUCTION
8.2. LIABILITY FOR CLEANUP COSTS
8.3. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO NATURAL RESOURCES
Hide details for 8.4.  CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY8.4. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
8.4.1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
8.4.2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
8.4.3. Clean Water Act (CWA)
8.4.4. Clean Air Act (CAA)
8.5. TORT LIABILITY
Hide details for 9. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE9. INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
9.1. BACKGROUND
9.2. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA)
Hide details for 9.3.  EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA)9.3. EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA)
9.3.1. Trends in Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Data
9.3.2. Incentive Effect of the Toxics Release Inventory
Hide details for 9.4.  STATE CHEMICAL REPORTING PROGRAMS9.4. STATE CHEMICAL REPORTING PROGRAMS
9.4.1. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
9.4.2. New Jersey Reporting Requirements
9.5. DRINKING WATER CONSUMER CONFIDENCE REPORT
Hide details for 9.6.  EPA REPORTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION9.6. EPA REPORTING OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION
9.6.1. Automobile Pollution Rankings
9.6.2. Envirofacts
9.6.3. Sector Facility Indexing (SFI)
9.7. PROPOSITION 65
9.8. HOT SPOTS ACT
Hide details for 9.9.  LABELING SCHEMES9.9. LABELING SCHEMES
9.9.1. OSHA Warning Labels
9.9.2. FTC Guidelines for Environmental Marketing Claims
9.9.3. Green Seal and Other Seals of Approval
9.9.4. Single-Attribute Labels
9.9.5. Report Cards and Information Disclosure
9.9.6. Energy Efficiency Labeling
9.9.7. Hazard Labels
9.10. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AWARDS
9.11. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
9.12. SUMMARY
Hide details for [<img src="/EE/epa/eed.nsf/dot_clear.gif?OpenImageResource" width=10 height=10 border=0>]10. VOLUNTARY PROGRAM10. VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS
10.1. BACKGROUND
Hide details for 10.2.  FEDERAL INITIATIVES: CLIMATE CHANGE10.2. FEDERAL INITIATIVES: CLIMATE CHANGE
10.2.1. Green Lights
Hide details for 10.2.2.  Energy Star Partnership Program10.2.2. Energy Star Partnership Program
10.2.2.1. Energy Star Buildings
10.2.2.2. Energy Star Products
10.2.2.3. Energy Star Homes
10.2.3. Climate Wise
10.2.4. WasteWise
10.2.5. Methane Reduction Programs
10.2.6. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
10.2.7. Natural Gas Star Program
10.2.8. Agstar Program
10.2.9. Assessment of Climate Change Programs
Hide details for 10.3.  PUBLIC VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES: POLLUTION PREVENTION10.3. PUBLIC VOLUNTARY INITIATIVES: POLLUTION PREVENTION
10.3.1. 33/50 Program
10.3.2. Design for the Environment (DfE)
10.3.3. Environmental Accounting Project (EAP)
10.3.4. Environmental Leadership Program (ELP)
10.3.5. Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency (WAVE)
10.3.6. Community-Based Environmental Protection (CBEP)
10.3.7. Voluntary Mobile Source Emission Reduction Program (VMEP)
10.3.8. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)
10.3.9. Commuter Choice Leadership Initiative
10.4. INDUSTRY INITIATIVES
Hide details for 10.5.  FEDERAL NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS10.5. FEDERAL NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS
10.5.1. Project XL
10.5.2. Common Sense Initiative (CSI)
10.6. AN ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION PREVENTION EFFORTS
10.7. VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS DEVELOPED BY EPA REGIONS
Hide details for 10.8.  STATE PROGRAMS10.8. STATE PROGRAMS
10.8.1. Massachusetts Recycled Newsprint Program
10.8.2. Adopt-a-Highway Programs
10.8.3. State Voluntary Cleanup Programs
10.9. CONCLUSIONS
APPENDIX 1. BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX 2. ABOUT THE REPORT


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