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The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Pollution Control: By Media

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The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Pollution Control

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Hide details for AirAir
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
2.2.6. Reinventing Environmental Regulations
2.3.2. EPA Air and Water Policy Initiatives
2.4. LEGISLATION: CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS OF 1990
4.3. AIR EMISSION FEES
4.3.1. Permit Fees
4.3.1.1. Air Emission Permit Fees in Maine
4.3.1.2. Emission Permit Fees for South Coast Air Quality Management District
4.3.1.3. California "Hot Spots" Fees
4.3.2. Ozone Non-Attainment Area Fees
4.5.1.3. Ozone-depleting Chemicals
4.5.2.6. Texas Clean Fuel Incentive Surcharge
4.6. ROAD USER FEES
6.1. TRADING IN CLEAN AIR ACT PROGRAMS: AN OVERVIEW
6.2. FOUNDATIONS OF AIR EMISSION TRADING
6.2.1. Offset Program
6.2.2. Bubble Policy
6.2.3. Banking
6.2.4. Netting
6.2.5. Evaluation of Early Emission Trading Activities
6.3. ACID RAIN ALLOWANCE TRADING
6.3.1. Allowances
6.3.2. Monitoring and Compliance
6.3.3. Allowance Auction
6.3.4. Transaction Costs
6.3.5. Results
6.4. NOx REGIONAL OZONE PROGRAMS
6.4.1. OTC NOx Budget Program
6.4.2. NOx Budget Trading Program
6.5. CHLOROFLUOROCARBON (CFC) PRODUCTION ALLOWANCE TRADING
6.6. LEAD CREDIT TRADING
6.8. TIER 2 EMISSION STANDARDS
6.9. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK ENGINE EMISSION AVERAGING
6.10. CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY (CAFE) STANDARDS
6.11. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT (HAP) EARLY REDUCTION
6.11.1. The Petroleum Industry NESHAP
6.11.2. Hazardous Organic Chemical NESHAP
6.12. REGIONAL CLEAN AIR INCENTIVES MARKET (RECLAIM)
6.13. OTHER STATE PROGRAMS
6.13.1. Illinois Emission Reduction Market System
6.13.2. Michigan Emissions Trading Program
6.13.3. New Jersey Emission Trading Program
6.13.4. Texas Emissions Trading Program
6.13.5. Pennsylvania Emission Reduction Credit System
6.13.6. Wood Stove and Fireplace Permit Trading (Colorado)
6.13.7. Grass-Burning Permit Trading (Washington)
6.16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
7.7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND LOW-EMITTING VEHICLES
7.7.2. State Subsidies
7.7.3. Car Buyback Schemes
7.8. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CONSERVATION
8.4.4. Clean Air Act (CAA)
9.8. HOT SPOTS ACT
10.2.5. Methane Reduction Programs
10.2.6. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
10.2.7. Natural Gas Star Program
Hide details for LandLand
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
2.2.5. National Performance Review
4.7. WETLAND COMPENSATION FEES
4.8. GRAZING FEES
4.9. MINNESOTA CONTAMINATION TAX
5.7. PERFORMANCE BONDS
6.15. WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING
7.3. BROWNFIELDS PROGRAMS
7.3.1. EPA Pilot Project Grants
7.3.2. Tax Incentives and Loans
7.4. FARMING AND LAND PRESERVATION
7.4.1. Conservation Reserve Program
7.4.2. Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program
7.4.3. Wetlands Reserve Program
7.4.4. Compliance Provisions
7.4.5. Highly Erodible Land Conservation Compliance and "Sodbuster"
7.4.6. Swampbuster Program
7.4.7. Subsidy Programs Created under 1996 Farm Bill
7.4.8. Impacts of Conservation Programs
7.4.9. State Initiatives
7.4.10. Purchase of Development Rights
7.11.1. Subsidies for Timber, Minerals, and Water Extraction
8.2. LIABILITY FOR CLEANUP COSTS
8.3. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO NATURAL RESOURCES
8.4.1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
8.4.2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
