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Show details for Air Emissions (RCRA)Air Emissions (RCRA)
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Hide details for Mercury WastesMercury Wastes
01/01/2011Don't Be Left in the Dark: Safely Cleanup and Recycle CFLsPublication
 Description: This brochure describes how to safely clean up and recycle compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or bulbs and provides actions you can take to prevent broken CFLs.
 
01/01/2011No Se Quede a Oscuras: Con Precaucion Limpie y Recicle CFLs (Spanish - Don't Be Left in the Dark: Safely Cleanup and Recycle CFLs)Publication
 Description: This document is the Spanish version of Don't Be Left in the Dark: Safely Cleanup and Recycle CFLs (EPA530-F-11-001). This brochure describes how to safely clean up and recycle compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or bulbs and provides actions you can take to prevent broken CFLs.
 
02/01/2009Fluorescent Lamp RecyclingPublication
 Description: This document provides information to businesses interested in recycling their spent mercury-containing lamps. Mercury-containing lamps include tubular and compact fluorescent lamps, high intensity discharge lamps (mercury vapor, metal halide, high pressure sodium), and fluorescent backlights in flat panel and liquid crystal displays commonly used as monitors, TVs and instrument displays. This document also provides Best Management Practices (BMPs) for the storage of spent fluorescent lamps and the use of drum-top crushers (DTCs) for compacting waste lamps.
 
02/01/2008Environmental Fact Sheet: Partnership Recovers One Million SwitchesPublication
 Description: This fact sheet highlights the milestone of the National Vehicle Mercury Switch Recovery Program (NVMSRP) collecting its millionth mercury-containing automotive switch. This milestone highlights how the NVMSRP partnership is making progress toward reducing the amount of toxic mercury released into the air, water and land. The goal of the NVMSRP is to capture 80 to 90 percent of available vehicle mercury switches by 2017, when the program is scheduled to end.
 
08/01/2007Keep Your Paws Off Mercury (Poster)Publication
 Description: This poster is part of the Keep Your Paws Off Mercury educational campaign designed to highlight the dangers posed by mercury in schools across the country, and can be used by teachers to educate students about mercury and what to do if mercury is spilled.
 
08/01/2007Keep Your Paws Off Mercury (Video)Publication
 Description: This video is part of the Keep Your Paws Off Mercury educational campaign designed to highlight the dangers posed by mercury in schools across the country, and can be used by teachers to educate students about mercury and what to do if mercury is spilled.
 
05/17/2007PRODUCER OR MANUFACTURER RESPONSIBILITIES FOR FINANCING, COLLECTION, AND RECYCLING OF MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPS OR OTHER ELECTRONIC PRODUCTSMemo
 Description: EPA’s Office of Solid Waste (OSW) is not aware of existing laws or regulations to establish producer or manufacturer responsibilities for financing and organizing the collection and recycling of mercury-containing lamps. OSW’s focus is on establishment and implementation of voluntary partnerships and programs aimed at increasing the lamp recycling rate. Currently four states (California, Maryland, Washington, and Minnesota) have laws requiring the takeback and financing of selected electronic products (usually televisions (TVs) and computer monitors).
 
02/02/2007DELETION OF THE DEFINITION FOR “ON-SITE” FROM 40 CFR 273.9Memo
 Description: Future editions of the CFR will contain the definition of “on-site” under 40 CFR 273.9.
 
08/24/2006Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher StudyPublication
 Description: This document provides the most current information on the performance of mercury lamp drum-top crushing (DTC) devices. DTCs are used to improve waste lamp storage and transport, and reduce costs associated with lamp recycling. EPA believes that with this information, states, users of mercury-containing lamps, and lamp recyclers will be able to make more informed decisions when managing fluorescent lamps. The preamble to the January 6, 2000, mercury lamp rule identifies lamp crushing as RCRA treatment and specifically prohibits the use of DTCs for management of fluorescent lamps as universal waste unless an equivalency determination is made. The purpose of the study is to make information available to states and regions that could eventually be used to provide "a demonstration of equivalency to the federal prohibition [on treatment of universal waste without a permit] (64 FR 36466, 36478; January 6, 2000).
 
