Questions and Answers: Frequently Asked Questions about Air Quality | Region 10 | US EPA

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Questions and Answers: Frequently Asked Questions about Air Quality

General- All Air Quality FAQ
Air Toxics
Emissions Inventory
MACT Part 63
Mercury
NSPS Part 60/ 62
NESHAP Part 61/Part 63
Residual Risk/Risk Assessment

Indoor Air
Indoor Air Quality
Asbestos
Asthma
Radon

Permits
NSR
Title V Operating Permits
If you don't find you questions listed, please contact us and submit your question.

General- All Air Quality
Acid Rain
Agricultural Burning
Air Pollution
Air Pollution Complaints
Air Toxics
Asbestos
Asthma
Carbon Monoxide
CFCs and Stratospheric Ozone
Cleaner Diesel Fuel
Construction Permits
Criteria Air Pollutants
Delegations
Diesel Particulate Matter
Emissions Inventory
Enforcement
Federal Register Notices
Grants
Grants, Tribal
Indoor Air Quality
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)
Mercury
Mobile Sources
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Part 61/Part 63
Nitrogen Oxides
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Part 60/ 62
New Source Review (NSR)
MACT Part 63
Oceanic Continental Shelf (OCS)
Ozone/Stratospheric and Ground level
Particulate Matter
Permits
Pollution Prevention
PSD (Dan)
Public Notices
Radiation
Radon
Residual Risk/Risk Assessment
SIP
Title V
Training and Education
Tribal Rules in Region 10
Tribal Implementation plans
Acid Rain
What causes acidic deposition?
Acid deposition - commonly called acid rain - is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Although natural sources of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides do exist, more than 90% of the sulphur and 95% of the nitrogen emissions occurring in eastern North America are of human origin. These primary air pollutants arise from the use of coal in the production of electricity, from base-metal smelting, and from fuel combustion in vehicles. Once released into the atmosphere, they can be converted chemically into such secondary pollutants as nitric acid and sulfuric acid, both of which dissolve easily in water. The resulting acidic water droplets can be carried long distances by prevailing winds, returning to Earth as acid rain, snow, or fog.

What is acid rain?
"Acid rain" is a broad term used to describe several ways that acids fall out of the atmosphere. A more precise term is acid deposition, which has two parts: wet (rain, fog, and snow) and dry (particles and gases).
Acid rain's effects include:

The specific effects and their severity depends on several factors, including soil and surface water chemistry, the amount of air pollution that creates acid rain, and the specific species involved. For more information, see the acid rain home page.

Agricultural Burning
What are the local regulations for agricultural burning in my area?
Local burning restrictions vary with current atmospheric and weather conditions. To check whether or not there is a burning restriction in your area check the local air pollution authority that oversees your county or state.(state and local weblinks page)

What are the effects of agricultural burning?
Burning agricultural waste is a source of particulate matter and other criteria pollutants. It can greatly effect the regional air quality, visibility and ground level ozone potential.

Where can I get a burn permit?
Contact your state or local agency for a permit availability and a allocation location near you..

Air Pollution Complaints
Where do I go to make a complaint about air pollution in my area?
All complaints about violations of air quality, whether from a point source or general regional air quality, should go to the local air pollution authority. See State and local contacts page.

Carbon Monoxide
What are health effects of Carbon Monoxide?
When we breathe air containing carbon monoxide, it is absorbed through the bloodstream where it displaces oxygen and bonds with the hemoglobin in your blood. Carbon monoxide has a greater affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen; CO bonds to hemoglobin about 250 times better than oxygen. Without oxygen, vital organs, your heart and brain become deprived and will begin to deteriorate. To compensate, your heart rate increases, breathing may become difficult and in the most serious circumstances cardiac trauma, brain damage, coma and even death will result.

What are the health effects of Carbon Monoxide?
When we breathe air containing carbon monoxide, it is absorbed through the bloodstream where it displaces oxygen and bonds with the hemoglobin in your blood. Carbon monoxide has a greater affinity to hemoglobin than oxygen; CO bonds to hemoglobin about 250 times better than oxygen. Without oxygen, vital organs, your heart and brain become deprived and will begin to deteriorate. To compensate, your heart rate increases, breathing may become difficult and in the most serious circumstances cardiac trauma, brain damage, coma and even death will result.

What are the sources of Carbon Monoxide at home?
Clogged chimney, wood stove, wood and gas fireplace, automobile garage, gas and water heater, gas appliances, gas or kerosene heater, cigarette smoke.

CFC's and the Ozone Layer
What are CFC's?
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. They are used in the manufacture of aerosol sprays, blowing agents for foams and packing materials, as solvents, and as refrigerants. CFC= s react with sunlight in the earth's stratosphere to break down the protective ozone layer, a layer of gas that shields the earths surface from damaging UV-B rays.

What are ozone and the ozone layer?
Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms. The oxygen we breathe (O2) is similar but has only two oxygen atoms. High up in a region of the upper atmosphere known as the stratosphere, light rays can break down breathable oxygen into two individual oxygen atoms. Single oxygen atoms are quite reactive, and ozone is formed when one of these lone oxygens bump into and combine with O2.
But ozone isn't very stable either. If a high-energy light ray, in particular ultraviolet-B (UV-B), strikes an ozone molecule, it too will break down, back to the lone oxygen and O2. Other molecules naturally found in the stratosphere, such as nitrous oxide, can also react with O3 and break it down.
Over time, as the atmosphere formed, the reactions that create and break down ozone came into a dynamic equilibrium. The result was a small residual amount of ozone concentrated in a band between nine and twenty-two miles high in the stratosphere. This is the band popularly referred to as the ozone layer. But the equilibrium is delicate, and ozone is rare even in the ozone layer. For every ten million molecules of air, two million are breathable O2, and only three are ozone. Yet this small amount of ozone is enough to prevent most UV-B radiation from reaching the surface of the earth. (from UCS).

How is increased surface UV-B radiation harmful?
The harmfulness of UV-B stems from the high energy of these light rays, which allows them to penetrate deeply into water, leaves, and skin. Because of this, increased UV-B radiation can harm the metabolism of cells and even damage genetic material. Although living organisms have always been exposed to some UV-B, cellular repair mechanisms evolved to protect against its damaging effects. The problem with increased UV-B is that it causes more damage than the natural protection can cope with. Increased UV-B radiation leads to increased incidence of such problems as skin cancer, eye damage and cataracts, and possible inhibition of immune system function in humans as well as other animals. Plants also suffer under increased UV-B, and their vulnerability could result in reduced crop yields, damage to forest ecosystems, and decreased populations of phytoplankton in the world's oceans.

