Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions under the Federal Air Rules for Reservations
Federal Air Rules for Reservations (FARR)
Regional Tribal Air Information
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The Federal Air Rules for Reservations (FARR) establishes a program to control fugitive dust produced by sources located on Indian Reservations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
What is fugitive particulate matter?
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Particulate matter is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air. Fugitive particulate matter is particulate matter that has not passed through a stack (such as a chimneys, pipe, vent, or duct) before being released to the air. Fugitive dust is also considered to be fugitive particulate matter. Fugitive dust is particulate matter released into the air by wind or other similar forces.
Why is it important to limit particulate matter?
High levels of particulate matter in the air can affect human health. Particulate matter can reach deep into the lungs and cause respiratory problems. For example, particulate matter is linked to aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis, and premature death.
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Who does this rule apply to?
This rule applies to anyone who owns or operates an air pollution source that produces fugitive particulate matter within each of the 39 Indian reservations in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington specified in the FARR.
This rule does not apply to:
- Open burning
- Single family homes or residential buildings that have four or fewer apartments or housing units
- Agricultural activities
- Forestry and silvicultural activities
- Non-commercial smokehouses
- Sweat houses or lodges
- Public roads that are owned or maintained by any federal, tribal, state, or local government.
Fact Sheet: FARR Rule for Limiting Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions (PDF) (2 pp. 45K) - April 2005
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What are the requirements?
This rule limits the amount of fugitive particulate matter that can be produced by certain air pollution sources. The rule has three main requirements:
The owner or operator of a source of fugitive particulate matter emissions must take actions to prevent fugitive particulate matter emissions. Owners or operators performing materials handling or storage, construction or demolition must also take these actions. In addition, the source of the fugitive particulate matter (for example, a piece of equipment) must be maintained and operated in a way that the emissions are minimized.
Actions that may be taken to prevent and minimize fugitive particulate matter emissions are listed below. However, owners and operators of air pollution sources may take other actions that are also effective.
- Air pollution sources must take actions to prevent and minimize fugitive particulate matter emissions. The rule describes various methods that air pollution sources can use to prevent and minimize the emissions;
- Air pollution sources must perform a survey to see if any fugitive particulate matter emissions are being produced.
- If fugitive particulate matter emissions sources are found during the survey, a written plan must be prepared that lists the actions that will be taken to prevent the fugitive particulate matter emissions. For construction or demolition activities, a written plan must be prepared prior to commencing construction or demolition.
Owners or operators of air pollution sources must perform a survey to see if any fugitive particulate matter emissions are being produced.
- Use water or chemicals to control dust during building demolition, construction, road grading, or land clearing.
- Use asphalt, oil (not used oil), water, or other chemicals on unpaved roads, materials stockpiles, and other surfaces that can release dust into the air.
- Enclose materials stockpiles if using oil, water, or chemicals is not effective.
- Use good housekeeping methods to reduce the build-up of dusty materials that can enter the air. Clean up spilled or materials already built-up promptly.
- Install hoods, fans, and fabric filters to enclose and vent dusty materials.
- Contain fugitive particulate matter when performing sandblasting or similar activities.
- Cover open-bodied trucks when the truck is carrying materials that can be released into the air.
- Remove earth or other material that can be carried into the air promptly from paved streets.
If fugitive particulate matter emissions sources are found during the survey, the owner or operator is required to take additional actions:
- Survey frequency: The survey must be performed yearly. For new air pollution sources or new operations, a survey must be performed within 30 days of the start of the operations.
- Survey conditions: The survey must be performed during typical operating and weather conditions.
- Survey documentation: The survey results; the date and time of the survey; and the sources of any fugitive particulate matter that is found must be documented.
EPA can require the owner or operator to take specific actions to prevent fugitive particulate matter emissions. EPA can also require the air pollution source to be operated and maintained under specific conditions. The permit-to-construct or permit-to-operate would specify these actions and conditions.
- Identify actions that will be taken to prevent the fugitive particulate matter emissions.
- Prepare and implement a written plan that lists the actions that will be taken to prevent the fugitive particulate matter emissions. Monitoring and recordkeeping procedures must be included. The plan must be updated after each yearly survey.
- For construction or demolition activities, the written plan must be prepared before beginning operations.
- Maintain records that document the yearly surveys and the actions taken to prevent the emissions.
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Sample Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions Surveys and Prevention Implementation Plans
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When did the rule take effect?
This rule was effective June 7, 2005. The rule was published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2005 (67 FR 18074).