05/03/2004TREATMENT OF MERCURY-BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTEMemo
 Description: Mercury-containing devices (thermostats and mercury pumps) are not subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR) debris standards. Such devices must undergo mercury recovery (retorting). Free liquids, including mercury, are prohibited from land disposal in macroencapsulated debris. If macroencapsulation cannot be met, then other technologies must be used to treat mercury waste. Landfills that accept mercury-bearing waste are permitted under Subtitle C of RCRA.
 
10/23/2003TREATMENT STANDARDS FOR MERCURY-CONTAINING DEBRISMemo
 Description: D009 mercury wastes have LDR treatment standards for low mercury and high mercury-inorganic subcategories. LDR treatment standards include specified technologies such as RMERC, commonly called retorting. Macroencapsulation and microencapsulation are alternative LDR treatment technologies for D009 debris and do not depend on mercury levels in the debris. If alternative treatment standards are not used, the waste is subject to the non-debris standards in 40 CFR 268.40. The definition of debris is located in 268.2(g). Intact containers of mercury (e.g., thermometers, batteries) are not debris (SEE ALSO: 57 FR 37194, 37225; 8/18/92). Intact containers mixed with debris must be removed and managed separately. Certain mercury-containing items may be universal waste (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05). Mercury-containing CESQG and household hazardous waste is exempt from RCRA regulations. Retorters are capable of accepting mercury-containing debris with certain limitations and exceptions. Source separation involves removing mercury-contaminated material from debris. Macroencapsulation involves mixing waste with reagents and stabilization materials to produce a more stable waste form. Macroencapsulation uses surface coatings or jackets to reduce surface exposure to leaching media.
 
07/02/2003TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MERCURY-BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTE AND DEBRISMemo
 Description: Mercury-bearing hazardous wastes originate from several sources, and waste regulation varies depending on its source. EPA is gathering information on the final disposition of mercury wastes. Only certain mercury-bearing wastes can be treated using the alternative land disposal restrictions (LDR) debris treatment standards. The treatment technologies for metal-bearing debris include source separation, microencapuslation, and macroencapsulation. If the debris treatment technologies cannot be achieved, the wastes are subject to the non-debris treatment standards. Some mercury wastes (e.g., dental amalgam collection devices, batteries) are not debris and cannot be disposed using 268.45. Most household waste collection centers send mercury wastes for recovery.
 
06/26/2003TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MERCURY-BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTEMemo
 Description: EPA is interested in preventing avoidable releases of mercury to the environment. EPA is gathering information from states and Regional offices to determine the ways in which mercury-bearing hazardous waste is recycled, treated, and disposed.
 
04/28/2003TREATMENT OF MERCURY-BEARING HAZARDOUS WASTES BEFORE DISPOSALMemo
 Description: Mercury-bearing hazardous wastes originate from several sources, including households, industry, and cleanup sites. Different federal and state regulations govern such wastes depending on their source. EPA is reaching out to states and municipalities to improve their understanding of the management and disposal of mercury-bearing wastes from different sources. Some mercury-bearing wastes are treated using the alternative land disposal restrictions (LDR) debris treatment standards in 268.45 as opposed to the treatment standards requiring retorting in 268.40. EPA is investigating whether mercury-containing debris are typically disposed of in landfills, with or without treatment, or reclaimed through retorting. (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05)
 
04/14/2003MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTESMemo
 Description: Mercury-containing hazardous wastes come from several sources, including households, industry, and cleanup sites. Federal and state regulations differ for such wastes depending on their source. EPA is working with states to determine how mercury-containing devices are managed by collection programs and is consulting Regional offices to track the disposition of mercury cleanup wastes. In order to divert mercury-containing products from municipal and hazardous wastestreams, EPA has proposed to add mercury-containing equipment to the universal waste rule and has initiated several outreach programs that promote the recycling of mercury lamps and other mercury wastes (SUPERCEDED: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05).
 
04/01/2002Environmental Fact Sheet: More Recycling and Reuse Proposed For Electronic Wastes and Mercury-Containing EquipmentPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses how EPA is promoting the safe reuse and recycling of cathode ray tubes and mercury-containing equipment. The agency believes that revising existing regulations for these growing waste streams will facilitate better collection; lead to more recycling and less disposal; and will better protect the environment.
 