What has been done to protect the ozone layer?
Through extensive research, scientists identified the human-produced chemicals that are responsible for the destruction of stratospheric ozone. As evidence emerged on the extent of the threat to the ozone layer, the international community agreed to control ozone-depleting substances and schedule a timetable for completely phasing them out. This agreement is known as the Montreal Protocol and is a monumental achievement in international cooperation and environmental protection. Furthermore, the protocol provides for an on-going process so that, as the scientific understanding of ozone depletion improved, the phasing out process could be accelerated. The agreement also provides a powerful precedent for similar international efforts to deal with global warming and loss of biodiversity.

In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with enforcing the terms of the Montreal Protocol. The treaty provisions are given the force of law through the Clean Air Act of 1990. Accordingly, chlorofluorocarbon, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform production ended at the end of 1995; methyl bromide is currently scheduled to be phased out by 2001; and all hydrochlorofluorocarbons will be phased out by 2030.

Is ozone depletion related to global warming?
No. Ozone depletion and global warming are separate problems, though some agents contribute to both. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the principle cause of ozone deletion, but they also happen to be potent heat-trapping gases. Still, CFCs are responsible for less than 10 percent of total atmospheric warming, far less than the 63 percent contribution of carbon dioxide. Thus, attention paid to CFCs has been on their ozone depletion role. This will change as CFCs are phased out and replaced by hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs such as R-134a). These chemicals have little or no effect on the ozone layer but are strong heat-trapping gases. As their concentration in the atmosphere is already rising, the likely net effect in the future is that reductions in the CFC-related contribution to global warming will be offset by the presence of HCFCs and HFCs. (UCS)
Link to CFC website

Cleaner Diesel fuel
What is ultra low sulfur diesel?
Because of the harmful effects that diesel fuel emissions can have on human health and the environment, the EPA has imposed a new rule requiring cleaner diesel fuel to be sold by September 2006 for use in large diesel trucks and buses.

What is biodiesel?
Biodiesel is a clean burning mono-alkyl ester-based oxygenated fuel, made from vegetable oil, cooking grease, or animal fats. Currently, the most common source is virgin rapeseed oil, with biodiesel also being processed from recycled frying oils. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be domestically produced from agricultural resources, simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic and free of sulfur and aromatic compounds and meets the 2007 sulfur standards. Biodiesel is registered as a fuel and fuel additive with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and meets clean diesel standards established by the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Neat biodiesel fuel (100% biodiesel) has been designated as an alternative fuel by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT).

What are ASTM standards? (Biodiesel.org)
All engines are designed and manufactured for a fuel that has certain characteristics. In the US, the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the case of diesel fuel (and biodiesel), the responsibility for setting standards lies within ASTM Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants. In order to assure that the standards are rigorous and robust, ASTM committee D02 is comprised of fuel producers, engine equipment manufacturers, and third party interests (users, government agencies, consultants). ASTM also uses a complicated ballot process in which a single negative vote is enough to defeat a ballot, so this is a true consensus organization. An ASTM standard is not easily achieved. Some standards can take over 10 years to gain agreement and be issued by ASTM. This rigorous, time-consuming process is why ASTM standards are recognized and adopted by others worldwide.

ASTM fuel standards are the minimum accepted values for properties of the fuel to provide adequate customer satisfaction and/or protection. For diesel fuel, the ASTM standard is ASTM D 975. All engine and fuel injection manufacturers design their engines around ASTM D 975. In cooperative discussions with the engine community early in the biodiesel industry's development, engine manufacturers strongly encouraged the biodiesel industry to develop an ASTM standard for biodiesel fuel which would allow them to provide their customers with a more definitive judgment on how the fuel would affect engine and fuel system operations compared to ASTM D 957 fuel for which an engine was designed.
National Biodiesel Board Website

Delegations
Diesel Particulate Matter (region 1)
What is Diesel Particulate Matter?
Diesel particulate matter is part of a complex mixture that makes up diesel exhaust. Diesel exhaust is commonly found throughout the environment. Diesel exhaust is composed of two phases, either gas or particle and both phases contribute to the risk. The gas phase is composed
of many of the urban hazardous air pollutants, such as acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The particle phase also has many different types of particles that can be classified by size or composition. The size of diesel particulates that are of greatest health concern are those that are in the categories of fine, and ultra fine particles. The composition of these fine and ultra fine particles maybe composed of elemental carbon with adsorbed compounds such as organic compounds, sulfate, nitrate, metals and other trace elements. Diesel exhaust is emitted from a broad range of diesel engines; the on road diesel engines of trucks, buses and cars and the off road diesel engines that include locomotives, marine vessels and heavy duty equipment.

How Do I Get Exposed to Diesel Particulate Matter?
The most common exposure pathway is breathing the air that contains the diesel particulate matter. The fine and ultra fine particles are respirable which means that they can avoid many of the human respiratory system defense mechanisms and enter deeply into the lung. In the National Scale Assessment, there are several steps used to characterize public health risks. For diesel particulate matter, not all of the steps could be completed but a qualitative assessment was provided that provided modeling estimates of population exposures. The estimated population exposure concentrations for diesel particulate matter were the highest exposure concentrations in all of the New England states. EPA has medium confidence in the overall NATA estimate for diesel particulate exposure based on the emissions and exposure modeling.. Exposure to diesel particulate matter comes from both on road and off road engine exhaust that is either directly emitted from the engines or aged through lingering in the atmosphere.

How Can Diesel Particulate Matter Affect My Health?
Diesel exhaust causes health effects from both short term or acute exposures and also long term chronic exposures, such as repeated occupational exposures. The type and severity of health effects depends upon several factors including the amount of chemical you are exposed to and the length of time you are exposed. Individuals also react differently to different levels of exposure. There is limited information on exposure to just diesel particulate matter but there is enough evidence to indicate that inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust causes acute and chronic health effects.

