Residual Risk and Risk Assessment
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Description of Risk Management Program (aka 112(r))
Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) sets forth a series of requirements aimed at preventing and minimizing
the consequences associated with chemical accidental releases. These requirements are the basis of EPA's rule on "Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention" (the Rule) promulgated on June 20, 1996. The Rule applies to facilities (both public and private) that manufacture, process, use, store, or otherwise handle regulated substances at or above specified threshold quantities ranging from 500-20,000 pounds. EPA estimates that approximately 66,000 facilities nationwide will be regulated under the Rule. Some of these facilities are large, while a great number are small- to medium-size facilities, such as propane distributors and users, drinking water chlorination plants, and ammonia refrigeration facilities.
The Rule requires all regulated facilities to prepare and execute a risk management program which contains the following elements:
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- A hazard assessment to determine the consequences of worst case scenario and other accidental release scenarios on public and environmental receptors and provide a summary of the facility's five year accident history of accidental releases.
- An accidental release prevention program designed to detect, prevent and minimize accidental releases.
- An emergency response program designed to deal with any accidental release in order to protect both human health and the environment.
- A risk management plan (RMP) which summarizes the facility's risk management program and which must be submitted to a central point that will be designated by EPA. All RMPs will be made available to appropriate State and local agencies and the public.
Residual Risk Regulations
U.S. EPA must assess the remaining health risks from sources categories. U.S. EPA has started to shift its focus to the residual risk assessments for some Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. If results show there is significant risk remaining, U.S. EPA would implement additional standards. See a description of the National Risk Management Program from the Chemical Emergency Preparednes and Prevention Unit.In addition to the stationary source air toxics program efforts listed above, U.S. EPA continues to address air toxics associated with Mobile Sources, Indoor Air (which includes but is not limited to asthma, mold, secondhand smoke, and radon) and Atmospheric Deposition (which includes but is not limited to dioxin, mercury, nitrogen, and pesticides).
Risk Assessment in Region 10
Residual Risk and Risk assessment is a programmatic goal within the EPA and throughout the region through state and local agencies.
- Toxic Air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants (HAP). There are 188 regulated air toxics that are emitted into the environment by human activities for their effects on human health and ecosystems. The EPA Air Toxics Program is moving from a technology based to a risk based approach. The residual risk and risk assessment program is based on section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act.
Human Health and Risk Assessment Information Sources
Air Toxics Community Assessment and Risk Reduction Projects Database
EPA Region 10- Ecological Risk Assessment Unit
State and Local Agency Risk Based Programs
Frequently Asked Questions