07/01/1999Environmental Fact Sheet: Some Used Lamps Are Universal WastesPublication
 Description: Announces EPA's decision to manage certain used lamps, especially fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamps, under the universal waste program. Allows for less stringent standards for storing, transporting, and collecting used lamps while maintaining compliance with full hazardous waste requirements for final recycling, treatment, or disposal.
 
05/01/1999Environmental Fact Sheet: EPA's Comprehensive Review of the Treatment Standards for Mercury-Bearing Hazardous WastePublication
 Description: Announces EPA's comprehensive review of the standards governing how mercury-bearing hazardous waste is treated prior to land disposal. Presents for public review and comment EPA's data on mercury-bearing hazardous waste, a series of technical and policy issues regarding mercury waste treatment, and potential avenues by which current mercury treatment standards might be revised.
 
04/12/1999RECLAMATION OF FLUORESCENT LAMPSMemo
 Description: Unused mercury lamps are commercial chemical products (CCP) and not solid wastes if reclaimed. Used mercury lamps are spent materials. EPA is considering adding spent lamps to universal waste program (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99).
 
01/28/1999PROHIBITION ON COMBUSTION OF MERCURY-BEARING WASTEMemo
 Description: D009 wastewater or a Low Mercury Subcategory nonwastewater that does not meet the criteria of 268.3(c) is prohibited from combustion. A facility may petition for a variance from the prohibition on combustion if no other technology exists that can treat the waste. The High Mercury-Organic Subcategory waste has a treatment standard of IMERC or RMERC. Because IMERC is the specified and required treatment technology, facilities may combust High Mercury-Organic Subcategory waste.
 
08/18/1998ADDITION OF MERCURY-CONTAINING EQUIPMENT TO UNIVERSAL WASTE PROGRAMMemo
 Description: EPA has no plans to address petitions to add mercury-containing equipment to universal waste rule (SUPERCEDED: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05). Universal waste rule explicitly provides flexibility for states to add other waste categories to their approved state program.
 
05/29/1997PETITION TO ADD WASTES TO THE UNIVERSAL WASTE PROGRAMMemo
 Description: EPA has no plans to address Utility Solid Waste Activities Group’s (USWAG) petitions to add mercury-containing equipment, paint, and paint-related wastes to the universal waste (UW) rule in 1997. The universal waste rule explicitly provides flexibility for states to add other waste categories to their approved state program. EPA established the workgroup to reduce the burden of the current manifest system. The workgroup’s proposal to allow generators to consolidate waste at central locations would cover utility access residuals.
 
04/03/1997ATON BATTERIES AS DEBRISMemo
 Description: Intact containers are not debris. Mercury batteries that serve as aid to navigation (ATON) meet the definition of debris if they are deteriorated and ruptured, because they do not meet the definition of intact container. Batteries meeting the definition of debris can be treated in accordance with the alternative debris treatment standards. Non-debris mercury waste requires treatment by roasting or retorting (RMERC) or compliance with a TCLP standard.
 
02/13/1997UNIVERSAL WASTE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS DOCUMENTMemo
 Description: Presents a Universal Waste Questions and Answers Document. Addresses state authorization. Discusses the addition of wastes to the federal and state universal waste (UW) programs, fluorescent lamps (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99), land disposal restrictions (LDR) recordkeeping requirements, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act, batteries, pesticide collection programs, liability and enforcement, storage limits, mixtures of UW and hazardous waste, and manifesting.
 
02/07/1997MANAGEMENT OF SPENT FLUORESCENT LAMPSMemo
 Description: EPA is currently completing an analysis of estimated mercury emissions associated with managing spent fluorescent lamps. EPA will use the analysis in conjunction with comments on the proposed lamp rule (59 FR 38288; July 24, 1994) to determine how to proceed with a final regulatory decision on lamps (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99).
 