Acute exposure to diesel exhaust may cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs, some neurological effects such as lightheadedness. Acute exposure may also elicit a cough or nausea as well as exacerbate asthma. Chronic exposure in experimental animal inhalation studies have shown a range of dose dependent lung inflammation and cellular changes in the lung and there are also diesel exhaust immunological effects. Based upon human and laboratory studies, there is considerable evidence that diesel exhaust is a likely carcinogen. Human epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between diesel exhaust exposure and increased lung cancer rates in occupational settings.

At What Levels Should I Be Concerned?

EPA's National Scale Assessment uses several types of health hazard information to provide a quantitative "threshold of concern" or a health benchmark concentration at which it is expected that no adverse health effects occur at exposures to that level. Health effects information on carcinogenic, short and long term noncarcinogenic end points are used to establish selective protective health levels to compare to the modeled exposures levels. Unfortunately the exposure response data in human studies are considered too uncertain to develop a carcinogenic unit risk for EPA's use. There is a Reference Concentration (RFC) that is used as a health benchmark protective of chronic noncarcinogenic health effects but it is for diesel exhaust and not specifically set for diesel particulate matter which is what was modeled in NATA. The RFC for diesel exhaust, which includes diesel particulate matter is 5 ug/m3. This value is similar to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard established for fine particulate matter which is 15ug/m3.

What Can I Do To Minimize My Risk?

Avoid idling if you have a diesel vehicle, this means turn off your engine when your vehicle is not in motion. Keep your diesel vehicle well tuned and maintained. If possible, retrofit diesel engines with pollution control devices. If purchasing trucks or buses, consider buying those that meet EPA's new standards ahead of schedule.
Health Assessment Document for Diesel Exhaust EPA HQ

Enforcement

Federal Register Notices

Where can I obtain information that has been published in the Federal Register Notice?

You can link to the FRN website at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html

How do I comment on a proposed FRN?

In the draft FRN, a request for Public Comments with their time frame is indicated in the draft when it is issued along with a contact person. If there are no comments after the 30-day period, the federal register will be published as final.

How can I obtain a copy of the Code of Federal Regulations?

The EPA will usually receive an updated version for their staff. You can request a copy of their previous versions that some keep as a surplus.

Grants

NOx (Nitrous Oxides)

Where does NOx come from?
Natural sources of nitrogen oxides (NOx) include volcanoes, lightening strikes and biological decay. Estimates range from between 20 million and 90 million tons per year NOx released from natural sources, compared to around 24 million tons from human sources world-wide. Nitrogen oxides are produced when fossil fuels are burned. The major sources of NOx in the UK in 1999 were road transport (44%), power stations (21%) and industry (including iron and steel, and refineries) (12%).

What are effects of NOx on Air Quality?
health effects of nitrogen oxides are similar to those caused by ozone. However, health effects of nitrogen oxides only occur when higher concentrations are absorbed. Nitrogen oxides are fashioned during high-temperature combustion.
What is done to regulate NOx emissions by mobile and stationary sources?
Various control technologies are applied to combustion technologies. For a full description of the regulations imposed on NOx by the EPA please see the page describing NOx as a criteria pollutant.
http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/nox/effrt.html

Ozone/Stratospheric and Ground level

What is ozone?

Ozone is a gas that is made up of three oxygen atoms (O3 ). Ozone is classified as either stratospheric (good ozone) or ground level (bad ozone.

What difference between stratospheric and ground level ozone?
Stratospheric ozone or A good ozone is a layer surrounding the earths atmosphere. It protects all life on earth from the damaging effects of the sun's rays. Ground level ozone is formed by a photochemical reaction between atmospheric oxygen (O2) and smog forming chemicals at the earths surface. It is odorless and colorless, but can have profound effects on the human respiratory system.

What is the Ozone Hole?
The ozone hole is a well-defined, large-scale destruction of the ozone layer over Antarctica that occurs each Antarctic spring. The word "hole" is misnomer; the hole is really a significant thinning, or reduction in ozone concentrations, which results in the destruction of up to 70% of the ozone normally found over Antarctica. The A hole or A thinning of the ozone layer is a result of a heat catalyzed reaction between Chloroflorocarbon and Ozone that breaks it down into atmospheric oxygen (O2) and an oxygen radical. Once ozone is broken down, it takes a much more energy and time to react back into its original form.

Particulate Matter

What is particulate matter?

Particulate matter, or PM, is the term for particles found in the air, including dust, dirt, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Particles can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. Some particles are large or dark enough to be seen as soot or smoke. Others are so small that individually they can only be detected with an electron microscope. Some particles are directly emitted into the air. They come from a variety of sources such as cars, trucks, buses, factories, construction sites, tilled fields, unpaved roads, stone crushing, and burning of wood. Other particles may be formed in the air from the chemical change of gases. They are indirectly formed when gases from burning fuels react with sunlight and water vapor. These can result from fuel combustion in motor vehicles, at power plants, and in other industrial processes.

How does particulate matter adversely affect human health and the environment?

Many scientific studies have linked breathing PM to a series of significant health problems, including: aggravated asthma increases in respiratory symptoms like coughing and difficult or painful breathing chronic bronchitis decreased lung function premature death. Particulate matter can also cause visual impairment and is a major cause of reduced visibility or A haze that is a common problem in many of our national parks and urban areas. PM can cause deposition of heavy metals and other environmental solids that contaminate soil and water across large distances. This long range deposition can, making lakes and streams acidic changing the nutrient balance in coastal waters and large river basins depleting the nutrients in soil damaging sensitive forests and farm crops affecting the diversity of ecosystems.

What current regulations are used to help prevent particulate matter in the NW?

For an updated report of current PM legislation go to EPA 's PM website

Pollution Prevention
What is pollution prevention?
Pollution Prevention (P2), also known as "source reduction," is any practice which reduces, eliminates, or prevents pollution at its source. By reducing the total amount of pollution that is produced, there is less waste to control, treat, or dispose of, and there are less hazards posed to public health and the environment. As Benjamin Franklin once said, "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."

How can pollution prevention be achieved?

Pollution may be prevented by many types of approaches. Reduction of pollutants can be achieved by using raw materials, energy, and water more efficiently. Conserving and protecting natural resources can also reduce the amount of waste produced.
Actions which may prevent and reduce pollution include:
product redesign
substitution of raw materials
process or equipment modifications
improvements in maintenance, training, inventory control, or housekeeping

Why is pollution prevention important?