Hide details for MultimediaMultimedia
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
3.3. INCENTIVE-BASED MECHANISMS
3.3.2. Deposit-Refund Systems
3.3.3. Marketable Permit Systems
3.3.5. Liability for Harm Caused by Pollution
3.3.6. Information Disclosure
3.4. RELATIVE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
3.6. IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
3.7. FINDING THE RIGHT INSTRUMENT FOR THE PROBLEM
4.1. INTRODUCTION
4.5. PRODUCT CHARGES
4.5.1. Federal Product Charges
6. TRADING SYSTEMS
7.1. INTRODUCTION
7.2. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
7.2.2. Louisiana Environmental Scorecard
7.2.3. Supplemental Environmental Projects
7.11. SUBSIDIES THAT MAY HARM THE ENVIRONMENT
7.11.3. Mortgage Interest Tax Deduction
8. LIABILITY APPROACHES
8.4. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY
8.5. TORT LIABILITY
9.1. BACKGROUND
9.2. NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA)
9.3. EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW ACT (EPCRA)
9.3.2. Incentive Effect of the Toxics Release Inventory
9.4. STATE CHEMICAL REPORTING PROGRAMS
9.4.1. Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Act
9.4.2. New Jersey Reporting Requirements
9.9. LABELING SCHEMES
9.11. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS
10.7. VOLUNTARY PROGRAMS DEVELOPED BY EPA REGIONS
Hide details for Solid wasteSolid waste
3.3.4. Subsidies for Reducing Pollution or Improving the Environment
4.4. WASTE FEES
4.4.1. Variable Pricing Programs
4.4.2. Landfill Taxes
4.4.3. Hazardous Waste Taxes
4.5.2. State Product Charges
4.5.2.1. Tire Charges
4.5.2.3. Rhode Island Hard-to-Dispose Material Tax
4.5.2.5. North Carolina ADF
5.1. INTRODUCTION
5.2. BEVERAGE CONTAINERS
5.2.1. Maine Bottle Deposit System
5.2.2. California Beverage Container Recycling Program
5.2.3. Summary of Beverage Deposit/Refund Systems
5.3. LEAD-ACID BATTERIES
5.4. MAINE PESTICIDE CONTAINER DEPOSIT SYSTEM
5.5. OTHER PRODUCTS
5.6. VOLUNTARY DEPOSIT SCHEMES
7.5. CONSUMER PRODUCT WASTE MANAGEMENT
7.5.1. Advance Disposal Fee Systems
7.5.2. Deposit Handling Fees
7.5.3. Recycling Loans and Grants
7.5.4. Tax Incentives
7.5.5. Preferential Procurement of Recycled Products
7.5.6. Recycled Content Policies
7.6. NEW JERSEY'S INFORMATION AWARDS PROGRAM
10.8.1. Massachusetts Recycled Newsprint Program
Hide details for Toxic substancesToxic substances
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
2.2.4. Greening the Government
4.4.3. Hazardous Waste Taxes
Hide details for WaterWater
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PURPOSE OF REPORT
1.2. SCOPE OF THE REPORT
2. GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ECONOMIC INCENTIVES
2.2.5. National Performance Review
2.2.6. Reinventing Environmental Regulations
2.3.2. EPA Air and Water Policy Initiatives
4.2. WATER FEES
4.2.1. Indirect Discharge and User Fees
4.2.2. Direct Discharge Fees
4.2.3. Some State Effluent Permitting Fees
4.2.4. Stormwater Runoff Fees
4.5.2. State Product Charges
4.5.2.2. Fertilizer Charges
4.5.2.3. Rhode Island Hard-to-Dispose Material Tax
6.14. EFFLUENT TRADING
6.14.1. Effluent Bubble
6.14.2. Effluent Trading: Point-to-Point
6.14.3.1. Dillon Reservoir
6.14.3.2. Cherry Creek Reservoir
6.14.3.3. Tar Pamlico Basin
7.4.7. Subsidy Programs Created under 1996 Farm Bill
7.9. MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION
7.11.1. Subsidies for Timber, Minerals, and Water Extraction
7.11.2. Agriculture
8.3. LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE TO NATURAL RESOURCES
8.4.2. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)
8.4.3. Clean Water Act (CWA)
9.5. DRINKING WATER CONSUMER CONFIDENCE REPORT
10.3.5. Water Alliances for Voluntary Efficiency (WAVE)


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