11/25/1996MERCURY-CONTAINING AND RECHARGEABLE BATTERY MANAGEMENT ACTMemo
 Description: The Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act is effective nationwide on May 13, 1996. Two goals are to limit mercury (Hg) content in consumer batteries, and to promote recycling and proper disposal of used rechargeable nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries, sealed small lead-acid batteries, and other widely used rechargeable batteries. Law limits Hg content of batteries and prohibits the sale of some Hg-containing batteries. Law requires uniform labeling and requires that collection, storage, and transportation be in accordance with the Universal Waste (UW) standards of Part 273. Law prohibits states from imposing standards not identical to UW standards. Law is not an amendment to RCRA. EPA is investigating implications on RCRA state authorization and is developing a codification rule.
 
05/01/1996FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON THE UNIVERSAL WASTE REGULATIONSQuestion & Answer
 Description: The universal waste (UW) regulations cover hazardous waste batteries (battery), pesticides, and mercury-containing thermostats (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05). Wastes (e.g., fluorescent mercury lamps) may be added to the UW system (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99). Spent lead-acid batteries may be handled under Part 266, Subpart G, or under Part 273. There are no specific provisions for satellite accumulation of UW. Only large quantity handlers of universal waste (LQHUW) must submit a one-time written notification and obtain an EPA identification number. Handlers may accumulate universal waste at or near point of generation for up to 1 year.
 
04/10/1996MAXIMUM ACHIEVALBE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY (MACT) RULEMAKING FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE COMBUSTORSMemo
 Description: Improperly designed hazardous waste incinerators and cement and light weight aggregate kilns (BIFs) can pose a hazard. EPA signed the proposed MACT rule on March 20, 1996, (61 FR 17358; 4/19/96) to establish tough dioxin, mercury, and lead emission standards (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52828; 9/30/99). The Agency will continue to use the omnibus permitting authority (270.32(b)(2) and 3005(c)(3)) to ensure protection on a site-specific basis. The Agency remains committed to developing tailored regulations in conjunction with the existing authorities for Bevill exempt cement kiln dust (CKD). Addresses the risks from CKD management identified in the CKD regulatory determination (60 FR 7366; 2/7/95). The decision affects all CKD, regardless of the fuel burned. The CKD program will be risk-based, flexible, and tailored to site-specific conditions.
 
11/30/1995SAFE MANAGEMENT OF FLUORESCENT LAMPSMemo
 Description: EPA agrees that it is important to support the goals of the Green Lights Program. EPA received over 300 comments on the proposed mercury-containing fluorescent lamp rule (59 FR 38288; 7/27/94) (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99). States can add lamps to their own lists of universal wastes and set regulatory controls. States may have more stringent laws and policies than the federal program.
 
06/22/1995DETERMINATION ON WHETHER A GENERATOR'S FLUORESCENT TUBES ARE NONHAZARDOUSMemo
 Description: A generator is responsible for determining if a waste exhibits a characteristic. Testing one spent fluorescent mercury lamp tube to determine if all waste lamps exhibit the characteristic is not representative sampling. Selection of randomly chosen bulbs is more appropriate (see Chapter 9, SW-846). States authorized for the universal waste (UW) rule may add lamps to the state UW list and set management standards (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99). The UW rule streamlines regulations for hazardous waste batteries (battery), pesticides, and mercury thermostats (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05).
 
06/05/1995GUIDANCE FROM THE U.S. EPA ON THE CRUSHING OF MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPSMemo
 Description: Crushing mercury lamps can be part of an exempt legitimate recycling process. The recycling exemption can apply even if portions of recycling are performed at different sites. A crusher carries the burden to ensure bulbs are actually recycled (SUPERSEDED: lamp crushing by universal waste handlers prohibited; see 64 FR 36466, 36477-36478; 7/6/99). EPA is still weighing options proposed in the 7/27/94 Federal Register (59 FR 38288) for streamlining fluorescent lamp regulation. The universal waste rule streamlines the regulations for hazardous waste batteries (battery), pesticides, and mercury thermostats (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05). States may add additional wastes (e.g., fluorescent lamps) to the state universal waste list and establish management standards.
 
12/13/1994LE VALT MERCURY-CADMIUM BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Unused batteries sent for reclamation are CCPs being reclaimed, and are not solid wastes. Mercury-cadmium batteries must be treated by thermal recovery. EPA recognizes that most battery recycling technologies in the U.S. are not designed to treat these wastes (SEE ALSO: Part 273).
 