Preventing pollution offers important benefits, as pollution never created avoids the need for expensive investments in waste management and cleanup. By anticipating the future, pollution prevention reduces both financial costs (waste management and cleanup) and real environmental costs (health problems and environmental damage). As a result, pollution prevention holds the exciting potential of protecting the environment and strengthening economic growth through more efficient production and natural resource use.

How does pollution prevention fit into national policy?

Pollution prevention has been declared the "environmental policy of the United States." Under Section 6602(b) of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, Congress established a national policy to prioritize environmental management. Pollution prevention was identified as the highest priority. The ranking of environmental management strategies is as follows:
1.Prevention--reduce pollution at the source
2.Reuse--reuse/recycle when you can not reduce
3.Treatment--treat pollution when you can not reduce or
reuse/recycle
4.Disposal--safely dispose of pollution as a last resort

For more information on EPA's P2 Policy Statement, Statement of Definition, or Framework for P2, or on the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, visit our national EPA Pollution
Prevention Web site.
Public Notices
How do I submit a public notice?
For Title V part 70 contact Doug Hardesty
For Title V part 71 contact Lester Keel
For NSPS/NESHAP part 60/61/63 contact Lucita Valiere
Radiation
What is radioactivity?
Some atoms (for instance uranium) are unstable and tend to change into other types of atoms. When they change they release energy and sometimes particles.These atoms are radioactive and the energy or particles released is radiation. Radiation can damage materials, including living tissue.

Is all radioactivity manmade?
We don't usually think about it, but radioactivity is part of the natural world. We are all exposed to background radiation which includes cosmic rays, radon, and radioactive materials (like uranium) in rocks and soil. Background varies with location. Radiation exposure in Denver, for instance, is generally higher than in Seattle because of differences in altitude and natural radioactivity in the environment. There is no indication, however, that Denver cancer risks are any higher as a result.

What about radiation risks?
Generally speaking there are high levels and low levels of radiation exposure . High levels include atomic bomb exposures and exposures from some industrial accidents. We know that people exposed to high levels of radiation can become sick. Radiation sickness or poisoning can occur within days or weeks of exposure. People exposed to high levels also have an increased risk of cancer over the long term. Low levels of exposure (such as from regulated sources and background exposures) are different. They are not high enough to cause radiation sickness. When it comes to cancer risk, the data on effects is all based on high level exposures. It is not known for certain whether or not low levels of exposure increase cancer risk. To be protective for public health purposes, the assumption is generally made that even small exposures could have some risk. Therefore exposures are reduced as much as practical.

Are some types of radiation worse than others?
Different radiations present different kinds of problems. Gamma radiation is like X-rays: penetrating and shielded by lead and other dense materials. Note that x-ray machines are not radioactive. They create radiation when turned on. Beta radiation often accompanies gamma and consists of energetic electrons. Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons (the nucleus of a helium atom). They do not penetrate paper or skin, but could be of concern if inhaled or ingested. For alpha, protecting from inhalation or ingestion is the first concern. For gamma, most of the exposure comes from the radiation field produced by the source (like an x-ray beam). Reducing time of exposure, increasing distance from the source, and using shielding are standard methods for controlling gamma radiation exposure. Some radioactive materials target specific organs (radioactive iodine targets the thyroid).

Are microwaves and radio waves radiation?
Microwaves and radio waves are a kind of electromagnetic radiation, but they lack the energy needed to break chemical bonds in cells. They are called A non-ionizing radiation to distinguish them from higher energy radiation such as gamma rays. Non-ionizing radiation has not been shown to cause the same health effects as ionizing radiation.

What is my largest source of radiation exposure?
By far the average person's largest source of radiation exposure is from naturally-occurring radiation, primarily radon indoors. Another significant source of exposure is the medically-related radiation most of us receive as part of medical exams and treatment. Exposure from regulated sources is maintained as a very small fraction of these levels.

SIP
Training and Education
Why do training and education?

Where can I find out about training and educational opportunities?

Go to the EPA region 10 training and education homepage. Here you can find an updated list of both classroom and internet based training opportunities open to the public.

I'm a teacher, where can I get environmental educational information and materials?

See tools for teachers
Tribal Programs

How is the Clean Air Act implemented on Federally Recognized Indian Reservations where states have no
jurisdiction?
The federal government has responsibility for directly administering Clean Air Act mandated programs in Indian Country in instances where a tribe is not administering provisions of these programs. EPA provides assistance to Tribes who wish to develop their own air quality regulations under the Clean Air Act for managing air quality on their reservations.

What are the types of financial assistance available to Tribes for doing work under the Clean Air Act?
In addition to grants under the EPA Indian General Assistance Program to build tribal capacity and assess environmental needs, Tribes can apply for assistance under Clean Air Act Section 103 for project to investigate the causes and prevention of air pollution and under Clean Air Act Section 105 for implementing tribal air programs to manage the air quality issues and concerns on the reservation.

What is a Quality Assurance Project Plan and its role in data collection under Clean Air Act funded activities?
An EPA-approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is required to ensure that data collected is valid and can be relied upon for its intended purpose. Grant regulations require that the QAPP be approved prior to data collection in order for associated costs to be reimbursable.

What is the purpose of the Quarterly Performance Report from grantees?
The Performance Report, typically submitted on a quarterly basis, documents the progress under the grant work plan toward completion of the agreed tasks, objectives, and deliverables. Pursuant to 40 CFR 31.40 they must contain A brief information on the following: FAQ - Air Toxics
What are Air Toxics?
A Air toxics are a class of pollutants that are impose considerable risk to ecological and human health. There are 188 hazardous air pollutants currently regulated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. For a full report on Air Toxics and their potential sources see the EPA Air Toxics Website.
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/pollsour.html

Emissions Inventory
MACT Part 63
Mercury
NSPS Part 60/Part 62
NESHAP Part 61/Part 63
Residual Risk/Risk Assessment
Emissions Inventory
MACT Part 63
What classifies as a Maximum Achievable Control Technology?
Once the categories of sources are listed, EPA will issue regulations. In some cases, EPA may have to specify exactly how to reduce pollutant releases, but wherever possible companies will have flexibility to choose how they meet requirements. Sources are to use Maximum Available Control Technology (MACT) to reduce pollutant releases; this is a very high level of pollution control.

Where can I find affected source lists for some of the newer MACTs that are coming out?