09/28/1994CLARIFICATION ON WHEN USED MERCURY RELAYS/SWITCHES BECOME SPENTMemo
 Description: Mercury switches taken out of service and reclaimed are spent materials and solid wastes (SW). Sending a mercury switch for further use as a relay or switch is the continued use of a product. The actual management of a material rather than the potential of a material for a particular end use determines if it is a SW. Whether a switch is spent or directly reusable is determined when it is removed from service. Out-of-date drugs are off-specification CCPs and not a SW when returned to the pharmaceutical manufacturer for reclamation. Persons may petition to include switches/relays as a universal waste (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05).
 
07/29/1994REGULATORY STATUS OF NATURAL GAS REGULATORS THAT CONTAIN MERCURY UNDER RCRAMemo
 Description: Natural gas regulators that contain mercury are best classified as spent materials. Spent materials are solid wastes when sent for reclamation. Any quantity of liquid mercury, other than trace amounts attached to a material, precludes a waste’s designation as scrap metal. The waste may qualify as scrap metal once the mercury has been removed.
 
07/15/1994Environmental Fact Sheet: Options Proposed for Managing Discarded Fluorescent and Other Lights That Contain MercuryPublication
 Description: This fact sheet discusses the proposed two options for managing spent mercury-containing lights, such as fluorescent bulbs and high intensity discharge lamps: (1) exclusion of mercury-containing lamps from regulation as hazardous waste if disposed of in certain municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) or mercury-reclamation facilities (prohibits incineration in municipal waste combustors); (2) addition of mercury-containing lamps to the proposed universal waste system for certain widely generated hazardous wastes (primarily nickel-cadmium batteries and canceled pesticides), allowing generators to ship their lamps without a hazardous waste manifest and store lamps for a longer time.
 
07/14/1994MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR MERCURY-CONTAINING LAMPSMemo
 Description: Fluorescent and high-intensity discharge lamps generally exhibit the toxicity characteristic for mercury. A summary of two regulatory options for spent mercury-containing lamps as proposed in the 7/24/94 Federal Register (59 FR 38288) is provided (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 36466; 7/6/99).
 
07/14/1994TREATMENT STANDARD FOR K106 (LOW MERCURY SUBCATEGORY) NON-WASTEWATER RESIDUES FROM RETORTING/ROASTING (RMERC) UNITSMemo
 Description: K106 low mercury subcategory residues from retorting/roasting units will need further treatment if the residues exceed the mercury TCLP level.
 
05/26/1994CLASSIFICATION OF A MERCURY RECOVERY UNITMemo
 Description: One condition of the exclusion from the BIF rules for furnaces engaged solely in metal recovery is that the heating value of the waste cannot exceed 5000 Btu/lb, otherwise the waste is being burned for energy recovery. The requirement is inconsistent with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) mercury recovery treatment standards (SEE ALSO: RPC# 12/17/93-01). 
 
04/15/1994Analysis of Potential Cost Savings and the Potential for Reduced Environmental Benefits of the Proposed Universal Waste RulePublication
 Description: This document addresses proposed changes to the management of universal wastes (e.g., nickel-cadmium and mercuric oxide batteries, mercury-containing thermostats) under RCRA. It discusses characteristics of universal wastes, cost analysis, and potential for reduction in environmental benefits, and the appendix lists sources for unit cost estimates.
 
03/31/1994INTERPRETATION ON REGULATORY STATUS OF MERCURY RELAYS AND SWITCHES WHEN RECLAIMEDMemo
 Description: Clarification of when a secondary material is a spent material and the definition of contamination are discussed. Materials such as used lead-acid batteries (battery), solvents, and mercury thermostats and switches are spent materials when sent for reclamation, even if they can still be used for their original purpose. Characteristic sludges and by-products are not solid wastes when reclaimed. Commercial chemical products (CCPs), whether listed or characteristic, are not solid wastes when reclaimed.
 
03/30/1994FREE-FLOWING MERCURY WHICH IS DISTILLED AND SOLD AS AN INGREDIENT IN AN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSMemo
 Description: In general, wastes destined for reclamation (distillation) prior to use as ingredients are not eligible for the direct reuse exemption. Metals suitable for direct use or that only have to be refined rather than reclaimed to be usable are products, not wastes (e.g., free flowing mercury which is distilled and sold as an ingredient in an industrial process).
 
03/24/1994CLARIFICATION OF THE DEFINITION OF ""SPENT MATERIAL"" AS IT APPLIES TO A MERCURIC CHLORIDE CATALYSTMemo
 Description: Mercuric chloride catalyst used in a production process is a spent material when it is taken out of service, regardless of contamination. Spent materials are solid wastes when sent for reclamation. "Contamination" refers to any impurity, factor, or circumstance which causes a material to be taken out of service for reprocessing.
 
03/24/1994CLARIFICATION OF WHEN A SECONDARY MATERIAL MEETS THE DEFINITION OF ""SPENT MATERIAL""Memo
 Description: Clarification of when a secondary material is a spent material and the definition of contamination are discussed. Materials such as used lead-acid batteries (battery), solvents, and mercury thermostats and switches are spent materials when sent for reclamation, even if they can still be used for their original purpose (See Also: RO 14814). Characteristic sludges and by-products are not solid wastes when reclaimed. Commercial chemical products (CCPs), whether listed or characteristic, are not solid wastes when reclaimed.
 
02/04/1994REGULATORY STATUS OF MERCURY BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Containers as debris. Mercury battery (batteries) carcasses containing hazardous waste liquid or sludge may be hazardous debris based on a case-by-case determination.
 
12/22/1993REGULATORY STATUS OF BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries (battery) that have been fully discharged to zero volts do not exhibit the characteristic of reactivity (D003). Other lithium batteries may exhibit the toxicity characteristic for constituents such as lead (lead-acid batteries), cadmium (nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries), and mercury (mercuric oxide, and some alkaline batteries), or they may be hazardous due to other characteristic properties.
 
12/17/1993CLASSIFICATION OF OLIN MERCURY RECOVERY UNIT AS AN INDUSTRIAL FURNACEMemo
 Description: A mercury recovery unit is a type of smelting, melting, or refining furnace and is therefore an industrial furnace (BIF). Discusses the elements of classification of a BIF. If the unit is used solely for metal recovery, then it is conditionally exempt from BIF rules. The exemption is conditioned on notification, sampling and analysis, and recordkeeping. Provides a mercury retorter definition.
 
11/29/1993REGULATORY INTERPRETATION OF A MOBILE MERCURY RETORTING PROCESS FOR MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM NATURAL GAS PIPELINE METERSMemo
 Description: Mercury roasting and retorting are two methods of reclamation. Discussion of what roasting and retorting furnaces accomplish. Reclamation is a type of recycling. Recycling is generally not subject to regulation, unless recycling is taking place in a BIF. Roasting and retorting meet the definition of industrial furnace (BIF) since they are smelting, melting, or refining furnaces. Retorting solely for metal recovery is conditionally exempt from BIF rules (SEE ALSO: 64 FR 52827; September 30, 1999). Discussion of the elements of the exemption.
 
07/28/1993RESPONSE TO REQUEST FOR RCRA EXEMPTION FOR FLUORESCENT LAMPSMemo
 Description: The crushing of mercury-containing fluorescent lamps constitutes hazardous waste treatment, but it can be exempt from regulation if it is a necessary part of a legitimate recycling process (SUPERSEDED: lamp crushing by universal waste handlers is prohibited; see 64 FR 36466, 36477-36478; 7/6/99). The storage of crushed lamps is still subject to regulation.
 
07/14/1993RESPONSE TO REQUEST FOR OPINION ON SECTION 21 PETITION ON BATTERY DEPOSITSMemo
 Description: The toxicity characteristic (TC) is designed to identify wastes that may pose a risk to human health and the environment under a reasonable worst-case mismanagement scenario. Some spent batteries (battery) would fail the toxicity characteristic for lead (D008), cadmium (D006), and mercury (D009). Batteries may be eligible for the universal waste regulations. Batteries generated by households and conditionally exempt small quantity generators (CESQGs) are generally exempt from Subtitle C regulation.
 