For all of the affected source lists that are available, they are posted on-line. Go to http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/eparules.htmlclick on the Tables of Completed or Tables of Proposed Regulations, and then click on the MACT in question to see if the affected source lists are available. For some of the newer MACTs, EPA is still working on collecting or cleaning up that information.

There is also a general document posted on-line, with instructions for locating affected sources. It's posted at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/gp/gppg.html#IMP. It was written in 1996, and is called, "Source Identification Procedures for Sources Subject to Regulations under Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act as Amended in 1990.

Additional information on the upcoming MACTs is temporarily available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/112j/info/112(j)-table2.html

How do I get a listing of the sources subject to MACT in my area?

Follow this step by step approach to find MACT sources in any region:

1) go to http://www.epa.gov/idea/mact/ and select Alaska as a region.

2) use the default options and click 'submit'. This will take you to a large spreadsheet with the relevant Macts and how many facilities are in your state. Keep in mind however, that these numbers are grossly inflated. Some of the facilities are closed and the database is a bit out of date.

3) If you click on the 'view' button to the left of the spreadsheet a list of the facilities with names and addresses will pop up. Notice that many of the facilities are duplicates. I'm not quite sure the reason for this, but basically it means you should count the different OPEN facilities and not just rely on the number listed in the internet spreadsheet.

Who do I contact for more information?
Madonna Narvaez at the Seattle, WA regional office (206)-553-2117.

Mercury
I heard there is mercury in the water and fish/shellfish in the Pacific Northwest. Where does all the Mercury come from?
When elemental mercury is deposited into the air, soil or water. It often settles out and is most commonly found in alluvial sediments. Mercury is released into the environment from natural precesses like weathering of rocks and from volcanic eruptions. Its is also a product of anthropogenic activities such as incineration of waste, coal burning, mining and smelting. There are hundreds of other sources ranging from batteries and thermometers to drilling mud and municipal waste water.

Is it safe to swim in the water?
Yes. The concentration of mercury in most surface waters is extremely low- usually less than 5 parts per trillion. One part per trillion is the same as one drop of detergent in enough dish water to fill 500 swimming pools. The safety standard for drinking water is 2 parts per billion which means that most swimming water would have less mercury that the maximum allowed for drinking water.

How do people become contaminated with Mercury?
After deposition, mercury may be converted by biological processes into methyl-mercury. In this form, elemental mercury can be taken up by microscopic organisms. Mercury bio-accumulates as it goes up the food chain. By the time a fish becomes contaminated, the level of mercury consumed has been greatly concentrated. If a person eats a contaminated fish, chances are the concentrations can be 10,000 to 100,000 times higher than the level of contamination found in the surrounding water.

What are the potential health effects of Mercury contamination?
Mercury is a heavy metal that affect the human nervous systems. Most studies to date have concentrated on the effects of mercury on children born to mothers who ate large amounts of fish or whale meat during pregnancy. Some of these children scored slightly lower on standard tests and showed delayed development.

I'm pregnant (or trying). Should I eat fish?
The FDA advises against eating shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish. The FDA further notes that A seafood can be an important part of a balanced diet for pregnant women and those of childbearing age who may become pregnant . FDA advises that these women can safely eat 12 ounces per week of shellfish, smaller ocean fish or farm raised fish. Make sure to check and follow the recommendations of consumption advisories. (http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/)

How can I determine the amount of mercury in my body?
The two methods are blood and hair analysis. Hair analysis is the simplest. Your doctor or State Public Health Department may be able to recommend a laboratory that can do the analysis.

Is Mercury contamination permanent?
In the absence of additional consumption, mercury takes about 70 days to leave your body. However, it does accumulate over time and can take longer if there is a high level in the body.

NESHAP/MACT Part 61/Part 63
What are the National Emissions Standards For Hazardous Air Pollutants?
The general provisions to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) in 40 CFR Parts 60 and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63, under the Clean Air Act, provide that a source owner or operator may request a determination of whether certain intended actions constitute the commencement of construction, reconstruction, or modification. EPA's written responses to these inquiries are broadly termed applicability determinations.

The NSPS and NESHAP also allow sources to seek permission to use monitoring or recordkeeping which is different from the promulgated requirements. EPA's written responses to these inquiries are broadly termed alternative monitoring decisions.

Further, EPA responds to written inquiries about the broad range of NSPS and NESHAP regulatory requirements as they pertain to a specific source. These inquiries question whether a regulation applies to a specific source, or may relate to the testing, monitoring, recordkeeping or reporting requirements contained in the regulation as it applies to a specific source.

The EPA currently issues approximately 100 memoranda per year pertaining to NSPS and NESHAP applicability determinations and alternative monitoring decisions, and handles countless telephone and electronic mail requests from the regulated community and from State and Local Agencies implementing the NSPS and the NESHAP programs.

Who do I contact for more information about NESHAP in Region 10?

For Technical Information Contact Madonna Narvaez at (206) 553-2117. For delegation requests contact Lucita Valiere at (206) 553-8087

What is a MACT?

A maximum achievable control technology is the best available technology to abate a toxic pollutant from a given source. There are currently 35 MACT source categories regulated in the Pacific Northwest region. Sources of the same category report what works for them to economically achieve their NESHAP standards. A MACT is imposed when it is found to be the best economically achievable way to regulate a hazardous air pollutant.

Where can I find affected source lists for some of the newer MACTs that are coming out?

For all of the affected source lists that are available, they are posted on-line. Go to http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/eparules.htmlclick on the Tables of Completed or Tables of Proposed Regulations, and then click on the MACT in question to see if the affected source lists are available. For some of the newer MACTs, EPA is still working on collecting or cleaning up that information.

There is also a general document posted on-line, with instructions for locating affected sources. It's posted at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/gp/gppg.html#IMP. It was written in 1996, and is called, "Source Identification Procedures for Sources Subject to Regulations under Section 111(d) of the CAA as Amended in 1990.

Additional information on the upcoming MACTs is temporarily available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/112j/info/112(j)-table2.html

How do I get a listing of the sources subject to MACT in my area?

Follow this step by step approach to find MACT sources in any region:

1) go to http://www.epa.gov/idea/mact/ and select Alaska as a region.