06/03/1993USE OF ON-SITE PRECIPITATION PROCESS AS AN ACCEPTABLE PRETREATMENT STEP ADJUNCT TO MERCURY RETORTINGMemo
 Description: Mercury precipitation treatment cannot be used as a substitute for the required retorting treatment (RMERC) for the D009 high mercury subcategory. Precipitation process may be used as a pretreatment step. Generators can treat waste on-site without obtaining a permit, provided the generator accumulation provisions are met. Discusses generators subject to the land disposal restrictions (LDR) analysis plan notification.
 
04/26/1993REGULATORY STATUS OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED FROM GOLD/MERCURY AMALGAM RETORTINGMemo
 Description: Solid wastes from gold/ mercury amalgam retorting are mineral processing wastes, not beneficiation AND EXTRACTION WASTES under the Bevill exemption for mining and mineral processing wastes. Mineral processing wastes disposed of prior to March 1, 1990, that are no longer exempt are not subject to Subtitle C controls unless actively managed. Active management includes physical disturbance of a site.
 
12/07/1992MANAGEMENT OF USED FLUORESCENT LAMPSMemo
 Description: EPA test results indicate that fluorescent lamps often exhibit the toxicity characteristic for mercury (D009) as determined using the TCLP.
 
09/04/1992STATUS OF FLUORESCENT LAMPS UNDER RCRAMemo
 Description: CESQG or household hazardous waste (HHW) fluorescent light bulbs may be land disposed in Subtitle D landfill regardless of characteristic properties. Land disposal restrictions (LDR) do not apply to D009 mercury-containing fluorescent light bulbs that pass the extraction procedure (EP) test (SUPERSEDED: see 63 FR 28556; 5/26/98). The bulbs are subject to LDR because they exhibit the EP toxicity characteristic and toxicity characteristic (TC), and could be considered debris per 268.45.
 
07/15/1992Environmental Fact Sheet: Mercury in the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) StreamPublication
 Description: This fact sheet describes EPA's examination of the major sources of mercury in the MSW stream, such as batteries and paint residues. EPA predicts a dramatic decrease in mercury discards in the next several years due to source reduction and recycling efforts.
 
07/07/1992CLARIFICATION OF PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSISMemo
 Description: Discusses the recommended preservation procedure for water samples containing volatile organic analytes. EPA does not recommend the use of mercuric chloride as preservative. Acid-preserved samples containing no hazardous constituents can be neutralized and poured down the drain.
 
04/15/1992Characterization of Products Containing Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste in the United States, 1970 to 2000: Executive SummaryPublication
 Description: This summary identifies the products in municipal solid waste that may contain mercury and quantifies its presence in these products.
 
10/22/1991INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT THAT FORMERLY CONTAINED HAZARDOUS WASTEMemo
 Description: An out-of-service pump that contains mercury could qualify as a container if it is portable. The empty container provisions in 261.7 may apply to a pump meeting the definition of container.
 
10/01/1991ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CONDUCTING TESTING UNDER THE TC RULEMemo
 Description: Up until June 21, 1990 the analytical methods for the toxicity characteristic of arsenic, selenium, and mercury were 7060, 7061,7740, 7470, and 7471. On June 21, 1990, the Agency promulgated method 6010.
 
03/19/1991REGULATORY STATUS OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY RECYCLINGMemo
 Description: Used mercury that is 99% pure is considered product rather than solid waste because it is pure enough to require only minor refining, rather than substantial reclamation, in order to be usable.
 
05/01/1990HAZARDOUS WASTE IDENTIFICATIONQuestion & Answer
 Description: Mercury spilled from a used thermometer is a spent material and is a solid waste when reclaimed. Mercury-contaminated soil is a hazardous waste if it exhibits a characteristic. P-list and U-list designation for spill residues applies to a unused CCP, not used mercury.
 
04/20/1990CLASSIFYING MERCURY-CONTAINING PAINTS AS HAZARDOUS WASTESMemo
 Description: Mercury-containing paint discarded by homeowners is exempt household HW. Mercury-containing latex paint usually exhibits the toxicity characteristic when properly tested. The statement that paint will not exhibit mercury characteristic unless concentration exceeds 540 ppm is incorrect.
 