2) use the default options and click 'submit'. This will take you to a large spreadsheet with the relevant Macts and how many facilities are in your state. Keep in mind however, that these numbers are grossly inflated. Some of the facilities are closed and the database is a bit out of date.

3) If you click on the 'view' button to the left of the spreadsheet a list of the facilities with names and addresses will pop up. Notice that many of the facilities are duplicates. I'm not quite sure the reason for this, but basically it means you should count the different OPEN facilities and not just rely on the number listed in the internet spreadsheet.

For Questions Contact
Madonna Narvaez
(206)553-2117

Where can I find information about the facilities subject to a MACT in my region?

1) go to http://www.epa.gov/idea/mact/ and select the state or region of choice.

2) use the default options and click 'submit'. This will take you to a large spreadsheet with the relevant Macts and how many facilities are in your state or region. Keep in mind however, that these numbers are somewhat inflated. Some of the facilities listed are non-operational.

3) If you click on the 'view' button to the left of the spreadsheet a list of the facilities with names and addresses will pop up. Notice that many of the facilities are duplicates. I'm not quite sure the reason for this, but basically it means you should count the different OPEN facilities and not just rely on the number listed in the internet spreadsheet. To view a detailed report about the facility, click on 'facility report'.

NSPS Part 60/Part62

What are New Source Performance Standards?
The general provisions to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) in 40 CFR Parts 60 and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63, under the Clean Air Act, provide that a source owner or operator may request a determination of whether certain intended actions constitute the commencement of construction, reconstruction, or modification. EPA's written responses to these inquiries are broadly termed applicability determinations.

The NSPS and NESHAP also allow sources to seek permission to use monitoring or recordkeeping which is different from the promulgated requirements. EPA's written responses to these inquiries are broadly termed alternative monitoring decisions.

Further, EPA responds to written inquiries about the broad range of NSPS and NESHAP regulatory requirements as they pertain to a specific source. These inquiries question whether a regulation applies to a specific source, or may relate to the testing, monitoring, recordkeeping or reporting requirements contained in the regulation as it applies to a specific source.

The EPA currently issues approximately 100 memoranda per year pertaining to NSPS and NESHAP applicability determinations and alternative monitoring decisions, and handles countless telephone and electronic mail requests from the regulated community and from State and Local Agencies implementing the NSPS and the NESHAP programs.

Who do I contact for more information about NSPS in Region 10?
For Technical Information Contact Madonna Narvaez at (206) 553-2117. For delegation requests contact Lucita Valiere at (206) 553-8087.

Residual Risk/Risk Assessment
What is residual Risk for Air Toxics?
Section 112(f) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to complete a Report to Congress that includes a discussion of methods the EPA would use to evaluate the risks remaining after the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. These are known as residual risks. EPA published the Residual Risk Report to Congress in March 1999. The CAA also directs the EPA to conduct risk assessments on each source category subject to MACT standards, and to determine if additional standards are needed to reduce residual risks.

FAQ- Indoor Air quality

Indoor Air Quality
Asbestos
Asthma
Radon

Indoor Air Quality
Can EPA Come to My House to Inspect or Test?
EPA is not able to inspect homes or conduct Indoor Air Quality testing in homes.

Should I Test My Home for Mold?
If you can see mold and know what the source is, you probably don't need to test. Mold indoors is an indication that there's too much moisture; you (or someone else) need to clean up the mold and fix the cause of the excess moisture. (See www.epa.gov/iaq/molds to make sure that you're doing this safely). One of the only reasons to test a visible mold is in the case of a lawsuit. If you are reasonably sure that you have mold (you've had a leak, or you can smell it but you can't find it), you may or may not need to test. An investigator may be able to find the mold without testing.

More information: Testing for mold (links to Minnesota Dept. of Health website)

How Do I Find an IAQ Consultant?
If you can first narrow down possible sources of the problem, you can focus your consultant search. For instance, if the problem is in the ventilation system, you can hire a ventilation specialist. If it's a plumbing problem, you should start with a plumber. If you cannot tell the source of the problem, or previous specialists are stumped, you may want to hire an IAQ consultant. But you should always call several to compare costs, qualifications, and experience. Sampling may be necessary, but it's pricey and you should be wary of a consultant who proposes sampling without also conducting a thorough investigation, asking a lot of questions, and doing a complete visual inspection of your home.

More information: Guidelines for selecting an IAQ consultant (links to Minnesota Dept. of Health website)

Who can I ask about radiation testing?

For a list of IAQ consultants in Region 10, click here
link to document A IAQ consultants for web
Where can I send a mold sample to be analyzed?
See a list of local labs (7-2003)

Asbestos/Vermiculate Insulation
What phone numbers can I call if I have health or homeowner-related questions about vermiculate insulation?
EPA has a toll-free number (1-800-471-7127) to call with vermiculate-related questions. Callers from New England will be referred to the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry web page ( www.atsdr.cdc.gov) for health questions and EPA New England's asbestos program coordinator for homeowner questions.

What is vermiculate insulation and where does it come from?
Vermiculate is a naturally occurring mineral that is mined throughout the world. In the United States, active vermiculate mining operations are in South Carolina and Virginia. When heated, the vermiculate ore expands into a light, fluffy material, that is fire resistant, chemically inert, absorbent, light weight and odorless. The absorbent properties of the expanded vermiculate make it useful in lawn and garden, agricultural, and horticultural products. It is commonly used as an ingredient in potting soil, thermal and sound insulation, construction material, insulation material and for lightweight, absorbent packaging material.

How is W.R. Grace Co. involved in this issue?
W.R.Grace owned and operated a vermiculate mine in Libby, Montana. Much of the vermiculate from this mine was used in the company's Zonolite attic insulation, a product that the company sold from 1963 to 1984 when its sale by the company was discontinued. More than 75 percent of the vermiculate ore mined in the world came from the Libby mine, which has been closed since 1990.

If I have vermiculate insulation, is it possible it contains asbestos?
The Libby mine was unusual because the area also included a natural deposit of tremolite asbestos. As a result, much of the vermiculate from the Libby mine was contaminated with tremolite asbestos. In light of the amount of vermiculate that came from Libby, it may be best to simply assume the vermiculate attic insulation will contain trace amounts of asbestos and act accordingly.

What should I do if I have vermiculate attic-insulation in my home?
Look at the insulation without disturbing it. Commercial vermiculate can range in size from very fine particles to large (course) pieces nearly one inch long. Vermiculate attic insulation is a light weight, pebble-like, pour-in or add-on (loose) product and is usually light brown or gold in color. It's texture is often compared to "popcorn"and can often be re-shaped when pressed together with the fingers. If it appears you have vermiculate insulation in your home, we recommend the following steps:

If possible, leave the insulation undisturbed. Asbestos fibers will not become airborne if the insulation is well contained. If the vermiculate is sealed behind wallboards and floorboards or is isolated in an attic that is vented outside, the best approach to avoid exposure to asbestos is to keep the vermiculate in place. If a ventilation system within the attic disturbs the material, it may be appropriate to have the air tested in your home.

Until there are better methods to analyze for asbestos in vermiculate, and to know what that means in terms of risk, it is best to assume the material may contain asbestos. If you decide to remove the vermiculate home insulation, use accredited, licensed asbestos removal professionals. Use of a A negative pressure enclosure technique will prevent asbestos fibers and dust from escaping from the attic into the rest of the home. Do not attempt to do this yourself. You could spread asbestos fibers throughout your home, putting you and your family at risk of inhaling asbestos fibers.

Was Zonolite widely used?
Much of Zonolite vermiculate insulation came from the Libby, Montana mine that was used from the early 1900's until the mine was closed in 1990. Although Zonolite attic insulation had a healthy market in the northeast, the EPA has found it impossible to estimate the number of homes, businesses and schools that may still contain Zonolite vermiculate attic insulation.

How do I find a contractor?
Contact your state or local environmental agency (link to state and local contact page) or your EPA regional Headquarters

If there is asbestos in the insulation, should I have it removed?
Undisturbed vermiculate home insulation that is intact and not migrating into living areas should not pose a significant exposure hazard for home occupants. However, occupants should avoid going into their attics and disturbing the insulation. If work must be done in attics containing vermiculate asbestos insulation, it should be performed by professionals familiar with the handling and containment of asbestos containing materials. Before taking that step, homeowners should consider a number of factors. First, removing asbestos-containing materials is typically very expensive. If a significant amount of material is involved, it will probably cost thousands of dollars. If the insulation is not exposed to the home environment - for example, it's sealed behind wallboards and floorboards or is isolated in an attic that is vented outside -homeowners should leave it alone. For a fact sheet on Asbestos, visit ATSDR's web page at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts61.html. Further studies are being conducted by the EPA to evaluate the risks from vermiculate attic insulation.

Is my family at risk of exposure to asbestos if we have renovated and removed/disturbed the asbestos-contaminated vermiculate insulation? What if I have lived in a home with vermiculate insulation?
Asbestos fibers are microscopic and easily released into the air. These tiny fibers can be present in the dust in an area where asbestos-contaminated vermiculate insulation is disturbed. Therefore, it is possible that you inhaled some asbestos fibers. The amount inhaled - and the corresponding risk - will depend on how many fibers (of the respirable size) were in the air, and the time period over which you were breathing the air containing the fibers, as well as how fast you were breathing. Risks are more substantial with longer and larger exposures.
If you are concerned about having experienced a significant exposure, consult a physician who specializes in environmental or occupational medicine. It may take many years after an exposure for symptoms to develop; however, you should see a doctor if you notice any change in your breathing ability or develop problems breathing.

Asthma
What is Asthma?
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing. The bronchial narrowing is usually either totally or at least partially reversible with treatments.

What has EPA done to increase public awareness about asthma?
EPA is cosponsoring the Asthma media campaign ( http://www.epa.gov/asthma/adcampaign.html) with the Advertising Council. They will contribute 3 million dollars to a campaign of public service announcements in English and Spanish for television, radio, newspapers, buses and subways.

Where can I learn more?
See the American Lung Association asthma page.

Radon
Should I test my home for radon?
Yes! Radon is a known human carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer in the U.S. Since radon is a colorless and odorless gas, the only way to know for sure how much you and your family are exposed to in your home is to test. Testing for radon is easy and inexpensive.

How do I test for radon in my home?
It's easy. You can either do it yourself or hire a home measurement service. If you do it yourself, test kits can be purchased at retail outlets or directly from laboratories providing radon measurement services. Follow the instructions that come with your test kit. The test kit should be placed in the lowest lived-in space in your home (the basement if it is frequently occupied, otherwise the first floor). You should place the kit at least 20 inches above the floor and away from exterior walls. Indoor radon levels can be elevated by unusually high winds and storms so avoid testing during these periods. Be sure to send your radon kit to the lab specified on the package right away for the most accurate results. You should receive your test results in a few weeks. For a list of certified home measurement service providers, contact your State Radon Program or see the Region 10 website for a list of labs.

What do my radon test results mean?
Radon is measured in picocuries per liter of air (pCi/L). The average indoor radon level in homes across the country is about 1.3 pCi/L. The average outdoor radon level is about 0.4 pCi/L. Exposure to radon increases the risk of lung cancer incidence; the higher the concentration, the higher the risk. EPA recommends taking action against radon at levels of 4 pCi/L and higher.

What do I do if my radon test results are 4 pCi/L or higher?
Test again to confirm these results. EPA recommends that, if your initial short-term test results are 4 pCi/L or higher, you consider performing a second test to verify the results. The higher your initial short-term test results are, the more reason you have to choose a short-term follow-up test over a longer-term follow-up test. If your second round of test results are still at or above 4 pCi/L, EPA recommends taking action against radon.

How do I take action against radon in my home?
No. Radon comes from the natural decay of uranium in the soil. Even though the amount of radon in the soil might be similar throughout a neighborhood, the amount of radon that actually gets into your house may differ from the amount that gets into your neighbor's house. Radon enters your home through cracks, joints and pipe penetrations in the foundation and walls, exposed soil (like in a crawl space), water and building materials. Radon levels in your home are also affected by ventilation, pressure differences and temperature differences with the outside air. Since all houses are built a little differently, they can have very different indoor radon concentrations, despite similar soil concentrations. Nearly 1 in 15 homes in the U.S. is estimated to have elevated radon levels. Again, the only way to know for sure what the radon levels are in your home is to test.