08/01/1989WASTE IDENTIFICATION OF DISCARDED THERMOMETERSQuestion & Answer
 Description: An unused mercury thermometer is not U151 when discarded. A thermometer is considered a manufactured article, not CCP. EPA did not intend for P and U-lists to apply to manufactured articles containing chemicals listed in Section 261.33. Thermometers are hazardous waste if they fail toxicity characteristic for mercury. (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05)
 
06/30/1989DENTAL AMALGAM DISPOSALMemo
 Description: Dental amalgam is not specifically listed, so the generator is responsible for determining the applicability of hazardous waste characteristics. Silver and mercury are of particular concern. EPA has no plan to develop specific rules regarding the recycling of dental amalgam.
 
04/14/1989REGULATORY STATUS OF SPENT IGNITION TUBES AFTER SENT FOR RECLAMATIONMemo
 Description: Used ignitron tubes sent off-site for mercury reclamation are spent materials and solid wastes, not commercial chemical products (CCPs). The purity of the mercury within the tube is not a consideration when determining whether the ignitron tube itself meets the definition of spent material (the tube is what becomes spent). If mercury is removed from the tube on-site and only mercury is sent for direct reuse or further refining, mercury is product and not solid waste.
 
11/02/1988WASTE LISTINGS FOR COMMERCIAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS - MERCURYMemo
 Description: The determination of whether mercury-containing thermometers, batteries (battery), and switches are CCPs and solid waste are U151 when discarded depends on the contamination and usage of the material. (SEE ALSO: 70 FR 45508; 8/5/05)
 
11/18/1987APPROPRIATE TREATMENT METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURYMemo
 Description: California list wastes containing mercury must be treated to below the land disposal restrictions (LDR) prohibition level or rendered nonliquid (SUPERSEDED: 55 FR 22675; 6/1/90) (SUPERSEDED: California list removed, see 62 FR 25997; 5/12/97). Solidification where reagents are added to immobilize constituents is legitimate treatment and not dilution provided it immobilizes or chemically fixes waste rendering it nonliquid, or reduces the concentration below the prohibition level. EPA prefers waste minimization .
 
09/04/1986MERCURY DRY CELL BATTERIES AND APPLICABLE REGULATIONSMemo
 Description: Mercury dry cell batteries (battery) that exhibit a characteristic are hazardous waste (HW) and must be managed by a HW management TSDF, unless they are household hazardous waste (HHW) or a CESQG waste (SEE ALSO: Part 273).
 
05/30/1986MERCURY SUITABLE FOR DIRECT USE (99% PURE) NOT SOLID WASTEMemo
 Description: Used mercury that is 99% pure and is destined for refining is not a solid waste. Used metals that are suitable for direct use or reuse, or that only need to be refined before use, are a product and not a solid waste.
 
04/30/1986FLUORESCENT AND MERCURY VAPOR LAMPS AND CLASSIFICATION USING THE EP TOXICITY TESTMemo
 Description: Fluorescent and mercury vapor lamps may exhibit the toxicity characteristic (TC) for mercury as determined using the extraction procedure (EP) (SUPERSEDED: See 261.24) (SEE ALSO: RPC# 12/7/92-01). Some States regulate waste based on total mercury, not leachable mercury.
 
01/21/1986MERCURY, REFINING/REUSE OF SCRAPMemo
 Description: Free-flowing, 99% pure mercury is not a solid waste (SW). Metals suitable for direct use, or that only need to be refined to be usable are products, are not wastes. Any electrical switches, instruments, scrap batteries (battery), or other spent materials from which such pure mercury will be reclaimed are SW.
 
04/19/1984HOUSEHOLD WASTES - DISPOSAL OF CARBON-ZINC BATTERIESMemo
 Description: Batteries (battery) from households are exempt as household hazardous waste. Carbon-zinc batteries pose little threat to the environment. Batteries which are hazardous (nickel-cadmium, mercury) are generally not disposed of in large numbers by households.
 
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