Should I worry about radon in my water supply?
In comparison to radon that enters your house from the soil, radon that enters your house from water is, in most situations, a small source of risk. A general rule-of-thumb is every 10,000 pCi/L of radon in the water supply will cause an incremental increase of 1 pCi/L of radon in the indoor air. Radon in water can enter your home only through groundwater supplies that come directly from wells. Water treatment and storage at public water supplies typically result in very low radon concentrations entering the distribution system. Therefore, Region 8 recommends testing of all private well water supplies concurrent with an indoor air radon test. If your water supply comes from a private well, you can contact a certified testing lab to have your water tested for radon.

What is the BIER VI report by the National Academy of Sciences?
The NAS has prepared its latest analysis of health research on radon, the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VI) Report. This is the most comprehensive review effort to
date. The Committee was charged with:
Permits FAQ
NSR
Title V Operating Permits


NSR
What is the New Source Review (NSR)?
New Source Review (NSR) is a sub-section of the Clean Air Act that requires companies to obtain revised emissions permits for major modifications to or new construction of equipment and/or facilities. EPA's New Source Review rules are the cornerstone of air-permitting programs and regulate the construction of all major new sources and major changes. The NSR program is the pre-construction-permits program for new and modified large industrial facilities. The program's intent is to ensure that newly built or significantly modified facilities don't result in unacceptable effects on air quality.
What is a Major NSR?
What is a Minor NSR?

Title V Operating permits
What is the Operating Permit Program?
In 1990, Congress created, under Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), an operating permit program. The operating permit program requires all air pollution control requirements to be incorporated into a single document that applies to a source's everyday activities. Each state was required to submit a state Title V permitting program for EPA approval. All Region I (New England) state programs currently have approval that allows them to issue permits.

Who needs a Title V permit?
A source may be subject to Title V either because of its size (i.e., whether a source is major) or because the source is subject to existing requirements such as New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) or National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS.) A source is defined as major depending on the type and amount of air pollutants it emits and the overall air quality in its vicinity. A geographic area that meets or does better than the air quality standard is an "attainment" area. An area that does not meet the standard is a "non attainment" area. More sources in non attainment areas are required to obtain a permit due to the threshold for being major is smaller than in an attainment area.

What pollutants are emitted by facilities needing an operating permit?
Facilities requiring a permit, emit Nitrogen Oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds, Sulfur Dioxide, Particulate Matter, Carbon Monoxide and/or Toxic Air Pollutants.

What is the public review and comment procedure?
One of the key features of the operating permit program is the requirement for public comment. The requirement for public comment includes a minimum period of thirty days for public comment plus the opportunity to hold and receive comment at a public hearing. The final permit issued must consider the comments received through this process. A public notice must be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the source is located or in a State publication designed to give general public notice for each draft permit. Title V also requires that any contiguous state whose air quality may be affected, or any state within fifty miles of the facility be notified of the intent to issue a permit. The issuing state must respond to comments from an affected state, or explain to EPA its reason for not doing so.

What is meant by public petition?
The public petition process is a way of resolving important public comments that a state fails to fully address. If a person who comments during the public comment period believes their comment was not addressed by the state, they can petition the EPA Administrator to address the issue. A petition to the Administrator must be filed within 60 days of the end of EPA's review start of the 60 day period can vary for each permit. If a person needs to file a petition to EPA they should immediately contact the permitting program at EPA's regional office. For sources located in New England please call 617.918.1650.

What is compliance certification?
The compliance certification tells EPA, the permitting authority, and the public if the facility is violating any of the terms of its permit. These terms include emission limits, monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements. Any application form or report needs to contain a certification by a responsible official of truth, accuracy, and completeness. A responsible official is someone in upper management that has the authority to influence the day-to-day operations of the facility.

What is streamlining of permit conditions?
Often, a facility must comply with two or more similar requirements. Both conditions can be separately placed in the permit along with its associated monitoring, or to avoid confusion, both requirements can be merged into one permit condition that complies with both requirements. Guidance can be found in the form of "White Paper 2" that has strategies for streamlining permit conditions.

How does EPA object to a permit?
When EPA reviews a Title V permit, it provides comments to the state or local permitting authority on ways to improve the permit and changes that must be made before the permit can be issued. If EPA determines the proposed permit does not assure compliance with applicable requirements or the requirements of part 70 (EPA's regulations that implement Title V), the Agency will object to the issuance of the permit during its 45 day review period. If EPA objects to a permit, the permitting authority has 90 days to revise the permit and make the corrections requested by EPA. If the permitting authority fails to do this, EPA becomes the permitting authority and issues a federal permit. If a state already has issued a permit, EPA will void that permit during the process.

What is Title V part 70?

Part 70 are state-issued operating air permits. Questions should be directed to the state or local air agency.

What is Title V part 71?

What is Indian Country?
Indian country includes:
(a) all land within the limits of any Indian reservation under the jurisdiction of the U.S. government (including land owned by non-Indians),
(b) all dependent Indian communities within the borders of the U.S., and
(c) all Indian allotments, as long as the Indian title has not been extinguished. The term "reservation" applies not only to the territory traditionally known as reservations, but includes Tribal trust lands.

Who will be affected by the Title V Part 70 program?
Approximately 100 sources located in Indian country are likely to be affected by this regulation and will be required to submit permit applications.

The requirement to obtain a Federal permit applies primarily to facilities located in Indian country that are “major” sources, solid waste incineration units, and certain sources subject to requirements under the acid rain program. Sources whose potential emissions exceed certain levels are considered "major."

In areas lacking an EPA-approved program, EPA will generally administer the program until the Tribe can assume responsibility.

Before EPA administers a Federal operating permits program in an area of Indian country, the regulated community will be notified by notices in local papers of the program's effective date and its obligation to apply for permits. Most sources will also receive a letter notifying them of an early submittal date for the application. Nevertheless, permit applications will be required of all subject sources in Indian country.

The effective date of the program is March 22, 1999, as described in the amended notice published in the Federal Register notice of February 19, 1999. Sources subject to the program will have up to one year from that date in which to submit permit applications to the appropriate EPA Regional office.

When EPA approves a Tribal operating permits program, it will suspend the issuance of Federal operating permits for that area.

How Is EPA Working With Tribal Groups to Improve Air Quality?
EPA will administer permits programs to protect air quality on Tribal lands while working with individual Tribes to develop their own operating permits programs.

EPA will provide technical support and assistance to Tribes that have not obtained approval of their operating permits programs to increase the Tribe’s expertise and capacity to administer permit programs.


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